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JOHN  PORTER,  B.Sc.,  N.D.A.,  N.D.D. 

Head  of  the  Agricultural  Department  and  Lecturer  in  Agriculture 
under  the  Herefordshire  County  Council 

Formerly  Science  Master,  Soham  Grammar  School,  Cambs.,  County 

Organiser   of  Agricultural  Education   and  Lecturer    in 

Agriculture  under  the  Edinburgh  and  East  of 

Scotland  College  of  Agriculture 








SOME  excellent  books  have  been  written  onkthe  subject 
of  Foods  and  Feeding,  but,  generally  speaking,  the 
language  employed  is  rather  too  technical  to  be 
readily  understood  by  farmers  in  general,  or  even 
students  at  Farm  Institutes ;  hence  the  writer  has 
felt,  for  some  time,  that  an  attempt  should  be  made 
to  write  in  simpler  language  a  small  book  on  the 
various  problems  which  either  directly  or  indirectly 
affect  the  Stockfeeder.  In  fact,  considerable  pains 
have  been  taken  to  present  the  information  in  a 
way  that  will  be  really  helpful  to  the  feeder  of  stock 
Another  feature  of  the  book  is  that  the  feeding  trials 
referred  to  are  almost  entirely  British.  Matters  of 
purely  scientific  interest  have,  as  a  rule,  been  omitted, 
and  a  new  "  approximate  method "  of  building  up 
rations,  devised  by  the  writer,  has  been  introduced, 
which  should  be  a  great  help  to  feeders. 

Under  the  Fertiliser  and  Feeding  Stuffs  Act,  it  is 
necessary  for  the  seller  of  artificially  compounded  foods 
to  give  on  the  invoice  the  minimum  percentage  of 
albuminoids  and  oil  which  the  food  contains ;  but  after 
very  careful  study,  the  writer  finds  that  it  would  be 
an  enormous  advantage  to  the  farmer  when  purchasing 
food,  as  well  as  when  compounding  rations,  if  the 
fibre  content  of  the  purchased  food  was  also  stated 


When  this  fact  becomes  thoroughly  appreciated,  an 
effort  will  no  doubt  be  made  to  extend  the  Act  so 
as  to  include  fibre  as  well  as  albuminoids  and  oil  in 
the  guaranteed  analysis.  Meanwhile,  one  will  need 
to  rely  on  the  average  percentage  of  fibre  found 
in  the  particular  food,  when  making  up  rations,  etc. 

The  building  up  of  rations  has  been  dealt  with  in 
the  "  approximate  method "  from  the  farmer's  point 
of  view.  Generally  speaking,  the  bulky  part  of  the 
ration  is  produced  on  the  farm,  and  is  fed  more  or 
less  ad  libitum.  The  concentrated  food,  on  the  other 
hand,  has  to  be  purchased  to  a  large  extent ;  hence 
the  importance  of  knowing  which  foods  to  buy  in 
order  to  meet  the  deficiencies  in  the  bulky  food  for 
the  particular  object  in  view.  A  good  deal  of  space 
has  therefore  been  devoted  to  the  compounding  of 
rations  for  different  animals,  so  as  to  give  the  feeder 
as  much  help  as  possible  in  this  direction. 

There  is  much  confusion  in  the  minds  of  farmers 
as  to  the  technical  difference  between  crude 
albuminoids  and  true  albuminoids.  In  practice,  when 
albuminoids  are  mentioned  on  an  invoice,  the 
percentage  refers  chiefly  to  true  albuminoids ;  hence 
it  was  considered  best  in  a  book  of  this  kind  to  use 
the  term  albuminoids  for  true  albuminoids  only,  and 
the  term  nitrogenous  matter  or  protein  for  crude 

The  general  scheme  of  the  book  is  to  show  the 
relation  between  plants  and  animals  —  how .  plants 
supply  the  needs  of  the  animal ;  then,  after  giving  a 
full  description  of  the  foods  available,  to  show  how 
they  may  be  utilised  in  a  rational  and  economical 


manner  for  the  feeding  of  farm  live  -  stock.  Many 
points  have  been  dealt  with  which  are  not  ordinarily 
found  in  books  on  Foods  and  Feeding,  because  they 
have  an  indirect  if  not  a  direct  bearing  on  the  subject. 

The  writing  of  this  book  has  involved  much 
laborious  calculation  in  order  to  present  some  of  the 
tables  in  a  form  which  would  be  readily  understood, 
as  well  as  careful  study  of  the  reports  of  feeding 
trials  carried  out  in  Great  Britain,  many  of  which 
are  specially  referred  to ;  and  although  the  book 
may  have  many  shortcomings,  it  is  hoped  that  it 
will  be  really  helpful  to  the  feeder  of  stock  and  at 
the  same  time  useful  to  Farm  Institute  students. 

In  conclusion,  I  must  express  my  thanks  to  Dr 
Crowther  for  allowing  me  to  include  two  very  important 
tables  which  he  has  compiled  on  the  average  composi- 
tion of  farm  foods  and  manurial  constituents  of  the 
same ;  also  to  my  brother,  Edward  Porter,  B.Sc., 
F.A.C.  (Glas.),  and  my  colleague,  Allan  S.  M'William, 
B.Sc.,  N.D.A.,  N.D.D.,  who  have  given  me  valuable 
assistance  in  revising  the  proof  sheets,  and  made  several 
useful  suggestions. 

I  must  also  acknowledge  with  thanks  the  readiness 
with  which  the  Board  of  Agriculture  has  lent  me 
books  bearing  on  the  subject  from  its  library. 


February  1915. 





Relation  between  Plants  and  Animals. 



Water — Tilth  in  Soils — Humus— Carbon — Minerals 
and  Nitrogen  in  the  form  of  Salts — Absorption 
of  Minerals. 


Carbohydrates  —  Fat  and  Oil  —  Amides  —  Albumi- 
noids— Fibre — Ash  Constituents. 


PLANTS  .  .  .  .  .  .10 

Moisture — Nitrogenous  Matter — Oil — Fibre — Ash — 



Water — Protein — Fat — Composition  of     Increase — 

Mineral  Matter. 
ix  A    2 




Body    Temperature — Mechanical    Work — Mainten- 
ance— Production. 

VII.  THE  PROCESS  OF  DIGESTION  .  .  .  .21 

Organised  Ferments — Unorganised  Ferments. 
Mastication — Stomach  of  Ruminant — Rumination — 
The    Stomach    of   Non-Ruminant — Small    In- 
testines— Intestinal  Juices. 


Bacteria — Absorption  of  Digested  Food  Material — 
Destiny  of  Absorbed  Nutrients. 

X.  FUNCTIONS  OF  FOOD  NUTRIENTS       .  .  .31 

Carbohydrates  —  Fat  —  Albuminoids  —  Amides — 
Crude  Fibre— Ash— Water. 


Respiration — Excretion. 



(a}  Concentrates  rich  in  Oil :  Linseed — Oil  Extrac- 
tion— Cotton  Seed — Soya  Beans — Hemp  Seed 
— Earth-nut — Sunflower  Seed  —  Rape  Seed — 
Kapok  Seeds — Palm-nut  Kernels — Cocoa-nut 
Kernels  .  .  .  .  .  -44 

(&)  Oil-cakes  low  in  Fibre  :  Linseed  Cakes — Decorti- 
cated Cotton  Cakes — Earth-nut  Cakes — Soya 
Bean  Cake— Para  Rubber  Seed  Cake— Maize 
Germ  Cake — Sesame  Cake  .  .  -53 

(c)  Oil-cakes  fairly  high  in  Fibre :  Cocoa-nut 
Cake — Coprah  Cake — Palm-kernel  Cake — 
Rape  Cakes — Undecorticated  Cotton  Cakes — 
Kapok  Cakes  —  Sunflower  Cake  —  Hemp 
Cake  .  .  .  .  .  -59 



(d)  Compound  Cakes .  .  .  .  -63 

(e)  Leguminous  Seeds  :  Gram — Java  Beans  .       64 
(/)  Cereal  Grains        .            .            .            .  -65 
(g)  Miscellaneous  Seeds  :  Acorns — Buckwheat        .       65 
(h)  Wheat    By-products  :    Milling    Process  —  Fine 

Middlings — Coarse  Middlings — Bran  .  .       66 

(i)  Barley  By-products  :  Malting   of  Barley— Kiln 
Drying — Malt     Coombs — Brewers'     Grains — 
Distillery  Grains  .  .  .  70 

(/)  Oat    By-products :  Oatmeal— Oat   Husks— Oat 

Dust         ......       72 

(k}  By-products  from  Maize  :  Maize  Germ  Meal — 
Gluten     Meal     and     Gluten     Feed  —  Flaked 
Maize — Maize  Bran         .  .  .  •       73 

(/)  By-products  from  Rice  :  Rice  Meal          .  .       75 

(m)  Miscellaneous    By-products :   Apple  Pomace — 

Spent  Hops          .  .  .  .  -75 

(n)  Condimental  Foods  :  Fenugreek — Locust  Beans 
— Aniseed  —  Gentian  —  Coriander —  Ginger — 
Cane  Sugar  Molasses— Beet  Sugar  Molasses— 
Makbar— Molastella— Soya    Treacle    Cake— 
Molascuit — Molassine    .  .  .  .76 

(<?)  Fodder  Crops         .  .  .  .  79 

(p)  Green  or  Forage  Crops    .  .  .  .81 

(g)  Root  Crops  .  .  .  .  .81 

Ash  Constituents  in  Feeding  Stuffs    .  .  .82 


Climate — Variety — Manuring — Stage  of  Ripeness 
when  Harvested— Weather  Conditions  during 


Permanent  Pasture — Timothy  Meadows — Improv- 
ing poor  old  Pasture — Forage  or  Soiling  Crops. 
XV.  DIGESTIBILITY  OF  FOODS  .  .  .  -95 

Individuality  of  Animals — Ruminants  and  Non- 
Ruminants — Stage  of  Maturity — Effect  of  Work. 





RATIONS    .  .  .  .          .  .    101 

Composition  —  Albuminoid  Ratio  —  Home-grown 
Foods  the  Basal  Part  of  Ration — Laxativeness 
— Palatability — Economy. 

XVII.  FOOD  STANDARDS       .  .  .  .  .no 

The  Approximate  Method— The  Danish  Method— 
The  Scientific  Method. 

XVIII.  VALUATION  OF  FOODS  .  .  .  .120 

Food  Unit  System — Manurial  Residue. 

XIX.  PREPARING  FOOD  FOR  STOCK         .  .  .     123 

Haymaking — Silage  —  Chaffing — Pulping — Grind- 
ing, Rolling,  and  Nutting — Softening  Coarse 
Foods — Steeping — Cooking  or  Steaming — 
Warming — Condiments. 


XX.  FARM  HORSES.  .  .  .  .  .132 

Brood  Mares — The  Foal — Young  Horse — Work- 
horses —  Suitable  Rations  —  Short  v.  Long 
Feeding — Watering — Cost  of  Keeping  for 
Year — Score  Card  of  Shire  Horse. 


XXI.  FATTENING  CALVES  FOR  VEAL        .  .  .146 

The  Natural  Way— Hand-feeding— The  Calf  Box 
— Food — Art  of  Feeding — Conclusions. 

XXII.  CALF-REARING.  .  .  .  .  .152 

Hand-rearing — Calf  Meals — Calf-rearing  Experi- 
ments— Cost  of  Rearing  for  a  Year — Turning 
out  to  Grass. 



XXIII.  DAIRY  CATTLE  .  .  .  .163 

Points  of  Typical  Cow — Building  up  a  Herd — 
Milking  Trials — Butter  Tests — Feeding  the 
In-calf  Cow. 

XXIV.  MILK  SECRETION     .  .  .  .  .172 

Colostrum— Butter-fat— Circumstances  affecting 
Quantity  and  Quality  of  Milk— Effect  of 

XXV.  RATIONS  FOR  DAIRY  Cows  .  .  .  .191 

Feeding  Standards. 

XXVI.  THE  ART  OF  MILKING         .  .  .  .194 


Cows,  ETC.         .  .  .  .  .196 

Cost  of  Keeping  Dairy  -Cows  for  a  Year — 
Returns  from  Milk  Selling — Comparing 
different  Systems — Score  Card  for  Dairy 
Shorthorn  Cows. 


Type  of  Animal — Breed  and  Quality — Available 
Breeds  —  How  the  Feeder  secures  his 

XXIX.  FATTENING  OF  CATTLE       .  .  .  .208 

Baby   Beef   Production  —  Fattening   Cattle  in 

Summer    on    Grass — House    Fattening  of 
Cattle — Systems  of  Housing. 


Feeding  Fodder  Crops — Root  Crops — Con- 


Economy  in  Feeding — Relation  of  Food  to 
Increase — Cost  of  Producing  Increase — 
Weight  of  Cattle  by  Measurement — Score- 
Carding  Beef  Cattle. 


INTENSIVE  FEEDING     ....    232 




XXXIII.  FEEDING  OF  SHEEP          .  .  .  .241 

Ram — Breeding  Ewes — Early  Lambs — Winter- 
ing Lambs — Mutton  Production — Feeding 
Roots,  Forage  and  Fodder  Crops,  and 
Concentrated  Foods — Data  from  Feeding 


(9)  FEEDING,  ETC.,  OF  PIGS. 

XXXV.  FEEDING  OF  PIGS  ....".    260 

Brood  Sow — Piglings — Stores. 


Pork  Production  —  Bacon  Pigs  —  Breeding 
Stores — Buying  Stores. 


Separated  Milk  and  Whey— Separated  Milk 
and  Meals — Whey  and  Meals — Mangels 
and  Meals — Cooked  v.  Raw  Potatoes — 
Winter  v.  Summer  Fattening — Pig  Meals 
— Foods  and  Quality  of  Bacon — Soft 
Bacon — Firm  Bacon — Tainted  Bacon — 
Grading  Carcasses — Whole  Grain  v.  Meals. 

XXXVIII.  RATIONS  FOR  PIGS  .  .  .  .282 

Meal  Mixtures — Food  and  Increase — Curing 
Bacon — Breed  and  Carcass  Contests  at 


XXXIX.  FEEDING  SICK  ANIMALS  .  .  .  .292 

(a)  Horses — Temperature — Pulse-beats — Res- 
pirations— Ailments  of  Horses — Fevers — 
Ailments  due  to  Errors  of  Diet  and  Errors 
of  Management — Bony  Diseases — Mashes 
and  Gruels  .....  292 



(b)  Ruminants  —  General    Preventions  —  Foods 

deficient  in  Quality  —  Concentrates  — 
Sudden  Changes  of  Diet — Common  Ail- 
ments—  Milk  Fever  —  Abortion  —  Impac- 
tion  of  Rumen  and  of  Omasum — Hoven — 
Hoose — White  Scour — Black  Leg  .  .  300 

(c)  Sheep  Ailments — Internal  Parasites  .  .     309 

(d)  Pig  Ailments — Rickets — Salt-Poisoning        .     309 

INDEX     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .311 


Armstrong  College -,  Newcastle-on-Tyne —  PAGES 

(a)  Offerton  Hall — Feeding  of  Dairy  Cows  187,  190,  194 

(5)  Cockle  Park — Fattening  of  Bullocks   .  210,217,220 

Edinburgh  and  East  of  Scotland  College  of  Agriculture — 

Fattening  of  Bullocks          .  .  216,  219,  222,  223,  226,  229 

Fattening  of  Sheep  ....         253,255 

Milk  Records  ....  184,  187,  196 

Department  of  Agriculture  (Ireland} — 

Calf-rearing  Experiments    .  .  .  .158,  162 

Feeding  of  Dairy  Cows       ....          185,199 

Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College — 

Pig-feeding  Experiments  (Kilmarnock)     .  272,  274,  277 

Feeding  of  Dairy  Cows       .  .  .  .  .165 

Bullock-feeding  Experiments          .  .  .  .221 

University  of  Leeds  (Garforth  Farm} — 

Feeding  of  Dairy  Cows       .  .  .  187,189,196 

Fattening  of  Bullocks          ....          218,220 


Royal  Agricultural  Society  (England} —  PAGES 

Bullock-feeding  Experiments          .  .  .  .219 

Butter  Ratios  of  Dairy  Breeds  of  Cattle    .  .  .     164 

Midland  Agricultural  and  Dairy  College — 

Manuring  for  Milk  .  .  .  .          180,189 

Harper  Adams  Agricultural  College — 

Bullock-feeding  Trials         .  .  .  .  .220 

Wye  Agricultural  College,  Kent — 

Feeding  of  Dairy  Cows       .  .  .  .  .186 

University  College  of  North  Wales — 

Bullock-feeding  Experiments          ....     224 

University  College,  Aberystwyth — 

Pig-feeding  Experiments    ....          276,  277 
Bullock-feeding  Experiments          ....     224 

Highland  and  Agricultural  Society  (Scotland) — 

Milk  Records  ......     182 

Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Farm  School,  Penrith — 

Early  Mutton  Production   .....     244 
Fattening  of  Sheep  ....         251,255 

Londoji  Tramway  Company — 

Feeding  of  Horses  ......     140 

Lancashire  County  Council — 

Milk  Records  .  .  .  .  .  .181 

Wilts  County  Council— 

Fattening  of  Pigs  for  Bacon  .  .      273,  275,  278,  281 



I.  A  Herefordshire   Cattle-yard  at    Mr  John  Powell's, 

Town  House,  Madley  I 

II.  Cotton  Seeds       ......        49 

III.  A  Herefordshire  Hop-yard,  Mr  G.  H.  Bray's,  Dor- 

mington       ......         56 

IV.  i.   Locust   Beans  ;    la.   Seeds   of  Locust   Bean ;    2. 

Earth-  or  Ground-nuts  ;  2a.  Seeds  of  Earth-nut.         57 

V.  Various  Seeds     ......        64 

VI.  A.  Haymaking — Cutting  a  fine  crop  of  Seeds  Hay 

at  Mr  David  Arnott's,  Brechin,  Forfarshire 
J5.  Scotch  Haymaking — Making  the  Tramp  Coil  at 
Mr  David  Young's,  Mill  Farm,  Invergowrie,  N.B. 
VII.  Seeding  down  Land  to  Pasture  .  .  .89 

VIII.  A.  Scotch  Haymaking — Carting  home  the  hay  with 
special  cart  at  Mr  John  Spiers',  Newton  Farm, 
near  Glasgow  ..... 
B.  Continental  Haymaking  —  Carting  home  hay 
with  bullock  waggon  at  Lauchstadt,  near  Halle, 
Germany  ...... 

IX.  English  Haymaking — A  common   method  in  many 

Midland  and  Southern  Counties  .  .  .105 

X.  A.  Crop  of  Green  Maize  at  the  MacDonald  Agri-, 

cultural  College,  Quebec,  Canada 

B.  American    Silos— Specially  constructed   to  store  f 
Maize  Silage  .  .  .  .  .  J 




XL  A.  "  Speed  the  Plough."     It  takes  a  pair  of  "good"  "\ 

horses  to  plough  in  the  Carse  of  Gowrie  !         .  | 

B.  Carting   a   good   crop    of    Oats    at    Chesham  ' 

Lodge,  Great  Eccleston,  Garstang,  Lanes 

XII.  A.  "Lady  Manifred"  at  the  Edinburgh  Show  :  a 

fine  type  for  fast  work     .... 

B.    Shoeing   Competition   at    The   Valletts,    near  [    137 

Hereford  ;    good  shoeing   is   as   important  as 

good  feeding        ..... 

XIII.  A   lovely   Shire    Mare  — Sir  Walpole  Greenwell's 

"Dunsmore  Chessie":  a  Royal  Show  Cham- 
pion         ......       144 

XIV.  A.   Milking   Devon   Suckling   Calf- First  Prize  at 

the  Royal  Show,  Shrewsbury,  1914  ;  owned  by 
Messrs  Loram  Bros.,  Rosamondford,  Exeter  . 
B.  Group  of  well-bred  Dairy  Shorthorn  Calves 
being  Hand-reared  at  Lord  Lilford's  Home 
Farm,  Northants  .... 

XV.  Pedigree  Shorthorn  Cows  which  have  done  their 
Calves  well  at  Mr  Percy  Preece's,  Pencoyd 
Court,  Ross,  Herefordshire  .  .  .  153 


XVI.  A.  Dairy  Cattle  tethered  close  to  Lund,  Sweden 
B.  Pedigree  Shorthorn  Cow,  "  Baroness  Stately," 
owned  by  Lord  Lilford,  Lilford  Hall,  Oundle, 
Northants  .... 

XVII.  Pedigree  Dairy  Shorthorn  Cow,  "Primrose  Gift"  . 

XVIII.  A.  Typical  Jersey  Cow  in  the  Cathedral  Dairy 
Company's  Herd  at  Messrs  Loram  Bros., 
Rosamondford,  near  Exeter 

B.  Devonshire    Clotted    Cream  —  The    Cathedral  r 
Dairy  Company's  Model  Creamery  at    Rosa- 

XIX.  A.  Hand  Milking       .  .  .  '  \  103 

B.  "Lister"  Milking  Machine          .  .  J 



XX.  The  "Lister"  Milking  Machine,  showing  engine 
which  can  be  used  for  many  other  purposes  . 

XXI.  "Royal  Prince"  —  A  promising  young  Hereford 
Bull.  The  property  of  Sir  John  Cotterell, 
Bart.,  Garnons,  Hereford 

XXII.  A.  West  Highland  Cattle  at  Mr  Bone's,  Monkton- 

hill,  Ayrshire,  Scotland 

I>.  Mr   Peter   Coates'    Champion    Heifer  at  the 
Royal  Agricultural  Show,  Liverpool    . 

XXIII.  Shorthorn-Dexter   Steer — A  very  popular   small 

beef  animal        ..... 

XXIV.  A.  A   typical  Forfarshire  Farm  Steading,  show- 

ing covered  cattle  courts  at  Mr  David 
Arnott's,  Pitforthie,  Brechin,  Forfarshire 
B.  A  Northamptonshire  Cattle  -  yard,  with  a 
typical  Blue-grey  (Shorthorn-Galloway)  in 
store  condition  at  Mr  Brassey's  Home  Farm, 
Apethorpe  Hall,  Northants 

XXV.  A.  Aberdeen  -  Angus    Shorthorn    Cross    Heifer,  \ 

"Elita"  (Shenstone  Home  Farm)       .  .1 

B.   Relative  Prices  of  different  cuts  of  Fat  Cattle  .  J 

XXVI.  Hereford  County  Council  Students  judging  Cattle 
at  Mr  C.  T.  Pulley's,  Lower  Eaton,  Hereford 

XXVII.  A.  Ewes    eating    Roots    off    at    Ashkirk,    near  ^ 

Hawick,  N.B.,  in  snowy  weather 
B.  The  Annual  Sheep-shearing  is  an  interesting  | 
time        .  .  .  .  .  .  J 

XXVIII.  A.  Border-Leicester,  or  possibly  a  Scotch  Half- ^ 

bred  Ewe  with  Lambs,  at  Mr  Craw's,  Chirn- 

side,  Berwickshire         .... 

B.  Oxford  or  Oxford  Cross  Ewes  in  the  Lambing- 

pen  at  Mr  John  Clay's,  Sunlaws,  Roxburgh    . 

XXIX.  The  Feeding  Hurdle  System— Tegs  feeding  off 
Turnips  at  Mr  Farr's,  Arkstone  Court,  King- 
stone,  Hereford 












commence  once  again  the  same  cycle  of  changes. 
This  round  is  continually  going  on,  and  is  daily 
revealing  the  wonderful  power  that  exists  in  every 
green  plant  that  possesses  life,  of  utilising  such  unlikely 
materials  as  soil  and  air  to  build  up  food  material 
for  the  Animal  Kingdom. 

Relation  of  Plants  to  the  Animal  Kingdom. — All 
living  things  can  be  divided  into  two  groups,  viz. :  (i) 
Animals  and  (2)  Plants.  As  we  study  the  lowest  forms 
in  each  kingdom,  the  differences  become  smaller  and 
smaller,  until  we  arrive  at  a  point  close  to  the  dividing 
line  between  these  two  kingdoms,  where  it  is  difficult 
to  say  whether  a  certain  living  thing  belongs  to  the 
Animal  or  the  Vegetable  Kingdom. 

All  these  living  things  have  something  in  common, 
inasmuch  as  they  are  composed  of  small  cells  con- 
taining a  jelly-like  substance  called  protoplasm  or 
"living  matter."  The  latter  term  is  very  expressive, 
because  without  this  substance  there  cannot,  so  far  as 
we  know  at  present,  be  any  life.  Living  things  gener- 
ally have  the  power  of  reproduction;  and  in  order  to 
maintain  their  bodies  and  increase  in  size,  it  is  necessary 
for  them  to  receive  nutriment  in  some  form  or  other. 

The  higher  forms  of  plants  (e.g.)  wheat,  beans,  etc.), 
however,  differ  from  the  higher  animals  (e.g.,  horses, 
cattle,  sheep,  etc.),  in  the  following  respects  : — 

Animals.  Plants. 

1.  Cell  walls  composed  of  albu-      Cell  wall  composed  of  cellulose. 

minous  substance. 

2.  Interior   of  cell    filled    with      Interior    of     older     cells     not 

protoplasm.  entirely  filled   with   proto- 


3.  Have  powers  of  locomotion.        Generally  fixed  to  the  soil  by 



Animals.  Plants. 

4.  Have   no   power    of   manu-      Have  power  of  manufacturing 

facturing  food  material,  but  complex      organic       corn- 

must     apparently    receive  pounds    or   food    material 

their  sustenance  from  food  from     simple      substances 

previously  built  up  by  the  such  as  minerals,  air,  and 

plant.  water,  in  the  presence   of 

sunlight,  provided  the  plant 
is  green  (i.e.,  possesses 

5.  Inhale  oxygen  gas  from  the      Have  the  power  of  absorbing 

air,     and     exhale     carbon  carbon  dioxide  gas  and  ex- 

dioxide  gas  from  the  lungs  haling  oxygen  gas  during 

chiefly  (Respiration).  sunlight,  in  addition  to  the 

process  of  respiration. 

The  last  two  distinctions  are  highly  important, 
since  they  show  us  that  the  higher  animals,  at  any 
rate,  are  absolutely  dependent  on  the  existence  of  plants, 
as  the  latter  purify  the  air  by  absorbing  large  quantities 
of  carbon  dioxide  gas,  and  at  the  same  time  build  up 
food  material  for  the  Animal  Kingdom.  Without 
plants,  the  air  would  tend  to  become  foul,  and  the 
Animal  Kingdom  either  extinct,  or  its  members  would 
have  to  find  some  other  mode  of  existence. 

In  civilised  countries  the  provision  of  a  sufficient 
supply  of  plants  cannot  be  entrusted  to  nature  alto- 
gether; hence  it  is  necessary  where  animals  are  kept, 
either  as  the  servants  of  man  or  to  supply  him  with 
food,  that  he  should  co-operate  with  nature  in  the 
growing  of  plants,  so  as  to  provide  an  adequate,  if  not 
an  abundant  supply  of  plant-food  for  the  requirements 
of  domesticated  animals. 

It  will  therefore  be  convenient  to  describe  more 
in  detail  how  the  various  food  constituents  are 
manufactured  by  plants,  before  dealing  with  questions 
of  animal  nutrition. 



The  exact  way  in  which  plants  obtained  their 
nourishment  was  up  to  the  middle  of  last  century  quite 
a  mystery,  and  it  will  be  very  interesting  to  note  the 
chief  stages  in  this  discovery  : — 

Water. — In  the  days  of  alchemy,  when  only  four 
elements  were  recognised — viz.,  fire,  air,  earth,  and 
water — Van  Helmont  grew  a  willow  tree  in  some  soil 
in  a  tub,  and  the  only  thing  he  added  was  water.  The 
tree  grew  fairly  well,  but  as  the  soil  was  practically 
the  same  weight  at  the  finish,  he  concluded  that  water 
was  the  source  of  food  for  plants. 

Tilth  in  Soils. — Jethro  Tull  found,  more  especially 
with  the  wheat  crop,  that  frequent  horse-hoeing  had  a 
great  effect  on  the  yield  of  straw  and  grain  ;  hence  he 
concluded  that  if  the  soil  were  only  made  fine  enough, 
the  small  particles  would  be  taken  up  by  the  root- 

Humus.— In  1800,  Thaer  of  Halle  held  that  the 
humus  in  the  soil  was  probably  the  source  from  which 
plants  derived  their  food ;  but  Liebig  asked  how 
it  was  possible  for  humus  to  be  the  original  food  of 
plants,  seeing  that  it  was  itself  largely  decaying 
vegetable  matter. 

Cartoon. — In  1804,  De  Saussure  pointed  out  that  when 
a  plant  was  burned  in  air,  most  of  it  disappeared,  there- 
fore he  considered  that  the  greater  part  of  a  plant  must 
be  derived  from  the  air  and  water.  This  proved  later 
on  to  be  the  case,  for  a  Swiss  scientist  (Chas.  Bonner) 
noticed  that  when  certain  green  leaves  were  immersed 
in  water,  bubbles  of  gas  sometimes  appeared  on  the 
leaves.  Priestley  found  that  these  bubbles  were  oxygen 
gas,  and  Ingenhaus  that  they  only  made  their  appear- 


ance  in  sunlight ;  while  Jean  Senebier  discovered  that 
instead  of  these  leaves  taking  in  oxygen  and  breathing 
out  carbon  dioxide  gas,  as  animals  always  do 
(respiration),  they  actually  carried  on  during  sunlight 
the  reverse  process,  viz. :  that  of  absorbing  carbon 
dioxide  gas  and  breathing  out  oxygen  gas. 

Minerals.1 — Digby  found  that  saltpetre  gave  wonder- 
ful results  when  applied  to  hemp  plants,  due,  he  thought, 
to  this  substance  fertilising  the  air.  Later  on,  Liebig 
propounded  his  great  mineral  theory,  that  the  minerals 
in  the  soil  were  essential  in  the  growing  of  farm 

In  recent  years  this  mineral  theory  has  been 
followed  up.  Plants  were  grown  in  water  to  which 
was  added  most  mineral  substances  found  in  the  ash 
of  plants,  and  it  was  found  that  the  plants  grew  and 
matured.  One  by  one  these  minerals  were  eliminated, 
until  it  was  ultimately  discovered  that  for  the  successful 
growth  of  plants  it  was  necessary  to  supply  in  suitable 
form  nitrates,  sulphates,  and  phosphates  of  potash, 
lime,  magnesia  and  iron,  so  far  as  the  minerals  are 

Further  trials  with  farm  crops  showed  that,  in 
ordinary  farm  practice,  it  was  only  necessary  to  supply 
in  suitable  form,  nitrogen,  phosphates,  potash,  and 
occasionally  lime.  Seeing  that  lime  only  needs  to  be 
applied  every  four  to  eight  years,  manures  supplying 
nitrogen,  phosphates,  and  potash  are  called  "complete 
manures,"  so  far  as  the  mineral  requirements  of  the 
plant  go. 

The  above  discoveries  are  all  very  important.  Even 
to-day  it  is  still  necessary  to  supply  farm  crops  with  water 

1  The  term  "  minerals  "  is  taken  to  include  the  nitrogen  which 
the  plant  obtains  from  the  soil  in  the'_form  of  salts  (nitrates  chiefly). 


and  minerals,  to  work  the  soil  in  order  to  admit  air 
and  get  a  good  tilth,  as  well  as  to  keep  a  supply  of 
humus  in  the  soil  as  reserve  plant  food,  and  as  an 
absorbent  for  water. 

Absorption  of  Minerals. — The  minerals  in  the  soil 
which  are  dissolved  in  the  soil-water  soak  or  diffuse 
through  the  very  delicate  walls  of  the  root-hairs  (osmosis). 
The  solution  then  rises  up  the  wood-vessels  (xylem)  in  the 
plant  till  it  comes  to  the  leaves,  where  it  is  continually 
being  lost  by  transpiration  or  vaporisation,  with  the 
result  that  the  minerals,  which  were  dissolved  in  the 
water,  become  gradually  concentrated  in  the  leaves. 
A  further  supply  of  water  containing  dissolved  minerals 
is  again  drawn  up  into  the  leaves,  and  so  the  process 
goes  on.  Generally  speaking,  the  warmer  the  weather, 
the  more  rapidly  do  the  leaves  transpire. 

The  power  which  plants  possess  of  drawing  water  from  the 
roots  up  to  the  leaves  is  most  likely  due  to  a  number  of  forces 
acting  simultaneously,  viz.  : — 

(a)  Root-pressure,  or  the  force  exerted  on  the  liquids  in  the 

plant  by  the  absorbing  action  of  the  roots.  The  root 
continues  to  absorb,  with  the  result  that  this  exerts  a  push 
from  behind  on  the  liquid  previously  absorbed. 

(b)  The  vacua  formed  in  the  wood-vessels  of  the  stem  of  the 

plant,  due  to  the  loss  of  water  by  transpiration  ;  as  well  as 

(c)  The  osmotic  force  of  the  minerals  in  the  leaves,  etc. 

All  these  forces  are  involved  in  the  distribution  of 
minerals  to  those  parts  of  the  plant  where  they  are 



Carbohydrates. — It  has  been  pointed  out  above 
that  the  green  parts  of  plants,  under  certain 
conditions,  actually  absorb  carbon  dioxide  gas  and 
give  off  oxygen  gas,  hence  this  process  is  called 
"carbon  dioxide  assimilation,"  or  "carbon  fixation." 
This  process  is  now  known  to  be  due  to  the  green 
part  of  the  plant  (chlorophyll)  having  the  power,  under 
the  influence  of  sunlight,  of  splitting  up  the  carbon 
dioxide  gas  contained  in  the  air,  retaining  the  carbon 
and  liberating  the  oxygen  ;  the  carbon  is  at  the  same 
time  combined  with  water  in  the  leaves  to  form  carbo- 
hydrates, generally  starch  (CgH^Og).1 

The  formation  of  carbohydrates  only  proceeds  as 
long  as  there  is  a  suitable  supply  of  minerals  which 
the  plant  can  secure  from  the  soil,  more  especially 
potash  and  a  little  iron.  These  are  absorbed  and 
carried  up  to  the  leaves  in  solution,  as  mentioned 

But  how  does  the  air  get  into  the  leaves  ?  To 
understand  this,  one  should  know  something  of  the 
structure  of  a  leaf,  which  in  flat  leaves  has  on  the  under- 
side a  very  large  number  of  pores  (stomata)  which  admit 
air,  and  at  the  same  time  allow  gases  and  water-vapour 
to  escape  into  the  atmosphere.  These  pores  admit  air 
to  the  many  cavities  inside  the  leaf,  and  it  is  here  that 
the  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air  dissolves  in  the  cell  sap. 

1  Professor  Sachs  found  in  a  few  cases  that  sugar,  or  even  a 
fat,  may  be  the  first  detectable  organic  product. 



During  sunlight  the  green  colouring  matter  combines 
the  carbon  and  the  water  together  with  the  liberation  of 
oxygen,  which  passes  out  by  diffusion  through  the  pores 
on  the  under-side  of  the  leaves. 

Upper    layer     of    cells 

Palisade  parenchyma, 
containing  chlorophyll 
grains,  which  give  green 
colour  to  leaf. 

Wood  vessels  which  con- 
duct water  to  the 

Bast  cells  which  conduct 
carbohydrates,  etc. , 
from  leaves. 

Open  spaces  or  cavities 
into  which  air  is 
admitted  and  carbon 
dioxide  gas  absorbed. 

Lower  epidermis. 

Stomata  or  openings 
which  admit  air  to 
open  spaces  in  leaf. 

Transverse  section  of  small  part  of  a  leaf  of  a  dicotyledonous  plant,  greatly 
magnified,  and  rather  diagrammatic. 

The  starch  (C6H10O5)  formed  in  the  leaves  is  then 
converted  into  sugar  (C6H12O6)  by  a  ferment  in  the 
leaf,  and  in  this  form  diffuses  or  travels  to  those  parts 
of  the  plant  where  growth  is  taking  place,  or  to  be 
stored  up  for  future  use,  as  in  seeds,  tubers,  roots, 


fruits,  etc.  In  cereal  grains  and  tubers  the  sugar  is 
again  changed  back  into  starch  after  it  has  arrived  at 
its  destination. 

Pat  or  Oil. — Oil  differs  from  fat  in  being  liquid 
at  ordinary  atmospheric  temperature,  while  fat  is 
solid.  They  are  both  soluble  in  ether.  These  are 
formed  from  the  carbohydrates,  and  it  appears  that 
a  high  temperature  is  necessary  for  the  conversion  of 
carbohydrates  into  fat  or  oil,  seeing  that  flax  seed 
(linseed)  grown  in  hot  countries  (Russia)  contains  a 
much  higher  percentage  of  oil  than  that  grown  in 
colder  climates  (Ireland). 

Fat  and  oil  are  made  up  of  the  same  three  elements 
as  carbohydrates,  but  are  characterised  by  having  a 
very  small  proportion  of  oxygen  in  the  molecule ;  or, 
to  put  it  another  way,  fat  is  exceedingly  rich  in 

Amides. — The  sugar  formed  in  the  leaves  is  carried 
to  all  parts  of  the  plant  along  vessels  called  the  bast 
(phloeum).  It  is  on  this  journey  that  the  sugar  comes 
in  contact  with  the  minerals,  more  especially  the 
nitrates,  when  the  living  matter  in  the  plant  causes 
the  elements  of  the  sugar  and  the  nitrates  to  combine, 
forming,  probably,  first  ammonia  (NH3)  and  then  an 

/        IT   \ 
amide       NiY       The     amides,    therefore,    contain 

nitrogen  in  addition  to  the  three  elements  found  in 
carbohydrates  and  fats.  They  are  soluble  in  the 
cell  sap,  and  are  abundant  in  young,  and  especially 
so  in  luxuriant  herbage. 

Albuminoids. — As  plants  mature,  the  amides  are 
gradually  transformed  into  albuminoids  (proteids). 
These  differ  chemically  from  amides  in  containing 


sulphur  and  sometimes  phosphorus  in  addition  to 
carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  nitrogen.  The 
albuminoids  are  largely  stored  in  the  seeds  and 
fruits  of  plants. 

Fibre. — This  is  often  called  woody  fibre,  on  account 
of  its  indigestible  properties.  As  the  plant  grows  it 
requires  more  and  more  fibrous  tissue  to  support  its 
increase  in  size  and  weight,  and  for  this  purpose  the 
plant  utilises  the  carbohydrates  (sugar).  If  the  plant 
is  allowed  to  get  dead  ripe,  as  is  sometimes  the  case 
with  cereals,  the  stem  or  straw  consists  almost  entirely 
of  woody  fibre  and  becomes  very  brittle. 

Ash  Constituents  or  Mineral  Matter. — These  are 
taken  up  from  the  soil  and  later  transferred  to  the 
seeds  and  the  body  of  the  plant  generally. 

The  more  the  plant  uses  these  minerals  in  the 
formation  of  foliage  or  seeds,  the  more  freely  will 
the  minerals  be  absorbed  by  the  roots  from  the'  soil. 


The  nutrient  constituents  manufactured  by  plants 
are  found  to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  in  most  of  the 
plants  or  parts  of  plants  (seeds,  etc.)  which  are  fed 
to  stock.  Above  we  have  noticed  that  albuminoids, 
amides,  fats,  carbohydrates,  fibre,  and  ash  are  formed 
in  plants,  hence  it  is  important  to  know  how  the 
chemist  discovers  the  amounts  of  each  of  the  nutrients 
contained  in  any  given  food-stuff,  e.g.,  oats,  peas, 
beans,  etc. 

Before   doing   this,  it  may  help  the  reader  if  the 



nutrients    of    foods    are    classified    in    the    following 
manner : — 



Dry  Matter  « 


Nitrogenous  Matter 

Crude  Albuminoids 



J      (Proteids). 






The  above  nutrients  are  estimated  as  follows : — 

Moisture. — The  finely  ground  food  is  heated  in  a 
steam-oven  till  it  ceases  to  lose  weight ;  the  loss  on 
heating  gives  the  amount  of  moisture  in  the  food. 

A  rapid  method  of  estimating  the  moisture  content  of 
cereal  grains,  etc.,  has  recently  been  devised  by  Brown 
and  Duvel  of  America.  With  their  patent  moisture  tester 
the  result  may  be  obtained  in  half  an  hour.  This  is  done 
by  taking  a  certain  weight  of  grain,  placing  it  in  a 
distillation  flask  with  mineral  oil,  and  distilling  the 
water  off.  The  steam  driven  off  in  this  way,  after  being 
condensed,  is  led  into  a  flask,  which  is  graduated  in 
such  a  way  that  the  moisture  content  can  be  read  off  at 
once.  The  necessary  temperature  for  distillation  varies 
from  170°  C.  to  190°  C,  according  to  the  particular  seed 
or  grain  that  is  being  tested. 

Nitrogenous  Matter  (Protein). — A  small  quantity 
of  the  finely  ground  food  is  taken  and  heated  with 
strong  sulphuric  acid  to  convert  the  organic  nitrogen 
into  ammonia.  Caustic  soda  is  then  added  to  the 
solution,  when  the  ammonia  is  distilled  off  and  collected 


in  acid  of  standard  strength.  The  amount  of  acid 
neutralised  measures  the  ammonia  which  has  been 
driven  off,  and  from  this  the  amount  of  nitrogen 
is  calculated.  Protein  is  found  to  contain  on  an  average 
1 6  per  cent,  of  nitrogen,  hence  by  multiplying  the 
nitrogen  in  food  by  6J  (-W0-)*  the  amount  contained  in 
the  food  is  obtained,  and  the  percentage  calculated. 

The  albuminoid  part  of  the  protein  is  precipitated 
when  copper  hydrate  is  added  to  a  solution  of  protein, 
but  the  amides  remain  in  solution.  This  precipitate 
contains  only  the  albuminoids,  and  the  estimation 
of  the  nitrogen  is  as  above  described.  Hence  if 
the  protein  (nitrogenous  matter)  is  ascertained  in  a 
food,  and  the  albuminoids  also  found  in  the  same  food, 
the  difference  will  give  the  amides. 

Oil. — This  includes  that  part  of  the  food  which  is 
soluble  in  ether,  and  on  this  account  is  more  correctly 
called  "  ether  extract."  A  known  weight  of  the  finely 
ground  food  is  taken  and  treated  with  hot  ether  for 
probably  a  couple  of  hours  to  dissolve  the  oil  out. 
The  ether  is  then  evaporated  off,  and  the  oil  which  is 
left  behind  is  afterwards  weighed.  In  bulky  fodders 
this  ether  extract  may  include  waxy  matters,  etc.,  in 
addition  to  oil,  which  makes  the  fat  credited  to  these 
fodders  less  valuable  for  feeding  purposes. 

Fibre. — The  food  is  boiled  for  half  an  hour  in  weak 
acid  and  then  for  half  an  hour  in  weak  alkali ;  the  part 
which  still  remains  undissolved  is  called  "  fibre." 

Ash  or  Mineral  Matter. — The  part  which  remains 
after  the  food  has  been  burnt  in  the  air  till  the  residue 
ceases  to  lose  weight  is  called  "  ash." 

Carbohydrates  include  sugar,  mucilage,  starch,  etc., 
and  are  obtained  by  ascertaining  the  total  percentage 
of  the  above  constituents  and  subtracting  the  aggregate 


total  percentage  from  100.     Hence  they  are  obtained 
by  difference. 


The  body  of  farm  animals  may  be  regarded  as 
consisting  of  a  bony  skeleton,  covered  with  an  elaborate 
system  of  muscles.  In  addition,  fat  may  accumulate 
between  the  individual  fibres  of  these  muscles  and 
round  the  muscles  generally,  with  the  result  that,  as 
the  animal  fattens,  the  external  covering  of  skin,  with 
its  appendages  of  hair,  wool,  etc.,  varies  from  time  to 
time  in  size  and  shape. 

Within  this  skeleton  the  vital  organs  are  found, 
viz. :  heart  and  lungs  in  front  of  the  diaphragm  (i.e. 
in  the  chest),  and  the  stomach,  liver,  spleen,  intestines, 
kidneys,  etc.,  behind  the  diaphragm  (i.e.  in  the  abdomen). 
Each  of  these  organs  plays  a  very  important  part  in 
animal  nutrition. 

The  vascular  system  distributes  the  nutrients  which 
have  been  absorbed  into  the  blood,  to  every  part  of  the 
body  where  it  is  required,  either  for  maintaining  the 
body  temperature,  repairing  waste  of  tissue,  supplying 
energy,  or  producing  increase.  The  digestible  parts  of 
the  food  are  thus  utilised  for  the  maintenance  and 
development  of  the  body,  while  the  indigestible  or 
unutilised  part  is  removed  from  the  system. 

Briefly  stated,  the  important  "  proximate "  con- 
stituents of  a  fat  animal  from  the  butcher's  point  of 
view  are :  lean  meat,  fat,  bone,  and  the  skin.  The 
proportion,  arrangement,  and  quality  of  each  of  these 
constituents  in  the  animal  body,  are  problems  which 
the  breeder  and  purchaser  of  store  stock  have  to  keep 
constantly  in  mind. 



In  order  to  understand  the  practical  side  of  feeding, 
it  will  be  instructive  and  helpful  to  know  something  of 
the  chemical  composition  of  the  animal  body.  Here  one 
cannot  do  better  than  refer  to  the  valuable  work  done 
by  Lawes  and  Gilbert  at  Rothamsted  Research  Station 
(Hertfordshire,  England),  where  the  bodies  of  cattle, 
sheep,  and  pigs  at  different  ages  and  varying  stages  of 
fatness  were  carefully  analysed,  and  the  following  im- 
portant data  obtained. 

The  figures  for  the  entire  body  of  these  farm 
animals  are  based  on  the  fasted  live  weight,  after  the 
contents  found  in  the  stomach  and  intestines  (varying 
from  3  to  9  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  animal)  have 
been  deducted.  The  latter  precaution  is  very  necessary 
before  any  comparisons  can  be  made  between  the  entire 
body  and  the  carcass. 

Composition  of  Entire  Body  and  Dressed  Carcass 
of  Farm  Animals. 


Entire  Body. 

Dressed  Carcass. 



a  n* 


"3  ^ 





(H   _£2 




CD  -*J 


1-         1 






«  a 

















Fat  calf    . 









Half-fat  ox 







Fat  ox 



32-0        4'2 





Fat  lamb  . 



31-1       3-2 





Store  sheep 



19-9       3-3 





Fat  sheep 








Extra  fat  sheep 





Store  pig  . 









Fat  pig     . 










With  these  results  before  us,  the  following  observa- 
tions can  be  made  : — 

Water. — Generally  speaking,  water  is  the  largest 
constituent  of  the  entire  body  of  farm  animals,  and  in 
store  or  half-fat  animals  will  often  exceed  half  the 
weight  of  the  body.  In  the  case  of  the  extra  fat  sheep 
and  fat  pig,  the  proportion  of  water  in  the  body  is 
actually  less  than  that  of  the  fat. 

The  bodies  of  young  animals  contain  a  larger  pro- 
portion of  water  than  older  ones.  Again,  by  comparing 
store  and  fat  animals,  it  will  be  seen  that,  as  fattening 
proceeds,  the  proportion  of  water  in  the  body  diminishes. 

The  proportion  of  water  in  the  dressed  carcass  is 
from  2  to  6  per  cent,  less  than  that  in  the  entire  body. 

Protein. — This  consists  in  the  "  entire  body "  of 
lean  meat  (muscle),  ligaments,  tendons,  skin,  hair,  hoofs, 
and  horns  (if  present).  Dried  blood  is  also  fairly  rich 
in  protein. 

The  proportion  of  protein  tends  to  increase  from 
youth  to  maturity  (cf.  fat  calf  and  half-fat  ox,  or  fat 
lamb  and  store  sheep).  As  the  animal  fattens,  the  pro- 
portion of  protein  decreases.  The  largest  proportion  of 
protein  is  found  in  the  body  of  the  ox,  while  that  in  the 
pig  is  the  smallest,  although  the  proportion  in  the  sheep 
is  not  much  greater  than  that  in  the  pig. 

In  the  carcass  the  proportion  of  protein  is  about 
the  same  with  the  ox  and  the  pig  as  in  the  entire  body, 
but  is  i  to  2\  per  cent,  less  in  the  sheep. 

Fat. — Fat  forms  a  considerable  proportion  of  the 
entire  body.  In  fat  animals  this  varies  from  one-third 
to  almost  one-half  of  the  weight  of  the  body.  The 
proportion  of  fat  is  greatest  in  the  pig  and  smallest  in 
the  ox  (cf.  fat  sheep  and  fat  pig). 

The  bodies  of  young  animals  contain  a  smaller  pro- 



portion  of  fat  than  older  ones  (cf.  fat  calf  and  fat  ox,  or 
fat  lamb  and  fat  sheep).  As  fattening  proceeds,  the 
proportion  of  fat  increases  very  considerably;  in  fact, 
may  amount  to  double  that  of  the  store  animal  (sheep). 

In  the  "  carcass "  the  proportion  of  fat  varies  from 
1-3  to  7  per  cent,  in  excess  of  that  found  in  the  entire 
body.  The  chief  fats  present  in  the  carcass  are  stearin, 
palmatin,  and  olein;  the  last  named  being  liquid  at 
ordinary  atmospheric  temperature. 

The  Composition  of  Increase  in  Live  Weight 
during  fattening  was  calculated  by  Lawes  and  Gilbert 
for  farm  animals,  with  the  following  results : — 

Kind  of  Animal. 





per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

Ox        ... 

Sheep    . 
Pig       ... 





The  chief  points  to  notice  are  that  two-thirds  of  the 
increase  in  live  weight  during  fattening  is  fat,  while 
only  a  fourteenth  consists  of  lean  meat  (protein). 

Mineral  Matter  (Ash). — This  is  concentrated  to  a 
large  extent  in  the  bony  skeleton,  although  it  is  fairly 
abundant  in  muscle,  blood,  etc. 

In  the  entire  animal  the  proportion  rarely  exceeds 
5  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  body,  and  is  sometimes 
much  less.  The  body  of  the  ox  is  richest  in  minerals, 
and  that  of  the  pig  poorest.  The  proportion  diminishes 
as  fattening  proceeds. 

The  carcass  is  slightly  richer  in  mineral  matter  than 
the  entire  body. 

It  will  now  be  instructive  to  study  in  greater  detail 



the  chemical  composition  of  the  mineral  matter.  It  was 
with  this  object  that  Lawes  and  Gilbert  determined 
the  actual  chemical  constituents  in  the  animal  body, 
the  results  of  which  are  given  in  the  following- 
table  :— 

Table  showing  Ash  Constituents  and  Nitrogen  in  1000  Ibs.  of 
Farm  Animals  (Fatted  Live  Weight],  Wool,  and  Milk. 











Fat  calf       . 
Half-fat  ox  . 
Fat  ox          ... 





21-  II 

0-6  1 

Fat  lamb     . 
Store  sheep 
Fat  sheep    . 






1  1..84 


Store  pig    . 
Fat  pig        ... 






Wool  (unwashed) 




1.  80 


Milk  .... 






The  above  table  shows  that  the  half- fat  ox  per  1000 
Ibs.  fasted  live  weight  has  removed  from  its  food,  and 
indirectly  from  the  soil,  an  amount  of  minerals  which 
would  be  supplied  by  166  Ibs.  pure  nitrate  of  soda,  133 
Ibs.  superphosphate  of  lime  (30  per  cent,  soluble), 
nearly  4  Ibs.  pure  sulphate  of  potash,  26^  Ibs.  ground 
lime  (80  per  cent,  pure),  and  nearly  2  IDS.  carbonate 
of  magnesia.  These  figures  show  that  where  young 
growing  animals  are  living  largely  on  pasture  land, 



there  is  a  considerable  drain  on  the  store  of  nitrogen, 
phosphates,  and  lime  in  the  soil  to  supply  the  require- 
ments of  the  animal  body.  Nitrogen  maybe  collected 
from  the  air  to  a  fairly  considerable  extent  by  the 
roots  of  clovers  and  other  leguminous  plants  in  the 
pasture,  but  this  does  not  apply  to  minerals  such  as 
phosphates  and  lime.  This  explains  why  grass-land 
which  has  been  grazed  continuously  with  young  cattle 
is  apt  to  become  destitute  of  these  two  substances ;  also 
why  basic  slag,  which  supplies  both  phosphates  and 
lime,  in  many  cases  gives  wonderful  results  when 
applied  to  such  pastures.  It  is  generally  wise  to  include 
some  kainit  in  the  manurial  mixture  used  on  pastures, 
in  case  there  might  also  be  a  shortage  of  potash. 

In  the  same  way,  every  store  sheep  of  100  Ibs.  live 
weight  (which  means  a  good  big  sheep)  in  building  up 
its  body  has  removed  an  amount  of  minerals  from 
its  food,  and  indirectly  from  the  soil,  equal  to 
14^  Ibs.  nitrate  of  soda,  8J  Ibs.  superphosphate  of  lime 
(30  per  cent,  soluble  phosphate),  J  Ib.  pure  sulphate  of 
potash,  and  nearly  if  Ibs.  of  ground  lime  (80  per  cent, 
pure).  If  the  sheep  had  been  reared  entirely  on  grass, 
the  pasture  would  have  lost  the  above  amounts  of 
minerals  and  nitrogen. 

The  ox  requires  a  larger  amount  of  minerals  in 
proportion  to  its  weight  for  its  body  requirements  than 
either  the  sheep  or  the  pig ;  and  the  pig  requires  less 
in  proportion  to  its  size  than  the  sheep. 

The  large  amounts  of  nitrogen  and  potash  in 
unwashed  wool  are  both  very  striking.  The  latter 
constituent,  no  doubt,  finds  its  way  into  the  fleece  in  the 
perspiration,  just  in  the  same  way  as  it  does  into  the 
coat  of  a  horse.  There  must  sometimes  be  fully  half  a 
pound  of  potash  in  a  sheep's  fleece, 


With  regard  to  milk  sold  off  the  farm,  each  cow 
giving  on  an  average  600  gallons  per  year  will  take  an 
amount  of  minerals  from  the  food,  and  indirectly  from 
the  soil,  equal  to  210  Ibs.  pure  nitrate  of  soda,  87  Ibs. 
superphosphate  of  lime  (30  per  cent,  soluble  phosphate), 
19  Ibs.  pure  sulphate  of  potash,  and  14  Ibs.  ground  lime. 
For  a  thousand-gallon  cow  the  respective  amounts  of 
minerals  required  would  be  supplied  by  350  Ibs.  nitrate 
of  soda,  143  Ibs.  superphosphate  of  lime,  32  Ibs.  sulphate 
of  potash,  and  22  Ibs.  ground  lime.  The  annual  drain 
to  the  farm  by  dairy  cows  is  therefore  considerable. 

When  purchased  foods  are  given  to  farm  animals,  the 
loss  of  minerals  to  the  farm  is  diminished  theoretically 
by  the  amount  contained  in  the  purchased  foods. 


There  is  a  continual  waste  going  on  in  the  animal 
body,  and  it  will  be  convenient  to  deal  with  these 
losses  or  requirements  separately. 

Body  Temperature. — The  normal  temperature  of 
farm  animals  is  approximately  100°  F.  In  this  country 
the  air  temperature  seldom  comes  anywhere  near  body 
temperature,  and  is  often  far  below,  with  the  result  that 
the  body  is  constantly  losing  heat,  chiefly  from  the 
lungs  and  the  external  surface  of  the  body.  Experi- 
ments have  shown  that  the  loss  bears  a  much  closer 
relation  to  the  exposed  surface  of  the  body  than  to  the 
weight  of  the  animal. 

The  rate  of  loss  varies  directly  with  the  difference 
between  the  air  temperature  and  body  temperature,  i.e., 
the  greater  this  difference  is,  the  more  rapidly  will  heat 
be  lost  from  the  body.  The  rate  of  loss  may  also  be 
increased  by  work,  inasmuch  as  some  of  the  energy  in 
the  body  is  transformed  into  heat  by  increased  oxida- 


tion  of  the  nutrients  in  the  body.  The  heat  escapes 
both  through  the  lungs  and  the  pores  of  the  skin. 

Mechanical  Work  or  Energy. — The  animal  body 
has  many  functions  to  perform,  both  internal  and 
external,  in  order  to  keep  up  its  vitality.  Internally, 
the  process  of  respiration  must  go  on,  and  this  throws  a 
lot  of  work  on  the  diaphragm  and  other  muscles.  The 
heart  has  to  be  continually  pumping  the  blood  round 
the  body.  As  the  food  passes  along  the  alimentary  track 
it  must  be  masticated,  digested,  and  largely  expelled 
from  the  system  ;  while  externally  the  body  requires  to 
be  held  in  position,  and,  during  walking  or  running  has 
to  be  carried  or  forced  through  space,  which  involves  a 
considerable  amount  of  strain  on  the  muscles.  If,  how- 
ever, the  animal  is  loaded,  then  the  strain  on  the 
muscles  is  increased,  and  the  animal  respires  more 
freely.  All  these  things  are  a  drain  on  the  energy 
which  is  stored  in  the  system. 

Maintenance. — Ordinary  wear-and-tear  is  constantly 
going  on  in  the  body,  due  to  the  strain  thrown  on  the 
system  in  meeting  the  various  demands,  such  as  the 
production  of  heat  and  the  performance  of  internal 
work.  The  body  tissues  are  continually  being  used  up, 
and  in  order  to  keep  the  animal  in  the  same  condition 
(*>.,  neither  increasing  nor  decreasing  in  weight),  it  is 
necessary  to  give  it  a  sufficient  amount  of  nutrient 
material  to  maintain  its  body  temperature,  to  supply 
energy,  and  repair  the  waste  of  tissue. 

Production. — This  refers  more  to  the  growth  in 
size  of  animals,  production  of  flesh  (beef,  mutton,  or 
bacon),  as  well  as  offspring  and  milk.  It  really  infers 
that  something  extra  is  required  over  ordinary  mainten- 
ance. In  fattening  animals,  it  is  only  the  food  consumed 
in  excess  of  the  requirements  for  maintenance  (heat, 


energy,  and  ordinary  waste  of  tissue)  which  is  available 
for  this  purpose. 

The  various  constituents  of  the  food  which  are 
capable  of  supplying  heat,  energy,  or  body  tissue  to 
an  animal  are  called  "  nutrients,"  and  all  the  processes 
through  which  the  nutrients  go  in  the  animal  body  in 
order  to  fulfil  their  respective  functions  are  called  by 
the  word  "  metabolism,"  such  processes  would  therefore 
be  called  "  metabolic  processes." 

Before  attempting  to  describe  how  to  meet  the 
above  body  requirements,  it  will  be  necessary  to  give 
the  process  of  digestion  and  the  various  food-stuffs  that 
are  available  for  feeding  purposes. 


Food  material  is  taken  in  at  the  mouth  of  the  animal 
and  gradually  passes  along  the  alimentary  or  food  canal, 
where  it  is  attacked  at  different  stages  by  various 
digestive  juices  as  well  as  bacteria.  In  this  way  part 
of  the  food  is  dissolved  or  digested,  and  is  therefore 
capable  of  soaking  through  the  thin  cellular  walls  of 
the  intestines  into  the  circulation,  which  carries  this 
digested  food  to  various  parts  of  the  body  where  the 
nutritive  material  is  required. 

The  part  of  the  food  which  resists  the  digestive 
juices  travels  along  the  alimentary  track,  and  is  finally 
expelled  as  solid  excrement. 

Digestion,  therefore,  refers  to  those  processes 
through  which  the  food  passes  in  the  animal  body,  by 
which  it  is  dissolved  and  thus  rendered  capable  of  being 
absorbed  into  the  blood.  This  solvent  action  is  brought 
about  by  ferments  or  substances  capable  of  producing 


These  ferments  are  conveniently  divided  into  two 
classes,  viz.,  organised  and  unorganised  ;  and  as  they 
play  such  an  important  part  in  agriculture,  a  general 
account  of  their  action  will  be  given. 

Organised  Ferments  are  produced  by  the  activity 
of  bacteria,  which  usually  act  as  "  oxidisers  "  when  they 
attack  carbohydrate  substances.  Common  examples 
may  be  recalled,  such  as  the  souring  of  milk  by  the  lactic 
acid  bacteria,  which  change  the  milk  sugar  into  lactic 
acid.  Various  alcoholic  drinks  derive  their  alcohol  from 
sugar,  which  on  fermentation  with  yeast  yields  alcohol. 
In  the  alimentary  canal  certain  bacteria  are  found  which 
attack  and  break  down  the  fibrous  part  of  food  as  it 
passes  through  the  animal  body,  with  the  result  that 
some  of  the  fibre  is  digested. 

The  action  of  these  organised  ferments,  which  are 
dependent  on  the  existence  of  bacteria  for  their  forma- 
tion, can  only  proceed  to  ferment  food  materials  as  long 
as  there  is  a  supply  of  air  (aerobic),  and  moisture,  as  well 
as  a  suitable  temperature.  If  air  were  precluded,  or  the 
food  desiccated  (dried)  or  refrigerated,  this  would  prevent 
the  multiplication  of  bacteria,  and  the  production  of 
these  organised  ferments  would  come  to  a  standstill. 

Certain  organised  ferments  attack  nitrogenous 
substances,  with  the  production  of  nauseous  gases.  If 
such  fermentation  takes  place  in  the  animal  body,  as  by 
pathogenic  germs,  it  would  cause  considerable  disturb- 
ance in  the  system. 

The  "Unorganised"  Ferments,  or  enzymes,  are 
chemical  substances  which,  unlike  the  organised 
ferments,  are  not  dependent  on  the  presence  of 
bacteria.  A  remarkable  feature  of  them  is  that  they 
appear  to  have  almost  an  unlimited  power  of  converting 
nutrient  substances  into  a  form  in  which  they  are  avail- 


able  to  plants  or  animals,  without  themselves  being  used 
up  or  suffering  any  permanent  change  (catalytic  action). 
They  are  regarded  as  albuminous  substances  :  which  are 
formed  from  the  protoplasm,  and  exhibit  the  above- 
mentioned  "  catalytic "  form  of  action.  Poisons  and 
a  too  high  temperature  render  them  inactive.  These 
ferments  may  be  precipitated  from  solutions,  and 
desiccated,  but  when  redissolved,  they  continue  to  do 
their  work ;  in  fact,  behave  in  a  general  way  like 
chemical  substances. 

Enzymes  may  be  classed  according  to  their  charac- 
teristic action  on  starch,  sugar,  protein,  fat,  cellulose, 
etc.,  and  have  generally  a  "  hydrolising  "  effect ;  z>.,  they 
add  the  elements  of  water  to  the  composition  of  the 
substance  acted  upon,  e.g.,  starch  (C6H10O5)  becomes  con- 
verted into  sugar  (C6H12O6). 

Enzymes  are  present  in  germinating  seeds,  and 
perform  the  important  function  of  converting  the 
starch  contained  in  the  seed  into  sugar,  thus  rendering 
it  available  for  the  development  of  the  young  plant. 
The  same  thing  applies  to  tubers,  bulbs,  and  vegetative 
parts  generally  where  food  material  is  stored. 

In  the  animal  body,  ferments  (enzymes)  are  secreted 
by  various  glands  along  the  alimentary  canal,  and  are 
largely  responsible  for  changing  food  material  into  a 
form  in  which  it  can  be  absorbed  into  the  circulation, 
as  will  be  seen  below. 

The  process  of  digestion  is  much  the  same  in 
ruminants  (e.g.  cow)  and  non-ruminants  (e.g.  horse),  after 
the  food  has  arrived  at  the  so-called  fourth  "stomach" 
in  the  case  of  the  former,  and  the  ordinary  stomach  in 
the  case  of  the  latter ;  hence  the  two  will  be  dealt  with 
separately  up  to  this  point,  and  collectively  after, 
1  Strasburger. 



Mastication. — In  the  case  of  the  horse  (non- 
ruminant),  the  food  is  taken  into  the  mouth,  where  it 
is  chewed  or  masticated.  This  has  the  dual  effect  of 
grinding  the  food  down  into  a  fine  state  of  division  so 
that  the  digestive  juices  may  more  effectively  act  on 
the  food,  as  well  as  mixing  it  with  the  " alkaline"  saliva 
which  is  secreted  in  the  mouth.  The  saliva  contains 
a  ferment  called  "  ptyalin,"  which  acts  on  the  starchy 
part  of  the  food,  converting  it  into  sugar  (maltose). 

Apparently  saliva  is  secreted  in  inverse  ratio  to  the 
amount  of  water  in  the  food.  This  means  that,  with 
succulent  foods  like  grass,  less  saliva  is  secreted  than 
would  be  the  case  with  drier  foods,  such  as  hay  and 
meals.  Professor  Pawlow  (Russia)  found  with  dogs 
that  the  quantity  of  saliva  varied  much  more  with  the 
composition  and  quality  of  the  food,  than  the  appetite  of 
the  dog.  No  doubt  the  same  thing  applies  to  the  horse. 

The  food  is  then  swallowed  and  passes  on  into  the 
stomach,  but  the  saliva  continues  to  act  on  the 
starchy  part  of  the  food  until  the  latter  comes  in 
contact  with  the  gastric  juice  of  the  stomach,  which, 
on  account  of  its  acidity,  destroys  the  alkaline  nature 
of  the  saliva  and  thus  prevents  its  action. 

With  ruminants  the  process  is  more  complicated,  due 
to  the  very  large  size  and  peculiar  shape  of  the  stomach. 

Stomach  of  a  Ruminant. — This  is  made  up  of  four 
compartments,  .namely  : — 

(1)  The  paunch  (rumen). 

(2)  The  honeycomb  (reticulum). 

(3)  The  manyplies  (omasum). 

(4)  The  rennet  stomach  (abomasum). 


In  the  young  animal  the  paunch  is  comparatively  small, 
but  as  the  animal  develops  and  begins  to  consume  bulky 
foods  the  paunch  enlarges  considerably,  until  it  becomes 
approximately  ten  times  as  big  as  the  other  three 
compartments  put  together. 

The  reticulum  has  a  honeycomb  appearance  on  the 
inside,  hence  the  name  honeycomb.  It  is  comparatively 
small  in  size,  and  acts  partly  as  a  reservoir  for  water. 

The  inner  surface  of  the  omasum  consists  of  longi- 
tudinal folds,  which  lie  very  close  together  in  many 
folds  or  manyplies.  These  folds  are  for  the  purpose 
of  dividing  the  food  and  pressing  it  between  the 
folds  before  it  is  passed  on  to  the  fourth  stomach 
(abomasum).  The  latter  is  called  the  rennet  stomach, 
because  the  rennet  used  in  cheesemaking  is  prepared 
by  salting  the  stomachs  of  calves. 

The  capacity  of  a  stomach  of  a  full-grown  ox  may 
be  40  or  50  gallons. 

The  peculiar  construction  of  the  stomach  as  well 
as  the  habit  of  swallowing  food  unmasticated  is  the 
cause,  to  a  large  extent,  of  ruminants  "  chewing  their 
cud,"  or  ruminating. 

Rumination. — The  food  is  given  a  hurried  chew  and 
swallowed  ;  it  then  passes  chiefly  into  the  paunch.  Here 
it  remains  for  a  time,  and  becomes  softened  with  the 
saliva  which  has  been  swallowed  with  the  food,  and 
in  fact  with  any  liquid  that  happens  to  find  its  way  into 
this  compartment.  After  the  food  has  fermented  a 
short  time,  it  is  brought  back  into  the  mouth  (regurgi- 
tated), chewed  a  second  time,  and  then  swallowed 
again.  The  finer  parts  of  the  food  pass  along  a 
groove  into  the  third  stomach,  where  the  food  is 
rubbed  together  by  the  manyplies  before  being 
passed  on  to  the  fourth  or  true  digestive  stomach. 


Here  the  action  on  the  food  is  the  same  as  with  the 

This  temporary  sojourn  of  the  food  into  the  paunch 
gives  ruminants  a  much  greater  power  of  digesting 
fibrous  foods  such  as  hay  and  straw  than  non-ruminants. 
The  fermentation  of  the  food  in  the  paunch,  in  addition 
to  softening  it,  decomposes  part  of  the  food,  with  the 
production  of  certain  organic  acids  such  as  butyric  and 
lactic  plus  carbon  dioxide  gas,  marsh  gas,  and  to  some 
extent  hydrogen  gas.  Although  there  are  special 
muscles  to  return  the  food  to  the  mouth,  they  are 
assisted  very  much  by  these  gases  as  they  escape  by 
the  mouth  into  the  air. 

The  writer  has  noticed  tegs  in  winter  give  the  food 
from  forty  to  eighty  chews  before  swallowing  it  a 
second  time.  Bullocks  in  summer  often  chew  the 
food  seventy  to  eighty  times  before  swallowing  it  the 
second  time. 

The  Stomach. — In  the  stomach  the  food  comes  in 
contact  with  the  gastric  juice,  which  contains  two 
ferments  called  "  pepsin  "  and  "  rennin  "  respectively, 
and  in  addition  a  certain  amount  of  acid  (hydrochloric 
and  lactic).  These  acids  give  the  characteristic  acid 
reaction  to  gastric  juice.  It  appears  that  "pepsin"  is 
secreted  in  the  first  part  of  the  stomach,  and  does 
not  act  on  the  albuminoids  except  in  acid  solutions. 
In  acid  solutions,  however,  the  pepsin  attacks  the 
albuminoids,  with  the  result  that  some  of  them  are 
converted  into  such  bodies  as  albumoses,  peptones, 
and  possibly  amino-acids.  The  amino-acids  at  least 
are  capable  of  being  absorbed  into  the  system. 
"  Rennin "  curdles  milk,  and  is  found  abundantly 
in  the  stomach  of  calves. 

The  forward  and  backward  action  of  the  muscular 


walls  of  the  stomach  is  peculiar.  In  the  first  place  it 
mixes  the  food  thoroughly  with  the  gastric  juice,  then 
as  it  forces  the  food  forward  some  of  it  is  squeezed 
through  the  round  (sphincter)  muscle  at  the  far  end  of 
the  stomach  into  the  small  intestines.  The  coarser  parts 
are  left  behind  till  they  are  softened  down  and  rendered 
capable  of  being  squeezed  through  the  round  muscle 
into  the  intestines.  Some  absorption  of  soluble 
material  takes  place  in  the  stomach,  but  most  of  it  is 
carried  on  into  the  intestines. 

Gastric  juice  of  carnivorae  (dogs,  etc.)  is  more  acid 
in  character  than  that  of  herbivorae  (horses,  cows,  etc.), 
which  enables  the  former  to  swallow  bones  without 
harm.  Professor  Pawlow  found  that  food  placed 
directly  in  the  stomach  had  little  effect  in  stimulating 
secretion,  but  sight,  smell,  and  taste  stimulated  the  flow 
greatly  even  before  any  food  had  passed  into  the 
stomach.  The  greater  eagerness  the  dog  showed  for 
the  food,  or  the  more  appetising  it  was  to  the  dog,  the 
more  abundant  was  the  flow  of  gastric  juice,  and  the 
richer  it  was  in  both  acid  and  pepsin.  It  was  also 
found  that  in  character  and  proportion  the  digestive 
juices  adapt  themselves  to  the  nature  of  the  food. 

Small  Intestines. — The  contents  of  the  stomach 
arrive  at  the  small  intestines  in  a  semi-liquid  state  and 
with  an  acid  reaction.  These  nutrients  are  in  various 
stages  of  digestibility.  Here  it  is  attacked  by  the  bile 
and  pancreatic  juice,  which  change  the  food  from  an 
acid  to  an  alkaline  reaction. 

The  "  bile,"  in  the  case  of  herbivorae,  is  a  clear, 
greenish-coloured  liquid  which  is  secreted  by  the  liver, 
and  acts  on  the  fats  partly  by  emulsifying  them,  and 
partly  by  splitting  them  up  into  fatty  acids  and 
glycerine.  These  fatty  acids  then  combine  with  the 


alkalies  present  in  the  bile  to  form  soap.  Further, 
bile  stimulates  the  wave  (peristaltic)  action  of  the  walls  of 
the  intestines,  which  is  so  important  in  carrying  the  food 
through  the  intestines.  It  also  acts  as  an  antiseptic. 

The  "  pancreatic  juice  "  is  secreted  by  the  pancreas, 
and  enters  the  small  intestines  at  a  point  close  to  that 
where  the  bile  enters.  It  contains  three  ferments, 
and  these  act  respectively  on  the  albuminoids,  fat  and 
carbohydrates  (starch),  which  have  not  been  rendered 
soluble  and  diffusible  by  the  previous  ferments, 
These  are  as  follows  : — "  Trypsin,"  which  acts  on  albu- 
minoids, forming  peptones,  etc.  ;  "  steapsin,"  which  acts 
on  fats,  splitting  up  the  fat  into  fatty  acids  and 
glycerine ;  "  amylopsin,"  which  acts  on  starch,  changing 
it  into  sugar  (glucose). 

Intestinal  Juices  have  a  very  similar  action  to 
the  pancreatic  juice.  The  chief  ferments  present  are 
"  erepsin  "  and  "  invertase."  The  former  acts  on  the 
albuminoids  which  have  escaped  the  action  of  the 
pancreatic  juice,  converting  them  into  peptones,  and 
later,  according  to  recent  research,  into  amino-acids ; 
while  the  latter  converts  the  malt  sugar  (maltose), 
milk  sugar  (lactose),  etc.,  into  grape  sugar  (glucose). 


Bacteria. — It  has  been  mentioned  above  that 
bacteria  have  an  important  action  on  the  food  in 
the  paunch  of  ruminants.  This  process  continues  in 
the  large  intestines.  The  large  bowels  of  the  horse 
are  very  capacious,  and  here  the  undigested  food, 
mixed  with  some  of  the  digestive  juices,  remains  for 
a  time.  At  the  same  time  bacterial  activity  causes 


fermentation,  which  decomposes  to  some  extent  the 
albuminoids,  carbohydrates,  as  well  as  the  fibrous 
part  of  the  food.  In  this  way  a  horse  is  enabled 
to  deal  with  fibrous  foods,  such  as  hay  and  straw, 
in  a  fairly  effective  manner,  although  not  quite  so 
efficiently  as  ruminants. 

Bacteria  are  comparatively  rare  in  the  stomach 
and  small  intestines,  as  the  gastric  juice  and  bile  kill 
most  of  them  off.  The  gases  produced  by  fermentation 
in  the  large  intestine  are  doubtless  absorbed  into  the 
circulation  and  exhaled  from  the  lungs. 

Kellner  points  out  that  some  bacteria  have  the 
power  of  forming  albuminoids  from  amides,  probably 
with  the  assistance  of  nitrogen-free  substances  (carbo- 
hydrates), and  that  such  albuminoids  can  be  utilised 
by  the  animal  for  the  same  purposes  as  the 
albuminoids  in  food.  Probably  this  change  only  takes 
place  in  the  case  of  ruminants,  as  bacterial  activity  is 
much  greater  in  their  case  than  with  either  horses  or 

Absorption  of  Digested  Pood  Material.  —  The 
greater  part  of  the  digested  food  enters  the  circulation 
from  the  small  intestines,  which  have  on  part  of 
their  inner  surface  a  velvety  appearance,  caused 
by  innumerable  hair-like  projections  called  "villi." 
These  have  the  power  of  absorbing  the  digested  part 
of  the  food. 

The  absorbed  nutrients  find  their  way  into  the 
lymphatic  vessels,  the  branches  of  which  keep  collect- 
ing up  until  they  form  ultimately  two  large  ducts, 
which  enter  the  blood  by  a  vein  in  the  neck.  The 
lymphatics  carry  the  nutrient  liquid  only  in  one  direc- 
tion, and  act  more  as  tributaries,  pouring  the  absorbed 
nutrients  into  the  blood  at  the  neck  vein. 


The  albuminoids,  after  being  broken  down  by  the 
digestive  juices  into  amino-acids  and  other  products,  are 
absorbed  by  the  villi,  and  then  built  up  again  into  the 
complex  albuminoids  of  the  animal  body. 

According  to  Professor  Henry,  the  fats  previous  to 
absorption  are  split  up  into  fatty  acids  and  glycerine. 
These  acids  combine  with  the  alkalies  of  the  bile  to 
form  soap.  It  appears  that  immediately  after  the 
glycerine  and  soap  have  been  absorbed  by  the  small 
intestines,  they  are  reconverted  into  animal  fats.  The 
fats  form  a  milky  fluid  with  the  lymph,  called  "  chyle," 
which  is  carried  into  the  circulation  by  the  lymphatics. 

The  carbohydrates  are  absorbed  chiefly  in  the  form 
of  glucose  or  similar  sugars.  They  enter  the  blood  and 
go  by  way  of  the  portal  vein  into  the  liver.  The  sugar  is 
then  mostly  removed  from  the  blood,  and  stored  up 
temporarily  as  glycogen,  which  resembles  starch  in  com- 
position, hence  it  has  been  designated  animal  starch. 

Glycogen  is  gradually  changed  back  to  glucose  as 
and  when  required.  A  similar  power  of  storing  up 
sugar  is  possessed  by  the  muscles  of  the  body. 

The  minerals  in  the  food  are  absorbed  chiefly  in  the 
small  intestines,  while  water  is  absorbed  in  that  part  of 
the  alimentary  canal  which  lies  between  the  stomach 
and  the  large  intestine. 

Destiny  of  Absorbed  Nutrients. — The  absorbed 
nutrients  are  carried  along  in  the  blood  stream,  where 
they  may  be  utilised  to  maintain  the  body  temperature, 
supply  energy  for  digestion  or  work,  repair  waste  of 
tissue,  and,  so  far  as  the  food  is  in  excess  of  these 
requirements,  it  may  be  stored  up  as  fat  or  flesh  in  the 
animal  body.  Before  these  various  functions  can  be 
understood  it  will  be  necessary  to  refer  to  the  circulation 
of  the  blood. 


Circulation  of  the  Blood. — The  blood  is  kept  in 
circulation  by  the  continuous  pumping  of  the  heart. 
In  this  way  the  blood  is  forced  along  the  arteries  on  its 
outward  journey,  and  after  the  blood  has  passed  through 
the  various  organs  of  the  body,  it  returns  to  the  heart 
along  the  veins.  Whenever  the  blood  passes  through 
an  organ  in  the  body,  e.g.,  liver,  kidneys,  etc.,  the 
blood-vessel  divides  up  into  a  large  number  of  very  fine 
blood-vessels  (capillaries),  which  gradually  come  together 
into  one  large  vessel  as  the  blood  leaves  that  organ. 

The  object  of  this  subdivision  of  the  blood-vessel 
into  very  small  vessels  as  it  passes  through  an  organ  is, 
first  of  all,  to  get  the  walls  of  the  blood-vessels  so  small 
in  the  organ  that  nutrient  liquids  may  pass  into  the 
blood  (small  intestines,  and  to  some  extent,  stomach), 
or  that  impurities  may  be  taken  out  (lungs,  kidneys, 
etc.).  Further,  the  blood  may  be  utilised  for  the 
manufacture  of  digestive  juices  (liver,  pancreas,  etc.) ; 
or,  in  fact,  some  of  the  nutrients  in  it  may  be  stored  up 
temporarily,  as  in  the  case  of  glycogen  in  the  liver. 

We  can  now  explain  the  functions  of  the  various 
nutrients  in  the  animal  body. 


It  is  usual  to  regard  the  protein  (crude 
albuminoids),  fats,  and  carbohydrates  as  the  chief 
nutrients  in  foods,  but  it  will  be  necessary  to  refer 
to  the  fibre  and  mineral  matter  in  addition,  as  they 
play  a  not  unimportant  part  in  animal  nutrition. 
Further,  the  part  played  by  water  in  dissolving  the 
nutrient  material,  thus  enabling  it  to  be  absorbed  into 


the  circulation  and  carried  to  every  part  of  the  body, 
cannot  be  overlooked. 

Carbohydrates. — The  carbohydrates  of  the  food  are 
apparently  absorbed  by  the  small  intestines  into  the 
blood  in  the  form  of  sugar  (dextrose).  It  is  then 
carried  to  the  liver,  and  the  excess  stored  up  as  animal 
starch  (glycogen)  or  converted  into  fat.  The  liver  acts 
as  a  reserve  for  carbohydrate  material. 

The  carbohydrates  may  also  be  utilised  for  the 
production  of  energy  and  heat  through  the  carbon 
and  hydrogen  being  oxidised  in  the  blood.  Modern 
research  appears  to  indicate  that  carbohydrates  may 
be  of  much  greater  importance  as  tissue-builders  than 
has  generally  been  supposed. 

To  understand  how  "  heat "  is  produced  in  the  body 
by  the  carbohydrates,  one  must  remember  that  carbo- 
hydrates are  composed  of  carbon,  hydrogen,  and 
oxygen,  the  last  two  elements  always  occurring  in  the 
proportion  of  two  atoms  of  hydrogen  to  one  of  oxygen. 
The  digestible  carbohydrates,  after  rinding  their  way 
into  the  blood,  come  in  contact  with  the  oxygen  which 
is  loosely  held  by  the  red  blood  corpuscles.  This  oxygen 
then  combines  with  (oxidises)  the  carbon  and  hydrogen 
to  form  carbon  dioxide  gas  (CO2)  and  water  (H2O). 

"  Whenever  chemical  action  takes  place,  heat  is 
produced";  hence  the  very  fact  that  the  oxygen  in 
the  blood  combines  chemically  with  the  carbohydrates, 
means  that  heat  will  be  generated  in  the  body  and  the 
body  temperature  thus  maintained. 

Work  increases  respiration,  more  air  is  taken  into 
the  lungs  and  more  oxygen  into  the  blood ;  hence  more 
carbohydrates  are  oxidised,  more  heat  is  generated,  and 
the  animal  gets  very  hot  and  perspires  freely. 

With  regard  to  "energy,"  it  has  been  found  that 


animals  doing  work  require  only  a  small  amount  of 
albuminoids,  but  a  comparatively  large  amount  of 
carbohydrates.  It  is  therefore  obvious  that  carbo- 
hydrates have  the  power  of  supplying  energy  to  the 
animal  body  to  meet  the  waste  of  energy  that  is  going 
on  during  work. 

Fat  may  also  be  formed  from  carbohydrates  when 
they  are  fed  in  excess  of  the  requirements  for  heat 
and  energy.  Kellner  points  out  that  if  animals  are 
fed  with  a  ration  poor  in  albuminoids  and  fat,  but  rich 
in  carbohydrates,  the  animals  increase  in  body  fat 
at  a  rate  which  could  not  possibly  have  come  from 
the  albuminoids  and  fat  in  the  food,  therefore  some  of 
the  fat  must  have  been  formed  from  the  carbohydrates. 

The  fat  of  milk  may  be  derived  from  the  carbo- 
hydrates, for  Professor  Jordan  (Geneva  Experimental 
Station,  New  York)  had  a  cow  fed  for  ninety-five  days 
on  hay  with  maize  and  ground  oats,  wrfich  had 
previously  been  deprived  of  most  of  the  fat  by  naphtha. 
The  cow  gained  in  weight,  and  yielded  63  Ibs.  of  fat  in 
the  milk.  The  food  only  contained  1 1 J  Ibs.  fat,  of  which 
5-7  Ibs.  was  digested  ;  Hence  most  of  the  remaining  57-3 
Ibs.  fat  must  have  been  derived  from  the  carbohydrates. 

Pat. — The  fat  in  the  food  supplies  heat,  energy,  and 
fat  to  the  animal  body.  Although  it  is  composed  of  the 
same  three  elements,  it  has  a  greater  value  as  a  heat 
producer  than  carbohydrates,  owing  to  its  containing 
a  very  small  proportion  of  oxygen  in  its  composition 
(molecule),  and  a  comparatively  large  amount  of  carbon. 
This  means  that  much  more  oxygen  will  be  required 
to  oxidise  the  carbon  and  hydrogen,  i.e.,  more  chemical 
action  will  take  place,  and  as  a  result  more  heat  be 
produced  from  a  given  weight  of  fat,  than  would  be  the 
case  from  an  equal  weight  of  carbohydrates. 




For  complete  oxidation  of  two  molecules  of  carbo- 
hydrate (starch)  as  compared  with  two  molecules  of  fat 
(stearin)  the  formulae  given  below  will  show  how  much 
oxygen  would  be  required  : — 

(Carbohydrates)  — 









6    + 





I2CO2  + 

gives      Carbon  dioxide    and 



Carbon  dioxide    and 





It  is  now  necessary  to  take  into  account  that  the 
fat  molecule  is  over  nine  times  as  heavy  as  the  starch 
molecule,  and  the  simplest  way  will  be  to  calculate 
what  weight  of  oxygen  is  required  in  each  case  to 
combine*  with  (oxidise)  I  Ib.  of  carbohydrate  and  fat 
respectively.  Taking  the  atomic  weights:  carbon  12, 
hydrogen  I,  and  oxygen  16,  we  find  that  :  — 

(a)  324  Ibs.  starch  require  384  Ibs.  oxygen  for  complete  oxidation, 
i  ID.        55  11        •       IDS.       11  11  11 

i  Ib. 


(b)    1780   Ibs.   stearin   require   5216    Ibs.   oxygen    for    complete 


i    Ib. 

2-930  Ibs. 

Hence,  by  dividing  (a)  into  (b)  we  find  that  stearin 
(fat)  is  2-472  times  as  valuable  for  heat  production 
as  starch  (carbohydrate).  This  value,  however,  varies 
with  every  different  kind  of  fat,  and  it  is  usual  to 


take  the  average  figure  that  fat  is  2-3  times  as  valuable 
as  carbohydrates  for  this  purpose. 

Fat,  like  carbohydrates,  supplies  "energy,"  or  the 
power  of  doing  muscular  work  to  the  animal ;  either 
internal,  in  digesting  foods,  maintaining  the  circulation 
of  blood,  etc. ;  or  external,  for  pulling  loads,  etc.  This 
can  be  proved  by  limiting  the  albuminoids  and  carbo- 
hydrates in  the  ration  and  increasing  the  fat ;  the 
animal  is  then  able  to  do  more  work  after  the  addition 
of  fat  has  been  made. 

The  fat  of  food  may  also  be  stored  as  "fat"  in  the 
animal  body,  although  the  composition  of  the  body 
fat  as  well  as  the  fat  in  milk  becomes  slightly  changed 
in  composition  and  properties  from  the  fat  of  food. 
This  is  not  so  difficult  to  understand,  seeing  the  fat  is 
broken  down  in  the  body  during  digestion,1  and 
immediately  after  absorption  built  up  again  into  animal 

Albuminoids. — The  albuminoids  are  the  only  food 
constituents  that  have  the  power  of  forming  lean  meat 
in  the  animal  body,  hence  they  are  called  "flesh- 
formers."  They  may  also  form  the  ligaments,  tendons, 

1  A  few  years  ago  fat  was  considered  to  be  absorbed  into  the 
blood  without  change,  but  this  theory  could  not  explain  why 
it  was  that  the  fats  of  the  animal  body  and  in  milk  differed 
considerably  in  properties  and  composition  from  the  fats  of  the 
food.  The  modern  and  more  rational  view  is  that  the  fats  are 
split  up  by  the  digestive  juices  into  fatty  acids  and  glycerine. 
These  fatty  acids  unite  with  the  alkaline  salts  in  the  bile  to  form 
soluble  soaps.  The  glycerine  and  soluble  soaps  are  then  absorbed 
into  the  circulation  in  the  small  intestines,  and  shortly  after  are 
reunited  into  animal  fats,  provided  they  are  in  excess  of  the 
requirements  in  the  body  for  heat  and  force.  If  not,  the  carbon 
is  oxidised  with  the  oxygen  in  the  blood  to  carbon  dioxide  (CO2), 
and  becomes  a  source  of  heat  and  energy. 


hair,  horns,  wool,  feathers — in  fact  all  those  parts  of 
the  body  containing  nitrogen.  Further,  they  are 
absolutely  necessary  to  sustain  life. 

None  of  the  other  nutrient  constituents,  except 
under  certain  circumstances  the  amides,  have  the 
power  of  supplying  nitrogenous  tissue  to  the  body. 

The  albuminoids,  like  the  fat,  are  temporarily  split 
up  by  ferments  (enzymes)  during  digestion  and  absorp- 
tion into  simpler  bodies — albumoses,  peptones,  and 
finally,  amino-acids — and  these  amino-acids  are  again 
built  up  into  animal  albuminoids  after  or  during 
absorption  into  the  blood.  This  accounts  for  the 
different  character  of  albuminoids  in  the  animal  body 
as  compared  with  those  in  the  food  from  which  they 
are  derived. 

When  the  albuminoids  in  food  are  insufficient  to  meet 
the  constant  waste  of  nitrogenous  tissue  in  the  animal 
body,  the  deficiency  must  be  supplied  from  the  flesh 
which  the  animal  has  previously  stored  up  at  the  time 
it  was  receiving  a  liberal  amount  of  albuminoids ;  the 
animal  then  begins  to  lose  flesh.  Young  animals 
require  a  more  liberal  allowance  of  albuminoids  than 
older  ones,  inasmuch  as  they  have  to  support  the 
constant  growth  in  the  size  of  the  body  in  addition 
to  supplying  the  ordinary  waste  of  tissue. 

Albuminoids  may  also  supply  heat  and  energy 
when  the  carbohydrates  and  fat  are  not  present  in 
sufficient  quantities.  In  this  case,  the  carbon  and 
hydrogen  are  oxidised  in  the  same  way  as  carbo- 
hydrates and  fat.  The  nitrogen,  however,  is  not 
oxidised  in  the  body,  but  is  excreted  in  the  urine. 
The  albuminoids  may  also  be  converted  into  fat ;  hence 
we  have  seen  that  the  albuminoids  have  the  unique 
property  of  forming  nitrogenous  tissue  (flesh)  and 


fat,  in  addition  to  supplying  heat  and  energy  to  the 
animal  bodyc 

In  practice,  however,  it  is  important  to  economise 
the  more  expensive  albuminoids  as  much  as  possible, 
by  supplying  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  cheaper  carbo- 
hydrates in  the  ration  for  heat,  energy,  and  fat 
production,  thus  confining  the  albuminoids  to  the 
repair  of  waste  nitrogenous  tissue  and  the  production 
of  lean  meat,  etc.  Kellner  states  that  carbohydrates 
are  quite  as  effective  in  preventing  protein  waste  as 

Amides. — The  amides  are  soluble  in  water,  and 
are  mostly  digestible.  A  good  example  of  an  amide 
is  asparagine,  which  is  made  up  of  the  elements 
carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  nitrogen.  Although 
asparagine  contains  nitrogen,  it  has  no  power  of  adding 
to  the  nitrogenous  tissue  when  fed  to  non-ruminants. 
With  ruminants,  it  does  appear  in  certain  cases  to 
have  the  power  of  economising  the  albuminoids.  This 
peculiar  power,  according  to  Kellner,  is  no  doubt  brought 
about  by  the  action  of  bacteria  in  the  alimentary  canal, 
and  may  be  accounted  for  in  two  ways :  by  the  bacteria 
either — 

1.  Converting   in   some  way  or   other   the   amides 

into  albuminoids ;  or 

2.  Attacking  by  preference  the  amides  in  the  body, 

and  thus  destroying  a  smaller  quantity  of  the 
albuminoids  of  food. 

It  would  therefore  appear  that  ruminants  receiving 
a  ration  poor  in  albuminoids  but  rich  in  amides  may 
utilise  the  amides  either  directly  or  indirectly  to  form 

Further,  it  appears  that  amides  have  no  power  of 
forming  fat,  although  when  oxidised  in  the  system 


they  have  the  power  of  giving  heat  and  energy  to 
the  animal  body,  the  nitrogen  leaving  the  body  in  the 
urine  in  the  form  of  urea. 

Crude  Fibre. — This  is  sometimes  called  woody  fibre, 
and  is  generally  present  to  a  large  extent  in  what  are 
called  "  bulky  fodders."  Ruminants  have  considerable 
powers  of  digesting  fibre,  due  partly  to  the  length  of 
time  the  food  remains  in  the  system,  as  well  as  to  the 
presence  and  activity  of  considerable  numbers  of 
bacteria  in  the  alimentary  canal,  which  attack  the 
fibre,  thus  rendering  a  portion  of  it  available  for 
nutrition  purposes. 

During  the  bacterial  digestion  of  fibre,  part  of  it 
escapes  from  the  body  in  the  form  of  gases,  such  as 
carbon  dioxide  gas  (CO2),  marsh  gas  (CH4),  and 
hydrogen  (H2).  These  leave  the  body  chiefly  in  the 
breath.  Further,  it  appears  that  the  energy  derived 
from  the  digestible  fibre  is  chiefly  available  in  the  form 
of  heat,  and  has  little  value  for  production  purposes. 

The  fibre  in  bulky  foods  requires  a  large  amount 
of  energy  for  mastication  and  digestion,  and  it  is  not 
difficult  to  understand  that  the  previous  grinding  of 
fibrous  foods  by  machinery  into  a  fine  state  of  division 
diminishes  considerably  the  amount  of  energy  required 
by  the  animal  for  mastication,  and  at  the  same  time 
increases  its  digestibility,  inasmuch  as  it  is  more  easily 
attacked  by  the  digestive  agents.  Warington  points 
out  that  the  undigested  part  of  the  fibre  is  richer  in 
carbon  than  the  digested. 

It  may  therefore  be  taken  that  the  chief  function  of 
the  digested  fibre,  apart  from  its  bulk,  is  to  produce 
heat.  Non-ruminants  have  much  smaller  powers  of 
digesting  fibrous  foods,  but  the  horse,  on  account  of  the 
large  capacity  of  its  intestines,  digests  it  fairly  well. 


The  pig  has  only  a  very  limited  power  of  dealing  with 
fibrous  foods. 

Mineral  Matter  or  Ash. — Lime,  magnesia,  and 
phosphoric  acid  are  important  constituents  of  the 
bony  skeleton  of  animals ;  hence  if  the  food  given 
to  animals  is  poor  in  bone  -  forming  minerals,  the 
supply  is  so  small  that  the  animal,  in  addition  to 
being  undersized,  has  bones  which  are  diseased  in 
some  way  or  other  (e.g.,  rickets  in  pigs).  Pregnant 
females  also  require  more  lime,  etc.,  to  supply  this 
constituent  for  the  bones  of  the  foetus.  According  to 
Prof.  Henry,  the  animal  skeleton  may  act  as  a  reserve 
storehouse  for  mineral  matter,  and,  when  the  supply 
in  food  is  below  requirements,  dole  out  lime,  phos- 
phates, etc.,  in  order  that  the  various  functions  of  the 
body  may  be  maintained,  e.g.,  dairy  cows  may  at  times 
give  more  lime  in  the  milk  than  is  supplied  in  the 

Potash  is  found  chiefly  in  the  muscular  tissues  of 
the  body,  while  soda  is  an  important  constituent  of 
blood  and  the  digestive  juices.  In  the  stomach  sodium 
chloride  (common  salt)  is  partly  converted  into  hydro- 
chloric acid,  which  renders  the  gastric  juice  acid. 
Common  salt  (NaCl)  has  the  power  of  dissolving  some 
of  the  albuminoids ;  it  also  improves  the  palatability 
of  some  foods,  and  increases  the  flow  of  digestive  juices. 

According  to  Kellner,  the  chlorine  as  well  as  the 
soda  of  common  salt  is  required  for  dairy  cows,  because, 
if  omitted  altogether,  the  cows  gradually  become  weaker 
and  may  ultimately  collapse,  but  if  chloride  of  sodium 
or  potash  is  added  to  the  food,  they  quickly  recover. 

Water. — Water  is  indispensable  in  the  animal  body, 
for  without  water  there  can  be  no  life,  seeing  that  it 
is  an  essential  constituent  of  the  living  matter  (proto- 


plasm).  All  common  foods  contain  a  certain  amount  of 
water,  which  assists  the  animal  in  chewing  the  food. 
When  the  food  is  too  dry,  it  is  necessary  for  the  animal 
to  drink  water  occasionally  to  facilitate  absorption  of 
the  digested  food  into  the  blood,  and  the  ejection  of 
waste  substances  from  the  body. 

Water  is  a  wonderful  regulator  of  the  body  tempera- 
ture, because,  when  the  body  is  abnormally  hot,  a  large 
amount  of  this  heat  is  absorbed  in  converting  the  water 
into  water-vapour.  The  water-vapour  then  leaves  the 
body  by  the  lungs  in  the  process  of  respiration,  as  well 
as  by  perspiration  through  the  pores  of  the  skin.  On 
the  other  hand,  an  animal  drinking  water  at  too  low  a 
temperature  may  chill  the  body  so  severely,  as  to  cause 
colic,  etc.  This  would  apply  more  especially  to  work 

Bulky  fodders  and  foods  rich  in  albuminoids  cause 
animals  to  drink  considerable  quantities  of  water,  and 
as  the  water  required  depends  on  so  many  factors,  it  is 
wise  to  let  the  animal  determine  the  quantity  required 
for  itself.  It  is  generally  safe  to  allow  farm  animals  to 
drink  water  at  atmospheric  temperature. 

Kellner  found  that  for  each  100  Ibs.  of  water  drunk 
and  supplied  in  the  food  to  a  stall-fed  ox,  46-3  per  cent, 
appeared  in  the  solid  excrement,  29-2  per  cent,  in  the 
urine,  and  24-5  per  cent,  in  the  breath  and  perspiration. 


Nature  has  supplied  the  animal  body  with  a  wonder- 
ful power  of  meeting  emergencies.  It  often  happens  that 
an  animal  is  not  receiving  sufficient  food  for  immediate 
requirements.  Well,  how  is  this  difficulty  overcome  by 
the  animal  body?  We  have  already  seen  that  when 
animals  are  fed  in  excess  of  requirements  for  keeping 


up  the  body  heat  and  meeting  the  demand  for  energy 
and  tissue  waste,  that  the  excess  is  utilised  for  the 
formation  of  fat  and  flesh.  This  excess  nutrient 
material  must  be  carried  in  a  more  or  less  liquid  state 
to  the  point  where  it  is  actually  laid  down  as  fat  or 
flesh ;  therefore,  at  any  given  time,  it  is  reasonable  to 
expect  that  there  will  be  present  in  the  animal  body  a 
certain,  if  not  considerable  amount  of  this  "  floating " 
nutrient  material. 

During  starvation  it  would  appear  that  the  various 
functions  of  the  body  are  maintained,  and  in  order  to 
do  this  the  animal  draws  on  the  reserve  which  it  has 
stored  up,  first  on  the  "floating"  nutrient  material, 
then  on  the  fat,  and  finally  on  the  flesh. 

Kellner  has  shown  that  when  an  animal  is  deprived 
of  albuminoids  in  the  ration,  that  nitrogen  continues  to 
appear  in  the  urine.  The  nitrogen  excretion  diminishes 
rapidly  at  first  after  nitrogen  is  withheld,  due,  it  is 
believed,  to  the  loss  falling  on  the  floating  nitrogenous 
nutrient  material  in  the  first  instance.  It  appears  that 
energy  may  be  stored  up  in  the  muscles,  even  minerals 
may  be  placed  in  reserve  in  the  bones,  and  both  drawn 
on  when  necessity  arises. 

These  wonderful  compensating  forces,  or  this  power 
of  storing  reserves,  explains  why  it  is  that  a  milking 
cow  will  continue  for  a  time  to  yield  average  milk,  even 
when  the  ration  is  insufficient ;  but  if  carried  beyond  a 
certain  point,  the  cow  will  lose  flesh,  or,  in  farming 
language,  "  milk  herself  thin." 

Respiration. — The  blood  is  continually  circulating 
through  the  lungs,  and  as  it  enters  is  of  a  dark  colour, 
due  to  the  carbon  dioxide  gas  it  contains.  On  its 
passage  through  the  lungs  by  way  of  the  very  fine 
blood-vessels  (capillaries),  it  comes  in  contact  with  the 


air  that  has  been  drawn  into  the  air  cavities  of  the  lungs. 
Here  the  blood  takes  up  the  oxygen  in  the  air,  and 
liberates  the  carbon  dioxide  gas  due  to  the  red 
colouring  matter  (haemoglobin)  having  a  much  stronger 
affinity  for  oxygen  than  carbon  dioxide  gas.  The  blood 
then  changes  to  a  bright  scarlet  colour  and  the  carbon 
dioxide  gas  escapes  from  the  lungs  in  the  breath,  along 
with  considerable  quantities  of  water-vapour.  In  this 
way  the  lungs  are  continually  ridding  the  blood  of  this 
injurious  product  of  oxidation.  At  the  same  time  the 
blood  is  being  charged  with  oxygen,  which  it  carries 
round  the  body,  giving  it  up  wherever  it  is  required  to 
oxidise  the  food  for  the  production  of  heat  or  work,  etc. 

Excretion.  —  The  chief  impurities  of  the  blood 
which  are  not  removed  by  the  lungs  are  urea,  certain 
salts,  and  water.  Urea  is  formed  from  the  decomposi- 
tion of  nitrogenous  matter  in  the  blood.  The  carbon 
and  hydrogen  alone  are  oxidised  to  carbon  dioxide  and 
water  respectively.  The  nitrogen,  however,  forms  urea, 
and  is  removed  by  the  kidneys  as  well  as  through  the 
pores  of  the  skin  (perspiration). 

When  the  urine  is  collected,  and  the  amount  of 
nitrogen  in  it  determined,  one  can  tell  by  difference 
from  the  total  food  digested,  the  amount  of  albuminoids 
which  have  been  stored  in  the  body.  The  difference 
between  the  compositions  of  food  and  solid  excrement 
gives  the  amount  digested  by  the  animal. 

The  various  salts  contained  in  the  food  which  are 
not  required  by  the  body  are  got  rid  of  in  the 
urine,  and  to  some  extent  in  the  perspiration.  Soda 
and  potash  are  common  bases  in  these  salts,  because 
they  are  fairly  abundant  in  the  food  given  to  farm 
animals,  and  produce  salts  which  are  easily  dissolved. 

The  undigested  food  is  expelled  from  the  body  in 


the  form  of  solid  excrement.  Seeing  that  the  food 
canal  of  ruminants  is  from  twenty  to  thirty  times  the 
length  of  the  body,  while  in  horses  and  pigs  it  is  from 
ten  to  fifteen  times,  the  food  naturally  remains  in  the 
alimentary  canal  some  time  before  the  undigested  part 
is  finally  expelled.  With  pigs  and  horses  this  period 
may  be  about  two  days,  while  with  ruminants  four  to 
six  days  may  be  required. 


Feeding  stuffs  may  be  divided  into  those  which  are 
comparatively  rich  in  one  or  more  of  the  three  most 
valued  nutrients — viz.,  albuminoids,1  fats,  and  carbo- 
hydrates (concentrates),  and  those  feeding  stuffs  which 
are  comparatively  poor  in  the  above  -  mentioned 
nutrients  (bulky  foods). 

The  former  are  represented  by  the  various  oil- 
cakes, pulse  grains  (peas  and  beans),  cereal  grains 
(wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats,  maize,  and  rice),  including 
by-products  from  flour  mills,  breweries,  distilleries, 
etc. ;  while  the  latter  includes  grass,  clover  hay,  seeds 
and  meadow  hay,  straw  from  cereals,  roots,  etc.  Bulky 
fodders  (hay  and  straw)  are  very  rich  in  fibre,  while 
root  crops  are  generally  low  in  this  constituent. 

The  concentrates  may  be  subdivided  into  groups 
according  to  their  richness  in  one  or  more  of  the  three 
most  valued  nutrients :  e.g.,  oil-cakes,  peas,  beans,  soya 
beans,  etc.,  are  all  rich  in  albuminoids ;  flax  seed, 
cotton  seed,  soya  beans,  and  rape  seed  are  rich  in  oil ; 
while  wheat,  barley,  oats,  maize,  and  rice  are  exceed- 

1  As  the  protein  in  concentrates  consists  largely  of  albu- 
minoids, the  common  term  "albuminoids"  will  be  employed  in 
dealing  with  concentrates. 


ingly  rich  in  carbohydrates.  Very  often  we  find  that 
foods  rich  in  oil  are  also  rich  in  albuminoids ;  e.g., 
linseed  and  decorticated  cotton  cakes.  The  undecorti- 
cated  cotton  cakes,  brewers'  grains,  etc.,  although 
fairly  rich  in  albuminoids  and  oil,  possess  a  consider- 
able percentage  of  fibre,  which  decreases  their  value 
to  some  extent  for  fattening  purposes.  In  this  mode 
of  subdivision,  interesting  points  are  revealed  with 
regard  to  the  seeds  from  different  natural  orders  of 
plants ;  e.g.,  leguminous  seeds  (pulse  grains)  are  rich 
in  albuminoids  and  poor  in  oil.  Cereal  grains  are 
exceedingly  rich  in  carbohydrates.  (See  Table,  pp. 


With  these  general  remarks  we  will  now  proceed  to 

examine  the  various  foods  and  feeding  stuffs  in  greater 

(a)  Concentrates  Rich  in  Oil. 

Plax  Seed,  or  Linseed. — This  is  the  seed  of  the 
flax  plant  (Linum  usitatissimuni),  and  is  grown  chiefly 
in  Canada,  South  America  (River  Plate),  Russia,  and 
India  (Calcutta)  for  its  seed,  which  is  extremely  rich 
in  oil  (37  per  cent.)  and  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids 
(20  per  cent.).  The  composition,  however,  varies 
according  to  the  climate  in  which  it  is  produced  ;  e.g., 
warmer  climates  like  India  appear  to  produce  seeds 
with  a  higher  percentage  of  oil,  while  in  colder  climates 
(America)  the  oil  content  is  somewhat  less.  Russian 
seed  is  apt  to  contain  rape  or  other  weed  seeds.  In 
Ireland  the  plant  has  been  grown  largely  for  its  fibre, 
but  it  is  the  seed  which  most  concerns  us  at  present. 

Approximately  half  a  million  tons  of  flax  seed  are 
imported  into  this  country  annually,  primarily  for  the 
extraction  of  linseed  oil,  which  is  used  so  largely  for 


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the  manufacture  of  linoleum,  and  paint,  for  drenching 
cattle,  or  for  feeding  with  chaff  and  meals  to  horses  as  a 
laxative.  It  has  also  the  effect  of  enabling  horses,  etc., 
to  cast  their  coats  in  late  winter  or  spring  much  more 

Linseed  meal  is  produced  by  grinding  flax  seed, 
and  is  a  favourite  food  for  young  calves,  which  are 
having  a  part  of  their  milk  ration  substituted  by  rneals. 
It  has  a  composition  rather  similar  to  that  of  milk, 
is  very  digestible,  and  is  probably  the  safest  milk 
substitute  that  can  be  used  for  young  calves.  The 
seeds  should  be  ground  in  such  a  way  as  to  bruise  the 
husk  with  the  minimum  amount  of  crushing  of  the 
kernel,  otherwise  oil  will  be  lost  in  the  grinding. 
The  bushel  weight  of  good  flax  seed  is  52  to  56  Ibs. 

Oil  Extraction. — The  seed  is  first  of  all  screened 
to  remove  impurities,  and  in  many  cases  is  led  past 
powerful  magnets,  which  remove  any  pieces  of  metal 
that  may  have  found  their  way  into  the  seed.  It  is 
then  ground  to  a  meal  with  steel  rollers,  and  conveyed 
to  a  receptacle  or  kettle,  where  it  is  heated  to  about 
1 60°  F.  with  steam.  This  makes  the  oil  thinner  and 
facilitates  its  extraction.  The  heated  meal  is  admitted 
into  a  movable,  bottomless  iron  box,  which  is  slided 
forward  and  backward  over  a  shallow  rectangular  mould, 
beneath  which  is  placed  a  long  piece  of  sacking  which  is 
a  little  wider  than  the  cake.  One  forward  and  backward 
sweep  of  the  box  fills  the  mould  with  meal.  A  low 
pressure  is  applied  to  bring  the  meal  together  into  the 
cake  form,  so  that,  after  the  ends  of  this  narrow  piece  of 
sacking  have  been  turned  over  the  cake,  it  is  completely 
surrounded  and  can  be  transferred  to  the  oil  press,  where 
there  are,  as  a  rule,  four  tiers  of  cakes  to  each  mould,  so 
as  to  admit  of  one  tier  being  filled  and  the  other  three 





[Photos  ly  Author. 

Cotton  Seed?. 


[To  face  p.  4f>. 


being  left  in  the  press  at  varying  stages  of  oil 

For  cakes  with  8  per  cent,  of  oil,  it  takes  approxi- 
mately five  minutes  to  fill  a  tier  of  cakes  ready  for 
pressing,  then  five  minutes  under  low  pressure  and 
thirty  minutes  under  high  pressure  (2  tons  per  square 
inch)  will  complete  the  oil  extraction.  The  cakes 
are  now  taken  out,  their  rough  edges  trimmed  by 
machinery,  and  after  being  cooled  are  ready  for  sale. 

When  12  per  cent,  oil  is  left  in  the  cakes,  the  time 
under  low  pressure  is  extended  and  that  under  high 
pressure  reduced.  If,  however,  16  per  cent,  oil  is 
required  in  the  cake,  the  oil  may  be  extracted  entirely 
under  low  pressure.  A  slightly  lower  temperature 
may  also  be  employed  in  the  kettle  for  the  meal  before 

The  cakes  vary  slightly  in  weight,  but  will  run  about 
190  cakes  to  the  ton  ;  i.e.,  12  Ibs.  each. 

Cotton  Seed. — This  is  grown  chiefly  in  the  tropics 
—viz.,  Egypt,  India  (Bombay),  United  States,  South 
America  (Brazil),  Salonica,  etc. — and  consists  of  the 
seed  of  the  cotton  plant  (Gossypium).  The  seeds  have  a 
considerable  amount  of  cotton  attached,  which  is  doubt- 
less intended  by  nature  to  aid  their  distribution  by  wind. 
It  is  usual  for  the  cotton-grower,  after  collecting  the 
seed,  to  send  it  to  the  ginning  factory,  where  the  cotton 
lint  is  removed.  It  is  then  found  that  the  seed  has  a 
hard,  brownish  husk,  with  a  whitish  or  greyish  kernel 
which  is  exceedingly  rich  in  oil.  The  percentage, 
however,  varies  according  to  the  country  of  origin. 
Egyptian  seed  may  contain  about  24  per  cent,  oil, 
while  the  oil  in  American  seed  may  be  about  20  per 
cent,  Bombay  less  still  (17  per  cent). 

The  seeds  also  differ  in  external  appearance ;  e.g., 



Brazilian  is  probably  the  largest  seed  and  can  be  obtained 
practically  free  from  cotton  lint.  Egyptian  seed  is  com- 
paratively large,  with  very  little  cotton  lint  adhering  to 
the  narrow  end  of  the  seed.  Salonica  seed  is  somewhat 
smaller,  but  some  of  the  seeds  are  covered  with  cotton 
lint,  which  prevents  one  seeing  the  colour  of  the  husk. 
Bombay  seed  is  a  comparatively  small  seed,  and  the 
seeds  are  completely  covered  with  cotton  lint,  with  the 
result  that  they  look  like  small  balls  of  cotton. 

In  America,  and  to  some  extent  in  this  country, 
solvents  such  as  naphtha,  benzene,  etc.,  are  used  to 
extract  the  oil  instead  of  pressure,  with  the  result  that 
a  larger  amount  of  oil  is  extracted.  In  some  cases 
both  solvents  and  pressure  may  be  used.  The 
residual  cake  contains  a  smaller  percentage  of  oil,  but 
a  correspondingly  higher  percentage  of  albuminoids. 
Generally  speaking,  the  poorer  a  cake  is  in  oil,  the 
harder  it  will  be. 

The  extracted  oil  is  of  a  pale  yellowish  colour,  and 
possesses  a  pleasant  flavour.  At  present  it  is  largely 
used  for  the  manufacture  of  soap,  lubricating  oils,  and 
in  one  or  two  cases  as  a  cream  substitute  for  calves. 
It  differs  from  linseed  oil  in  being  a  "non-drying"  oil. 
During  this  process  of  oil  extraction  the  leathery  husk 
may  be  screened  out,  when  the  residue  cake  obtained 
is  decorticated  or  "  dehusked "  cotton  cake,  as  in  the 
case  of  American  seed.  The  Bombay  and  often  the 
Egyptian  seed,  are  not  usually  decorticated,  hence  the 
resulting  cake  residue  is  called  undecorticated. 

The  process  of  oil  extraction  is  very  similar  to  that 
employed  for  linseed,  but  the  meal  in  the  kettle  requires 
to  be  heated  to  a  higher  temperature,  to  facilitate  the 
extraction  of  oil.  Further,  the  hulls  of  cotton  seeds 
are  very  hard  and  indigestible,  consequently  they  require 


a  second  grinding  before  the  hulls  are  sufficiently  fine 
for  feeding  purposes.  This  second  grinding  is  done  by 
a  pair  of  very  heavy  millstones,  placed  in  a  vertical 
position  so  as  to  concentrate  the  weight  on  a  small  part 
of  the  rim.  These  stones  then  revolve  round  a  central 
pivot  in  a  circular  trough.  The  advantage  of  stones 
revolving  horizontally  and  vertically  at  the  same  time 
is,  that  they  grind  as  well  as  roll  or  crush  the  seed. 

The  cakes  are  slightly  heavier  than  linseed  cakes, 
and  run  about  160  to  the  ton  with  Egyptian  cakes 
containing  5  per  cent,  oil,  and  150  in  Bombay  cakes 
containing  4^  per  cent.  oil. 

Soya  Beans. — The  leguminous  plant  called  soya 
bean  (Glycine  hispida)  is  largely  grown  in  Manchuria, 
Northern  China,  Japan,  America,  etc.,  and  produces 
seeds  in  pods  about  the  size  of  an  ordinary  pea.  The 
colour  of  these  seeds  is  generally  yellow.  They  con- 
tain 16  to  20  per  cent,  of  oil,  and  on  this  account 
are  not  largely  fed  to  stock  without  having  a  part  of 
the  oil  extracted.  If  the  pure  seed  is  fed  to  stock,  it 
should  be  mixed  with  foods  which  are  rich  in  carbo- 
hydrates, such  as  maize  or  other  cereal  grains,  and 
only  up  to  the  extent  of  one  quarter  of  the  concentrates 

These  seeds  are  also  rich  in  albuminoids  (36  per 
cent.).  The  nutrients  are  very  digestible. 

Hemp  Seed  (Cannabis  sativa). — This  is  a  small 
whitish  seed,  very  rich  in  oil  (33  per  cent.),  moderately 
rich  in  albuminoids  (16  per  cent),  poor  in  carbohydrates 
(ij  per  cent),  and  very  low  in  fibre  (2  per  cent).  The 
nutrients  are  also  very  digestible.  The  residue  after 
the  oil  has  been  expressed  should  only  be  fed  to  cattle, 
and  even  then  in  small  quantities  at  a  time. 

Ground-nut,  or  Pea-nut   (Arachis   hypogoeci). — The 


ground-nut  is  grown  largely  in  North  America.  It  is 
also  called  earth-nut  and  monkey-nut.  The  plant  is 
remarkable  for  the  fact  that  after  fertilisation  of  the 
flower,  the  flower-stalk  pushes  the  fruit  into  the  ground, 
where  it  ripens.  The  fruit  consists  of  a  sausage-shaped, 
straw-coloured  husk  or  pod  about  an  inch  long,  with 
two  seeds  or  pea-nuts  enclosed.  These  pea-nuts  are 
rich  in  oil  (41  per  cent),  and  on  this  account  are  utilised 
as  a  source  of  oil. 

Sunflower  Seed  (Helianthus  annuus}. — The  sun- 
flower seed  is  largely  imported  from  Russia,  and 
contains  approximately  30  per  cent,  oil ;  hence  the  oil 
is  often  extracted.  The  seed  is  sometimes  fed  to 

Rape  Seed. — This  is  the  seed  from  rape,  and  comes 
chiefly  from  Russia,  Germany,  Austria  Hungary,  and 
East  India,  where  it  is  grown  on  account  of  its  richness 
in  oil. 

The  seed  contains  35  to  45  per  cent.  oil.  It  is  apt 
to  contain  mustard  seed,  which  may  cause  harm  to  live 
stock  if  present  in  quantity.  It  may  also  contain 
considerable  quantities  of  sand. 

The  expressed  oil  is  used  very  largely  for  lubricating 
machinery,  and  the  residual  cake  is  rape  cake. 

Kapok  Seeds. — These  seeds  are  obtained  from 
a  tropical  plant  called  Eriodendron  anfractuosum, 
which  is  related  to  the  cotton  plant.  It  is  largely 
grown  in  Java,  Sumatra,  and  the  Philippine  Islands,  and 
to  a  small  extent  in  India,  Ceylon,  and  Central 

The  seeds  contain  24  to  26  per  cent,  oil,  22  to  24 
per  cent,  albuminoids,  and  20  to  22  per  cent,  fibre. 
They  are  peculiarly-shaped  seeds,  dark  in  colour,  and 
approximately  the  size  of  vetches.  The  narrow  end  of 


the  seed  is  formed  by  a  piece  of  husk  being  apparently 
superimposed  on  the  husk  which  is  adjacent  to  the 
kernel,  forming  a  kind  of  blister,  and  this  part  of  the 
husk  can  be  easily  removed  without  exposing  the  kernel. 
The  husk  is  thick,  horny,  and  indigestible. 

Palm-nut  Kernels  are  also  very  rich  in  oil  (49  per 
cent),  moderately  rich  in  carbohydrates  (27  per  cent), 
with  only  a  low  percentage  of  albuminoids  (8  per  cent). 
The  nutrients  are  very  digestible.  The  residue  is  called 
palm-nut  cake. 

Cocoa-nut  Kernels. — Very  similar  to  palm-nut ; 
residue  forms  cocoa-nut  cake. 

(b)   Oil-cakes — Low  in  Fibre. 

The  oil-cakes  are  residues  which  are  obtained  chiefly 
from  the  various  oil  seeds  after  they  have  been  ground 
to  a  meal,  cooked,  and  subjected  to  pressure  or  treat- 
ment by  solvents  in  order  to  extract  the  major  part  of 
the  oil.  The  name  of  the  cake  is  derived  from  the 
particular  kind  of  seed  used  in  its  manufacture ;  e.g., 
linseed  cake,  cotton-seed  cake,  cocoa-nut  cake,  etc. 

These  oil-cakes  are,  from  a  feeding  point  of  view, 
still  very  rich  in  oil.  In  fact,  speaking  generally,  those 
cakes  with  more  than  12  per  cent,  of  oil  are  apt  to  be  too 
laxative  for  cattle  if  4  Ibs.  per  head  per  day  is 
exceeded.  Oil-cakes  are  at  the  same  time  very  rich  in 
albuminoids,  and  exceedingly  valuable  for  blending 
with  bulky  fodders  (hay  and  straw),  which  are  generally 
poor  in  both  oil  and  albuminoids,  the  effect  being  to 
raise  the  character  of  the  whole  diet. 

The  quality  generally  depends  on  the  country  of 
origin  of  the  seed,  its  purity,  and  the  manner  in  which 
the  oil  has  been  extracted.  Good  oil-cakes  should  be 


made  from  sound  seed  that  has  been  well  screened  to 

: e ~  :  e  ir. y  =  ir.  ~  T .-.  e  : i  -: •  5  ?-.\-.-  : e  i :  . e i i :  if  :.  e : 
cent,  pure,  and  should  not  contain  more  than  2  per 
:er.t  rir  :  At  the  5  irr.t  t.rr.e  tr.e  :i-:tr  :  ~. :  _.  :  :t  free 
from  impurities  that  are  injurious  to  stock.  Further,  it 
is  most  important  *fa*t  the  ra)p»^  5§>n^|]d  be  free  from 
otherwise  digestive  troubles  may  arise 
they  are  fed  to  stock. 
The  manure  made  from  animals  fed  on  oil-cakes  is 

"—*•"'"    —  -  -  —     -—     --    77I"""~~     i~~Z.     "  *  71  —  T   77"  ^  77. '_!  ^ "  i.      ~1""5*   *   •  —  —  -  c 

consequently  in  ascertaining  the   full  value  of 
cakes,  credit  must  be  given  for  the 
These  cakes  are    ground  down 

recueitec    zy  tne   pur 

-"^Ll^nH      .177.  S*^^"—      C-^-  *7  » , 

(yellow  meal),  etc. 

practice  cakes  may  often  be  obtained  giving  a  higher 
or  a  lower  analysis,  The  words  "  about  *  and  w  approxi- 
mate" are  not  wiitleu  with  cveiy  analysis,  as  it  is  quite 
this  is  understood  by  the  reader. 

are  greyish  brown  in  colour.    The 
three  chief  kinds  DB  the  ziirket  ire 

The  Zlrrhi."  :i-:t-  :i:".  :".  it  ihtLir.ei 
95  to  98  per  cent,  pure,  and  with  8  to  16  per  cent 
of  oil  Generally  speaking,  cakes  rich  in  oil  are 
fairly  soft  in  lejOuie,  while  those  low  in  oil  are 

;c~c^ri.::ve".y    hi.r-        Three 

^    Oil,    i  p-ir  ccr.i  :    alb-niir.cids.  li  oer 
(f)     .      12  ,  ,  26 



"  American  "  cakes  are  poor  in  oil  (less  than  8  per 
cent),  and  inclined  to  be  hard.     They   are   somewhat 
richer  in  albuminoids  than  home-made  cakes. 
The   "  Russian "   cakes   are   often    rich   in   oil,  and 
may  contain   12  percenter  more.     At  the  same  time 

Jthey  are  liable  to  contain  weed  seeds  and  other  im- 
Linseed  cakes  are  also  fairly  rich  in  carbohydrates 
(28  per  cent),  and  generally  low  in  fibre  (8  per  cent). 
When  the  cake  is  ground  into  a  meal  it  is  called  "  ground 
linseed  cake." 

It  is  probably  the  most  digestible  and  most  valuble 
of  the  oil-cakes  for  feeding  purposes,  seeing  it  can 
be  fed  to  very  young  calves  and  lambs  without 

For  fattening  cattle  it  stands  unrivalled  in  giving 
the  desired  "bloom"  or  "finish"  and  touch.  It  gives 
a  slightly  softer  fat,  which  in  cattle  and  sheep  is  an 
advantage  ;  with  pigs,  however,  this  is  a  disadvantage. 

When  fed  to  dairy  cattle  it  should  only  form  a 
small  proportion  of  the  concentrated  foods,  otherwise 
the  butter  is  soft  and  it  very  soon  becomes  rancid. 

The  laxative  effect  of  linseed  cake  makes  it  especially 
valuable  for  blending  with  foods  of  the  oppositive 
tendency.  It  is  probably  the  most  expensive  concen- 
trate per  "food  unit"  (see  also  p.  120). 

A  good  sample  of  linseed  cake  should  possess  the 
following  characters : — 

(a)  Nice  fresh  greyish  brown  colour;  free  from 
mouldiness  externally  or  any  musty  smell 

(£)  When  crushed  between  the  teeth,  it  should  be 
free  from  grittiness  or  any  bitter  flavour. 

(c)  The  surface  and  freshly  broken  edge  of  the  cake 


should  be  examined  to  see  if  the  "  husks "  or 
"  hulls "  of  any  foreign  seeds  are  visible,  e.g., 
polygonum,  corncockle,  or  spurrey. 
(d)  When  ground  linseed  cake  is  made  into  a  gruel 
with  I  gallon  boiling  water  to  2  Ibs.  meal, 
it  should  swell  up  into  a  thick  jelly.  If  oil 
has  been  extracted  with  solvents,  the  meal  may 
not  swell  up  into  a  jelly  at  all. 

Decorticated  Cotton  Cake  is  bright  yellow  in  colour. 
It  is  usually  made  from  American  cotton  seed,  and 
has  the  hulls  removed  before  the  oil  is  extracted  from 
the  kernel;  hence  the  cake  has  only  traces  of  "hulls" 
present,  and  is  called  "  decorticated  "  (dehusked)  cotton 
cake.  The  removal  of  the  black  hulls  gives  the  cake 
the  nice  yellow  colour  of  the  kernel. 

This  cake  is  exceedingly  rich  in  albuminoids  (41  per 
cent).  The  oil  may  vary  from  7  to  14  per  cent.,  but 
8  per  cent,  is  the  most  usual.  It  is  moderately  rich 
in  carbohydrates  (26  per  cent.)  and  low  in  fibre  (8 
per  cent.). 

Occasionally  hard  lumps  or  "  knots "  are  found  in 
the  cakes,  especially  those  low  in  oil,  due  to  the  meal 
collecting  into  balls  while  it  is  being  steamed  in  the 
kettle ;  the  subsequent  pressure  makes  them  into  small 
hard  balls  or  "  knots."  Such  cakes  should  be  avoided. 
When  the  cake  is  ground  into  a  meal,  the  so-called 
"  yellow  meal "  is  obtained. 

This  cake  is  far  too  rich  in  albuminoids  to  be  fed 
alone,  and  should  generally  be  blended  with  other 
concentrates  which  are  poor  in  oil  and  albuminoids,  but 
exceptionally  rich  in  carbohydrates  such  as  maize, 
barley  meal,  etc.  It  can  be  used  for  fattening  bullocks 
up  to  4  Ibs.  per  head  per  day,  as  part  of  the  concentrate 




i.  Locust  Beans  (p.  76). 
I  A.  Seeds  of  Locust  Bean. 

[Photo  by  Author. 

2.  Earth-  or  Ground-nuts. 
2 A.  Seeds  of  Earth-nut. 

[Between  pp.  56,  57. 


ration,  or  for  dairy  cows,  seeing  it  improves  the  firm- 
ness and  keeping  qualities  of  the  butter,  although  the 
butter  may  be  slightly  pale  in  colour. 

It  should  be  fed  very  carefully,  if  at  all,  to  young 
cattle  or  pigs,  as  it  may  form  into  balls  in  the  stomach 
and  cause  harm. 

The  manure  resulting  from  the  feeding  of  this  cake 
is  very  valuable  (see  p.  124). 

When  purchasing  decorticated  cotton  cakes,  one 
should  generally  avoid  cakes  with  only  5  to  6  per  cent, 
oil  (usual  8  to  10  per  cent),  as  well  as  those  which  contain 
large  amounts  of  fibre,  say  16  to  20  per  cent,  (usual,  8 
per  cent.). 

Ground-nut  or  Earth-nut  Cakes  are  rather  coarse 
in  texture  and  greyish  brown  in  colour,  coming  about 
halfway  between  the  colour  of  Egyptian  cotton  cake 
and  that  of  linseed  cake.  The  cake  has  a  pleasant 
taste,  and  stock  like  it. 

The  whole  nut  (pod  and  seeds)  may  be  ground 
up  and  made  into  cakes,  when  one  gets  "undecorti- 
cated  ground-nut  cake,"  but  the  cake  used  in  this 
country  is  usually  made  from  the  seeds  or  nuts  after 
the  pod  has  been  removed,  and  is  called  "  decorticated 
ground-nut  cake." 

The  "  decorticated  "  cake  is  very  rich  in  albuminoids, 
as  the  following  analysis  shows  : — Albuminoids,  46  per 
cent. ;  oil,  10  per  cent. ;  carbohydrates,  23  per  cent. ; 
fibre,  5  per  cent.  The  composition  is  very  similar 
to  that  of  decorticated  cotton  cake,  but  slightly  more 
digestible,  and  may  be  used  in  the  same  way  and  in 
the  same  proportions. 

Soya  Bean  Cake. — This  cake  is  greyish  coloured,  with 
a  taste  very  much  like  pea  meal,  and  is  exceptionally 
rich  in  albuminoids  (43  per  cent).  At  the  same  time 


it  contains  6  per  cent,  of  oil,  28  per  cent,  of  carbo- 
hydrates, and  4  per  cent,  fibre. 

It  is  very  palatable  and  digestible,  and  stock  like  it. 
The  cake  is  so  rich  in  albuminoids  that  it  is  scarcely 
suitable  or  wise  to  feed  it  as  the  only  concentrate,  and 
is  much  better  mixed  with  foods  very  rich  in  carbo- 
hydrates, e.g.,  cereal  grains.  It  is  used  in  lamb  foods, 
for  dairy  cows  and  fattening  bullocks,  and  gives  a  good 
quality  of  flesh.  There  is  no  bad  effect  on  dairy  produce 
when  it  is  fed  to  milking  cows.  It  may  be  fed  with  other 
concentrates  to  the  extent  of  4  Ibs.  per  head  per  day 
to  dairy  cows  or  fattening  cattle. 

Para  Rubber  Seed  Cake. — Para  rubber  seeds  are 
now  available  in  considerable  quantity,  and  are 
being  manufactured  into  cakes  for  feeding  purposes. 
These  cakes  are  light  brown  in  colour  and  very  friable, 
no  doubt  due  to  their  richness  in  oil.  Its  composition, 
according  to  Auld,  is  as  follows: — Albuminoids,  29-84  per 
cent.;  oil,  20-11  per  cent;  carbohydrates,  33-08  per 
cent. ;  fibre,  3- 1 5  per  cent. 

Its  digestibility  was  determined  by  Auld  at  Wye 
College  with  sheep,  when  all  the  nutrients  showed  over 
90  per  cent,  digestibility  : — Albuminoids,  90-1  per  cent.; 
carbohydrates, 95-3  percent.;  oil, 97-2  percent.;  and  fibre 
apparently  all  digested ;  hence  this  cake  has  a  very 
high  digestibility. 

Maize  Germ  Cake. — Has  a  light  grey  colour,  with 
the  flavour  of  maize.  The  germ  is  removed  from  maize 
by  the  roller-mill  process  in  the  same  way  as  is 
done  at  flour-mills.  The  germ  being  rich  in  oil  and 
other  nutrients,  is  prized  as  a  food  for  stock.  For 
convenience  it  is  pressed  into  cakes. 

The  cakes,  which  are  very  digestible,  contain : 
albuminoids,  21  per  cent.;  oil,  9  per  cent;  carbo- 
hydrates, 44  per  cent ;  fibre,  9  per  cent. 


This  is  an  excellent  food  for  dairy  cows,  and  may  form 
a  half  to  two-thirds  of  the  concentrated  part  of  ration. 

Sesame  Cake. — Manufactured  from  seeds  of  the 
sesame  plant.  It  contains  40  per  cent,  albuminoids,  1 2  per 
cent,  oil,  20  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  7  per  cent,  fibre. 
The  albuminoids  and  oil  are  largely  digestible,  but  only 
about  half  the  carbohydrates  and  one-third  of  the  fibre. 

(c)  Oil-cakes — Fairly  High  in  Fibre. 

Cocoa-nut  Cake. — Has  a  uniform  brown  colour  with 
the  cocoa-nut  smell. 

The  composition  shows :  albuminoids,  22  per  cent. ; 
oil,  10  per  cent. ;  carbohydrates,  36  per  cent. ;  and  fibre, 
1 5  per  cent.  These  cakes  do  not  keep  very  well  as  the 
oil  soon  becomes  rancid,  producing  acidity. 

It  is  rather  high  in  fibre,  but  the  fibre  appears  to 
be  fairly  digestible  and  blends  well  with  pulse  and  cereal 

The  cake  is  very  suitable  for  butter  and  milk 
production,  and  can  be  used  to  replace  roots,  like  palm- 
kernal  cake  (see  below). 

Coprah  Cake. — This  is  practically  the  same  thing 
as  the  cocoa-nut  cake  above,  but  is  made  from  the 
dried  kernels  of  the  cocoa-nut,  called,  in  commerce, 
"  coprah."  The  coprah  is  chiefly  exported  from  the 
islands  of  South  Pacific  to  this  country,  primarily  for 
the  oil  it  contains. 

Palm-kernel  or  Palm-nut  Cake. — Is  a  light  grey 
colour  with  small  dark  specks  in  it,  due  to  the  palm 
kernel  having  a  brown  and  fibrous  outer  part  while  the 
remaining  part  is  white.  When  the  nuts  are  ground 
up  and  pressed,  it  gives  the  cake  a  speckled  appearance. 
It  has  a  similar  smell  to  that  of  cocoa-nut. 


The  cakes  contain  17  per  cent,  albuminoids,  10  per 
cent,  oil,  36  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  22  per  cent. 

These  cakes  do  not  keep  very  well,  as  the  oil  is  apt  to 
go  rancid.  When  fresh,  they  are  a  splendid  food  for  all 
classes  of  stock,  and  fairly  digestible.  The  cake  has  a 
laxative  effect,  and  on  this  account  is  a  useful  substitute 
for  roots  when  they  are  scarce.  Dairy  cows  like  it,  and 
it  gives  a  firm  and  good  flavoured  butter,  but  should 
not  constitute  more  than  half  the  ration  (4  Ibs.) 

Bean  or  pea  meal  goes  well  with  it,  and  this  com- 
bination is  very  suitable  for  pig-feeding,  seeing  that  it 
gives  a  firm  bacon.  Being  high  in  fibre,  concentrates 
blended  with  it  should  be  low  in  this  constituent,  and 
not  too  rich  in  oil. 

Rape  Cakes. — Generally  dark  brown  in  colour,  made 
up  in  thick,  flat,  circular  cakes.  They  are  often  yellow- 
ish on  the  outer  surface,  due  to  the  presence  of  mustard 
seed  which  has  found  its  way  into  the  rape  seed ;  such 
cakes  have  a  biting  taste.  In  fact,  the  cakes  generally 
are  not  attractive  to  stock. 

The  composition  is  good :  albuminoids,  32  per 
cent. ;  oil,  10  per  cent. ;  carbohydrates,  29  per  cent. ; 
fibre,  1 1  per  cent. 

These  cakes  are  apt  to  contain  considerable 
quantities  of  sand,  and  do  not  keep  too  well.  . 

When  fed  to  dairy  cattle  they  are  supposed  to  give 
a  hard  butter,  but  may  give  it  a  turnipy  flavour. 
Probably  their  greatest  use  is  for  including  in  com- 
pound cakes,  as  the  undesirable  flavour  can  be  overcome 
by  spices,  etc. 

Undecorticated  Cotton  Cakes  vary  from  dull  brown 
in  colour  (Bombay)  to  a  yellowish  colour  (Egyptian). 
These  include  the  hulls  as  well  as  the  kernels  of  the 


cotton  seeds,  hence  the  name.  The  hulls  are  black, 
difficult  to  digest,  and  can  be  readily  seen  in  the  cake 
with  the  naked  eye,  hence  the  cake  has  a  coarser 
appearance  altogether  than  the  undecorticated  cotton 
cake.  The  black  hulls  have  an  astringent  action,  which 
may  be  an  advantage  when  these  cakes  are  fed  along 
with  immature  roots,  etc.,  which  tend  to  scour  animals. 

The  cakes  also  vary  in  appearance,  according  to  the 
amount  of  cotton  lint  that  is  left  on  the  seed  after 
ginning,  and  a  few  years  ago  feeders  generally  were 
afraid  to  give  cakes  containing  a  large  amount  of  this 
cotton  lint  to  their  stock.  Experience  has  now  shown 
that  these  fears  need  not  be  entertained  so  long  as 
the  cakes  are  fed  with  ordinary  caution. 

The  "  Egyptian  cotton  cake "  contains  very  little 
cotton  lint,  and  is  yellowish  in  colour,  with  the  dark 
brown  husks  interspersed  throughout  the  cake.  It 
contains  5  to  6  per  cent,  oil,  22  per  cent,  albuminoids, 
34  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  while  the  percentage  of 
fibre  is  as  high  as  20  per  cent.  It  is  a  most  useful 
concentrate  for  fattening  cattle,  especially  in  the  earlier 
stages,  and  may  be  given  up  to  6  Ibs.  per  head  per  day. 
For  milking  cows,  it  gives  a  pale  but  firm  butter. 
Sheep  being  fattened  on  roots  do  well  with  it  up  to 
i  Ib.  per  head  per  day,  but  it  should  be  fed  carefully 
and  only  in  very  small  quantities  to  young  stock,  as 
it  is  rather  difficult  to  digest,  seeing  that  only  three- 
quarters  of  the  albuminoids,  half  of  the  carbohydrates, 
and  one-eighth  of  the  fibre  are  digestible. 

The  Bombay  cotton  cake  differs  from  the  Egyptian 
in  its  distinctly  woolly  appearance,  caused  by  the 
cotton  lint  adhering  to  the  seed  after  ginning.  It  is 
not  quite  so  rich  in  albuminoids  (19  per  cent.)  or  oil 
(4  to  5  per  cent.),  and  has  in  addition  a  very 


"astringent"  action.  This  is  particularly  valuable 
when  cattle  or  sheep  are  receiving  immature  roots  in 
the  autumn,  or  young  grass  in  the  spring,  as  this  cake 
counteracts  the  tendency  to  scour.  Four  to  6  Ibs.  per 
day  is  generally  sufficient  for  a  two-year-old  bullock, 
and  J  lb.,  as  part  of  the  ration,  for  a  "  teg  "  or  "  hogg." 

When  purchasing  undecorticated  cotton  cakes,  one 
should  avoid  to  a  large  extent  those  which  are  very 
hard  and  show  excessive  coarseness  of  the  husk.  It 
is  also  a  good  plan  to  "nut"  the  cakes  a  few  days 
before  they  are  fed,  as  they  absorb  moisture  and 
become  very  much  softer.  Nails,  if  present,  are  often 
detected  in  this  manner  before  the  cattle  get  an 
opportunity  of  swallowing  them. 

Kapok  Cakes. — These  cakes  are  obtained  after  the 
seeds  have  been  ground,  pressed,  and  made  into  cakes 
in  the  usual  way. 

The  cake  contains  about  26  per  cent,  albuminoids, 
6  per  cent,  fat,  20  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  with  28 
per  cent,  fibre.  The  high  percentage  of  fibre  is  due 
to  the  seeds  having  very  thick,  hard  hulls.  The  fat 
is  nearly  all  digestible,  three-quarters  of  the  albuminoids, 
only  half  the  carbohydrates,  and  one-fifth  of  the  fibre. 

Sunflower  Cake. — This  cake  is  not  much  used  in 
this  country,  although  on  the  European  continent  it 
is  fed  to  dairy  cattle.  It  has  a  fairly  good  composition, 
excepting  it  is  high  in  fibre,  as  will  be  seen  below : 
albuminoids,  19  per  cent.;  oil,  J\  per  cent;  carbo- 
hydrates, 30  per  cent. ;  fibre,  30  per  cent. 

It  is  considered  to  counteract  to  a  large  extent  the 
tallowy  flavour  of  the  fat  of  bullocks  and  sheep. 

Hemp  Cake. — Residue  from  hemp  seeds  after  oil 
extraction.  The  extraction  of  oil  is  often  made  at  a 
high  temperature,  which  sometimes  causes  the  cakes 


to  be  burnt.  They  may  also  be  acid  in  character,  and 
this  means  that  they  should  be  very  carefully  fed  to 
cattle,  and  not  at  all  to  horses  and  sheep. 

The  cakes  contain:  albuminoids,  31  per  cent;  oil, 
10  per  cent;  carbohydrates,  18  per  cent;  fibre,  20 
per  cent. 

As  this  cake  is  poor  in  carbohydrates,  high  in  fibre, 
and  not  very  digestible,  it  should  be  fed  in  combination 
with  easily  digestible  foods,  rich  in  carbohydrates,  such 
as  maize. 

(<f)  Compound  Cakes. 

Thousands  of  tons  of  cakes  which  have  been 
compounded  or  mixed  from  various  sources  are  fed  to 
farm  live  stock  each  year. 

Frequently  some  material,  such  as  ground  cotton 
cakes,  rape  cakes,  cocoa-nut  cakes,  etc.,  are  taken  as 
a  basis,  and  along  with  this  may  be  blended  ground 
cereal  grains,  rice  meal,  bran,  dried  grains,  etc.,  till  the 
desired  composition  is  obtained. 

The  mixed  food  is  made  palatable  and  appetising 
by  the  addition  of  condimental  foods  or  spices,  such  as 
fenugreek,  aniseed,  etc.,  and  sweetened  with  locust-bean 
meal  or  treacle.  In  this  way,  foods  like  rape  cake, 
which  would  not  otherwise  be  eaten  by  stock,  are 
readily  devoured  when  compounded  with  other  foods. 

Considerable  care  is  required  in  purchasing  com- 
pound cakes,  as  they  furnish  a  ready  means  of  getting 
rid  of  musty,  faulty,  or  inferior  cakes,  warehouse  sweep- 
ings, etc. 


(e)  Leguminous  Seeds. 

The  chief  leguminous  seeds  or  pulse  grains  which 
are  grown  in  this  country  are  beans,  peas,  and  tares. 
They  are  all  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids  (beans  contain- 
ing 25  per  cent,  and  peas  23  per  cent),  but  are  very 
poor  in  oil  (ij  per  cent).  In  carbohydrates,  peas  have 
54  per  cent  and  beans  48  per  cent  Fibre  is  low 
(6  to  7  per  cent).  The  following  foreign  leguminous 
seeds  deserve  special  mention  : — 

"Indian  Pea  or  Gram"  (Vigna  catjong]  is  about 
the  same  size  as  a  field  pea,  dull  greyish  coloured,  and 
peculiarly  shaped.  It  has  the  following  composition  : 
albuminoids,  18  per  cent.;  fat,  4  per  cent;  and  carbo- 
hydrates, 58  per  cent.  This  pea  is  becoming  increas- 
ingly popular  for  blending  with  other  foods  which  are 
rather  low  in  nutrient  constituents. 

Java  Beans  (Phaseolus  lunatus)  should  be  very  care- 
fully fed  to  stock,  because,  when  mixed  with  the  digestive 
juices,  prussic  acid  may  be  generated,  which  is  a  deadly 
poison.  The  same  thing  applies  to  gorse  seeds. 

Leguminous  seeds,  and  especially  beans,  are  apt 
to  produce  flatulency  (wind  on  the  stomach,  etc.),  if 
fed  carelessly  to  animals ;  on  this  account  they  should 
not  exceed,  say,  a  quarter  of  the  concentrates  fed. 
They  should  be  well  ground  and  mixed  with  bran  and 
chop  to  make  a  bulky  feed. 

To  the  feeder  these  foods  are  highly  nutritious,  and 
are  particularly  useful  for  mixing  with  bulky  rations  as 
well  as  concentrates  which  are  rich  in  oil.  For  horses 
doing  severe  work,  beans  and  peas  supply  them  with 
wonderful  staying  power  and  muscular  energy. 


1.  Linseed  (p.  44). 

2.  Fenugreek  Seed  (p.  76). 

3.  Aniseed  (p.  77). 

1.  English  Wheat. 

2.  Russian  Wheat. 

3.  Canadian  Wheat  (p.  67). 

[Photos  &j/  Author. 

Sunflower  Seed,  outside. 
Kapok  Seed,  inside  (p.  52). 

Soya  Beans,  outside  (p.  51). 
Indian  Pea,  it  aide  (p.  64\ 

Various  Seeds. 

[To  face  p.  64. 


(/)  Cereal  Grains. 
These  include  wheat,  barley,  oats,  rye,  maize.  They 
are  only  moderately  rich  in  albuminoids  (10  to  12  per 
cent),  but  very  rich  in  carbohydrates,  since  maize,  rye, 
and  wheat  contain  70  per  cent;  barley,  67  per  cent, 
and  oats,  57  per  cent.  The  carbohydrates  are  present 
largely  in  the  form  of  starch. 

Maize  and  oats  are  comparatively  rich  in  oil,  and  on 
this  account  are  rather  "heating"  foods  when  fed  to 
animals.  All  the  rest  are  poor  in  oil  (2  per  cent). 
The  fibre  is  very  low  (2  per  cent),  except  in  oats 
(10  per  cent)  and  barley  (5  per  cent). 

Rice,  dari,  and  millet  may  also  be  included  in  this 
group ;  the  first  two  can  be  taken  as  approximately 
equal  to  maize  in  composition,  except  that  they  are 
slightly  poorer  in  oil  (rice,  4  per  cent ;  dari,  3^  per 
cent),  while  millet  is  about  equal  to  oats. 

To  the  feeder  the  cereal  grains  are  almost  indispens- 
able for  mixing  with  foods  rich  in  oil  and  albuminoids 
and  poor  in  carbohydrates  (oil-cakes).  With  oil-cakes 
high  in  fibre,  maize  should  generally  be  used.  Oats 
are  specially  useful  for  all  classes  of  stock,  including 
calves.  Cereal  grains  may  form  a  very  large  proportion 
of  the  concentrated  food  in  the  ration  for  cattle,  when 
rapid  fattening  is  not  required.  For  pigs  they  are 
sufficient  by  themselves  for  fattening  purposes. 

(g)  Miscellaneous  Seeds. 

Acorns. — The  fruits  of  the  oak  tree  (Quercus}  are 
shed  on  the  ground  in  autumn,  when  they  may  cause 
acorn  poisoning  in  cattle.  Some  varieties  of  oak  are 
said  to  yield  more  poisonous  acorns  than  others. 



The  symptoms  of  acorn  poisoning  are : — "  Progressive 
wasting,  loss  of  appetite,  diarrhoea,  eyes  sunken,  sore 
places  inside  of  mouth,  in  fact  animal  has  a  peculiarly 
haggard  appearance.  The  temperature  does  not  rise 
above  normal,  and  is  often  below  the  normal  tempera- 
ture." See  Board  of  Agriculture  leaflet,  No.  13. 

Pigs  relish  the  acorns,  and  with  a  plentiful  supply 
soon  put  on  flesh.  The  flesh,  however,  is  apt  to  be  soft 
and  the  fat  oily. 

The  fresh  acorns  contain  about  2j  per  cent, 
albuminoids,  2  per  cent,  fat,  and  35  per  cent,  carbo- 
hydrates. When  dried,  the  amount  of  each  constituent 
runs  up  to  very  nearly  double  in  each  case.  The 
nutrients  are  very  digestible. 

Buckwheat  (Fagapyrum  esculentuvi). — Is  a  triangular 
seed  with  a  fibrous  coat.  It  is  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids 
(IT  per  cent.)  and  carbohydrates  (55  per  cent.),  but 
poor  in  oil  (2\  per  cent.)  and  high  in  fibre  (15  per  cent). 
Used  chiefly  for  poultry. 

(/i)  Wheat  By-products. 

In  the  production  of  "wheat  flour  "  the  wheat  grain 
is  divided  during  the  milling  process  as  follows: — 
(a)  flour ;  (6)  fine  middlings,  or  seconds ;  (c)  coarse 
middlings,  thirds,  or  sharps ;  (d)  bran.  The  last  three 
are  called  "  milling  offals." 

In  order  to  understand  milling  offals  better,  one 
should  know  something  of  the  structure  of  the  wheat 
grain  in  section.  The  two  diagrams  below  (p.  67), 
divide  the  grain  into  three  parts,  viz.:  (i)  seed  coat; 
(2)  aleurone  layer,  in  which  is  concentrated,  to  a 
large  extent,  the  gluten;  (3)  the  kernel,  which  is  a 
mass  of  cells  containing  starch.  Roughly  speaking,  the 
coarser  parts  of  the  seed  coat  with  part  of  the  aleurone 



layer  and  some  starch  cells  adhering,  form  the  bran. 
That  part  of  the  kernel  which  is  ground  sufficiently  fine 
gives  the  flour,  and  everything  between  the  flour  and 
the  bran  constitutes  the  middlings. 

Milling  Process. — British  wheats  may  be  divided 
into  red  wheats  and  white  wheats,  according  to  the 
colour  of  the  grain.  The  former  are  generally  harder, 
and  yield  a  flour  with  a  greater  "strength"  or 
gluten-content  than  the  latter;  but  the  white  wheats, 
and  to  a  smaller  extent  the  red  wheats,  excel  all 
foreign  wheats  in  giving  a  lovely  white  flour.  In 
exceptionally  hot  seasons  British  red  wheats  may 

Seed-coat             \ 
Aleurone  layer f 



Section  of  Wheat  Grain. 

possess  the  requisite  hardness  and  strength,  but  usually 
it  is  necessary  to  blend  them  with  foreign  wheats 
to  supply  these  two  characteristics  to  the  flour.  The 
advantages  of  so  doing  are  that  the  harder  wheats 
help  the  softer  wheats  to  grind  better,  and  the  resulting 
flour  gives  a  larger  number  of  loaves  per  sack. 

The  Hereford  Flour  Mills  were  recently  using  the 
following  blend,  consisting  of  Indian  wheat,  10  per  cent. ; 
Russian,  20  per  cent. ;  Manitoba,  20  per  cent,  English 
(red  and  white),  50  per  cent.  This  blend  would 
give  about  96  loaves  (quartern)  to  the  sack,  while 
average  English  flour  would  probably  not  yield  more 
than  90. 


The  blended  wheat  is  often  washed  and  afterwards 
dried  before  it  passes  on  to  the  series  of  roller-mills, 
consisting  of  about  five  in  number.  The  first  roller- 
mill  gives  a  coarse  "  break,"  the  second  somewhat  finer, 
while  the  last  gives  a  very  fine  "  break."  All  through 
the  process  the  kernel  is  being  separated  from  the  bran 
and  lighter  portions  of  the  grain  by  screening  and 
currents  of  air. 

Up  to  the  second  or  even  third  breaks,  the  broken 
pieces  of  kernel,  called  "  semolina,"  are  kept  separate 
from  the  rest  and  used  for  making  the  finest  flour,  as  a 
whiter  flour  is  obtained  from  the  semolina. 

The  flour  is  separated  from  the  middlings  and  bran 
by  "  silks,"  gauzes,  and  screens.  Flour  being  the  finest, 
passes  through  the  finest  silks ;  while  the  bran,  being 
coarsest,  stops  on  the  screens,  the  middlings  coming 
between  in  coarseness.  At  an  early  stage  the 
"semolina"  and  germ  are  separated  by  sieves  or 
gauzes,  the  latter  remaining  on  twenty  wires  to  the 
inch,  while  the  former  goes  through.  In  "  standard " 
flour  the  germ  was  added  to  the  flour.  It  is  usual, 
however,  to  include  the  germ  with  the  coarse  middlings 

In  the  roller-mill  process  65  to  75  per  cent,  of 
dressed  wheat  appears  as  flour,  about  14  to  20  per  cent, 
as  bran,  and  5  per  cent,  as  middlings.  The  flour  would 
be  graded  during  the  process  into  extra  superfine, 
30  per  cent;  superfine,  45  per  cent;  and  fine,  25  per 
cent.  Flour  contains  about  10  per  cent,  albuminoids,  75 
per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  I  per  cent,  fat 

Pine  Middlings  (Seconds'). — These  consist  of  the  finest 
portion  of  the  milling  offals,  and  contain  albuminoids,  15 
per  cent. ;  oil,  3 \  per  cent ;  carbohydrates,  62  per  cent ; 
and  fibre,  5  per  cent.  These  have  a  rather  "  binding  " 


tendency  when  fed  to  animals,  and  are  useful  for  feeding 
with  laxative  foods.  Ground  linseed  cake  (laxative)  and 
fine  middlings  (binding)  when  blended  together  make  a 
splendid  calf  meal. 

Coarse  Middlings  (Sharps  or  Thirds). — These  come 
between  bran  and  fine  middlings  in  fineness,  passing 
through  screens  with  say  eleven  wires  to  the  inch,  and 
remaining  on  twenty  to  twenty-two  to  the  inch.  They 
contain  the  very  fine  bran  and  any  flour  adhering  to 
same,  plus  the  germ.  Their  composition  would  be  about 
i  per  cent,  richer  in  oil,  and  5  per  cent,  poorer  in  carbo- 
hydrates, than  fine  middlings. 

Bran. — Bran  is  the  outer  skin  of  the  wheat,  and  often 
extends  as  deep  as  the  aleurone  layer,  carrying  with  it 
a  certain  amount  of  flour.  It  is  the  coarsest  part  of  the 
milling  offals,  and  is  retained  on  a  screen  with  eleven 
wires  to  the  inch.  Oftentimes  it  is  separated  into 
broad  bran  (over  six  wires  per  inch),  and  fine  bran 
(under  six  and  over  eleven  wires)  ;  the  former  command- 
ing 2Os.  to  303.  per  ton  more  than  the  latter.  The 
coarse  is  generally  used  for  horses  and  the  fine  for 

Bran  is  a  favourite  food  for  all  classes  of  live  stock. 
Being  bulky,  it  is  useful  for  mixing  with  highly  concen- 
trated foods  to  open  them  up.  When  made  into  a  mash 
with  hot  water,  and  fed  to  live  stock,  it  has  a  laxative 

It  contains  14  per  cent,  albuminoids,  4  per  cent, 
oil,  56  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  9  per  cent,  fibre. 
The  ash  is  rich  in  phosphates,  but  somewhat  poor  in 


(/)  Barley  By-products. 

Brewers  and  distillers  utilise  various  cereal  grains 
for  the  production  of  alcoholic  drinks — e.g.,  beer,  ale, 
etc. — on  account  of  the  ease  with  which  the  starch  in 
these  grains  becomes  converted  into  sugar  by  fermenta- 
tion, and  finally  into  alcohol.  In  the  later  stages  of 
fermentation  yeast  is  employed.  Barley,  however,  is 
the  grain  most  largely  used  for  this  purpose. 

Good  malting  barley  should  be  a  pale  clear  straw 
colour,  free  from  any  discoloration  by  weathering  in 
the  field  or  heating  in  the  stack.  The  awns  should 
not  have  been  broken  off  too  close  to  the  kernel.  The 
grains  should  be  uniform  in  size,  with  finely  wrinkled 
husks,  well  fed,  and  the  kernel  free  from  flintiness ;  in 
fact,  when  cut  across,  the  kernel  should  be  white  and 

Malting  of  Barley. — The  barley,  after  being  steeped 
in  water  at  about  55°  F.  for  two  to  three  days,  is  spread 
out  on  the  floor  of  a  well-ventilated  room  in  a  layer 
12  to  14  ins.  thick.  The  enzymes  in  the  grains  begin 
to  convert  the  starch  into  sugar  in  order  to  support  the 
growth  of  the  germ,  oxygen  is  absorbed,  carbon  dioxide 
gas. and  heat  evolved.  The  grain  needs  to  be  stirred 
periodically  in  order  to  aerate  and  cool  it.  After  a 
few  days  it  is  sprinkled  with  water.  In  about  fourteen 
days  the  sprouts  have  grown  about  f  in.  long,  and  are 
ready  for  kiln  drying.  It  has  now  arrived  at  the  malt 

Kiln  Drying. — The  sprouted  grain  is  removed  to  a 
kiln  where  the  temperature  can  be  regulated  at  will, 
and  is  gradually  heated  up  to  a  temperature  of  I7O°F. 
The  sprouts  are  thereby  killed  and  this  heating  process 
also  gives  the  characteristic  flavour,  etc.,  to  the  malt. 

Thp  , 


The  object  of  the  malting  is  to  remove  most  of  the 
albuminoids  from  the  grain  as  they  interfere  with 
the  brewing  process.  These  are  mainly  concentrated 
in  the  sprout,  and  can  now  be  removed  by  screening, 
leaving  behind  the  pure  malt,  which  amounts  to  about 
75  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  barley  taken. 

Malt  Coombs  or  Cummins. — Cummins  are  the  sprouts 
which  are  removed  by  screening,  and  amount  to  about 
4  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  barley.  They 
contain  about  23  per  cent,  albuminoids,  2  per  cent,  oil, 
44  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  12  J  per  cent,  fibre. 

Cummins  are  an  excellent  food  for  milk  cows,  and  give 
to  other  foods  a  peculiar  flavour  and  aroma,  which  makes 
them  attractive  to  stock.  They  should  be  carefully  fed 
to  breeding  stock,  and  kept  in  a  dry  room,  or  they  may 
become  mouldy.  The  sweepings  from  the  drying  kilns 
are  called  "  kiln  dust." 

Brewers'  Grains. — The  pure  malt  is  placed  in  the 
huge  tuns  and  made  into  a  mash  with  hot  water,  to 
encourage  the  formation  of  sugar  from  the  starch.  In 
this  way  the  sugar  is  dissolved  out  and  removed  in 
the  sugary  liquid  called  "  wort,"  which  is  further 
fermented  with  yeast  into  beer,  etc.  The  grains  left 
behind  in  the  mash  tuns  are  removed  and  go  under  the 
name  of  "wet  brewers'  grains." 

The  "  wet  grains  "  may  be  carted  away  at  once  and 
used  for  cows  in  milk.  If  fed  too  freely,  they  are  con- 
sidered to  have  a  prejudicial  effect  on  the  quality  of 
the  milk.  They  should  be  most  carefully  fed  if  they 
have  become  acid  or  mouldy. 

The  "dried  grains"  are  wet  grains  with  the  bulk  of 
the  water  evaporated  off  by  heat  (i.e.  desiccated)  in  order 
to  make  them  keep.  The  drying  reduces  them  to  about 
one-quarter  the  weight  of  the  wet  grains.  They  can  be 


fed  to  all  classes  of  stock  up  to  6  or  8  Ibs.  per  head  per 
day  as  part  of  the  concentrated  diet,  and  supply  a  bulky 
food  which  opens  up  very  rich  foods  such  as  decorticated 
cotton  cakes,  etc.  Sometimes  they  are  made  into  a 
mash  for  dairy  cows.  Their  composition  is  as  follows  : 
— Albuminoids,  19  per  cent. ;  oil,  5  J  per  cent. ;  carbo- 
hydrates, 45  per  cent. ;  fibre,  19  per  cent. 

Distillery  Grains. — These  are  very  similar  to  brewers' 
grains,  except  that  other  cereal  grains  besides  barley 
may  be  used,  such  as  wheat,  maize,  oats,  rice,  etc.,  in 
order  to  supply  the  starch.  The  process  of  fermentation 
is  not  carried  on  quite  so  far,  hence  distillers'  grains 
have  a  somewhat  higher  feeding  value  than  brewers' 
grains.  According  to  Dr  Voelcker  the  oil  and  albumin- 
oids may  each  be  as  much  as  4  per  cent,  richer,  and  the 
carbohydrates  and  fibre  respectively  4  per  cent,  poorer, 
than  in  brewers'  grains. 

(/)  Oat  By-products. 

In  the  manufacture  of  oatmeal,  the  oats  are  kiln- 
dried  before  they  are  ground.  This  enables  the  meal 
to  separate  better  from  the  hulls,  which  are  subse- 
quently screened  off.  The  short  silky  hairs  found  on 
the  thin  end  of  the  kernel  are  also  separated  and 
collected,  giving  what  is  called  "oat  dust."  In  this 
way  about  60  to  65  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the 
oats  taken  appears  as  oatmeal,  and  20  to  25  per  cent, 
as  offal.  This  shrinkage  is  largely  a  result  of  kiln- 
drying  whereby  a  certain  amount  of  moisture  is  lost. 
Probably  three-quarters  of  the  offal  consists  of  oat 

Oatmeal  contains  7  to  8  per  cent,  oil,  n  to  15  per 
cent,  albuminoids,  60  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  3  per 


cent,  fibre.  It  is  a  splendid  food  for  human  beings,  and 
that  grown  in  the  Edinburgh  district  appears  to  be 
peculiarly  suitable  for  this  purpose. 

For  cattle  it  forms  a  very  useful  constituent  of  the 
concentrated  part  of  the  ration,  especially  when  cattle 
are  being  fattened.  Sometimes  the  oatmeal  is  made 
into  a  dough  with  hot  water,  moulded  by  the  hands 
into  balls,  then  fed  to  cattle  in  this  ball  form,  say, 
4  to  6  Ibs.  per  head  per  day.  This  method  answers 
where  cattle  are  being  fed  off  on  grass-land. 

Horses  are  fond  of  it,  but  it  is  only  advisable  to 
feed  oatmeal  when  horses  are  doing  hard  work. 

Oat  Husks. — These  husks  have  adhering  to  them 
a  certain  amount  of  oatmeal,  which  gives  them  a 
pronounced  smell  of  the  meal.  They  are  high  in 
fibre  (30  per  cent),  poor  in  albuminoids  (3  per  cent.)  and 
oil  (i  per  cent),  but  are  very  useful  for  opening  up 
or  separating  highly  concentrated  foods,  as  well  as 
giving  the  whole  feed  a  very  attractive  smell.  The 
hulls  are  not  very  easily  digested  by  stock. 

Oat  Dust. — Oat  dust  contains  about  13  per  cent 
albuminoids,  5  per  cent  oil,  50  per  cent  carbohydrates, 
and  1 8  per  cent,  fibre.  It  is  important  for  feeding 
purposes  because  it  has  an  astringent  or  "  binding " 
effect  on  the  bowels  of  the  animal,  consequently  it 
may  be  included  with  other  foods  which  are  rather 
too  laxative,  and  for  this  purpose  may  be  used  up 
to  one-quarter  of  the  concentrates  in  the  ration. 

(£)  By-products  from  Maize. 

The  chief  by-products  from  maize  which  are  being 
used  for  feeding  purposes  in  this  country  at  the  present 
time  are  maize  germ  meal,  gluten  meal,  and  gluten  feed. 


Maize  Germ  Meal. — The  maize  is  ground  by  the 
roller-mill  process,  after  which  the  germ  is  removed 
and  collected.  The  germ  meal  is  rich  in  oil  (10  to  12 
per  cent.)  and  carbohydrates  (60  per  cent),  and  fairly 
rich  in  albuminoids  (12  per  cent).  It  is  very  digestible, 
and  suitable  for  dairy  cows  up  to  6  Ibs.  per  head  per 

Gluten  Meal  and  Gluten  Peed. — When  maize 
starch  is  required,  it  is  removed  by  careful  washing 
from  maize,  which  has  been  previously  ground  down 
to  a  meal.  The  residue  consists  of  the  germ  and,  in 
fact,  everything  except  the  starch.  It  is  divided  into 
two  grades,  chiefly  according  to  its  richness  or  poor- 
ness in  fibre.  Those  low  in  fibre  (2  per  cent.)  are 
called  gluten  meal,  while  those  containing  a  larger 
proportion  of  fibre  (6  per  cent.)  are  called  gluten  feed. 

The  gluten  meal  is  also  richer  in  albuminoids  (38  per 
cent.)  and  oil  (4  per  cent),  but  poorer  in  carbo- 
hydrates (45  per  cent)  than  gluten  feed,  which  contains 
albuminoids  26  per  cent,  oil  3  per  cent,  and  carbo- 
hydrates 53  per  cent. 

These  foods  have  proved  themselves  to  be  very 
suitable  for  dairy  cows  in  the  south-west  of  Scotland. 
(See  Mr  Robb's  Report,  Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland 
Agricultural  College.) 

Flaked  Maize. — This  term  is  applied  to  maize 
which  has  been  cleaned,  crushed,  cooked,  rolled  into 
"  flakes,"  and  dried.  By  so  doing  the  bulk  is  consider- 
ably increased,  and  the  palatability  is  improved ;  but 
it  is  very  questionable  if  the  cooking  increases  the 
digestibility,  seeing  that  the  oil  and  carbohydrates  are 
practically  all  digestible  in  the  uncooked  maize. 

Flaked  maize  is  now  being  sold  under  the  names  of 
"  Kositos  "  and  "  Uveco." 


Maize  Bran  is  the  outer  portion  of  the  seed,  and 
a  similar  product  is  being  sold  under  the  name  of 
"  Homco." 

(/)  By-products  from  Rice. 

Rice  meal  is  a  by-product  from  rice  mills,  where 
the  rice  is  being  prepared  for  human  consumption.  It 
is  rich  in  oil  (12  per  cent.)  and  carbohydrates  (50  per 
cent),  moderately  rich  in  albuminoids  (12  per  cent), 
and  contains  about  8  per  cent  of  fibre.  Sometimes 
rice  hulls,  which  consist  of  hard,  indigestible  fibrous 
material,  may  find  their  way  into  the  meal.  It  does 
not  keep  at  all  well,  as  the  oil  quickly  decomposes. 

It  may  be  used  for  all  classes  of  stock  as  part  of 
the  concentrated  food,  more  especially  with  those  foods 
which  are  rich  in  albuminoids  and  poor  in  oil. 

(m)  Miscellaneous  By-products. 

Apple  Pomace,  or  the  residue  after  the  juice  has  been 
expressed  from  apples  in  cider-making,  is  fairly  rich  in 

The  "  fresh  residue,"  according  to  Wolff,  contains  on 
an  average:  water,  75  per  cent;  albuminoids,  1-6  per 
cent;  carbohydrates,  17-5  per  cent;  fat,  1-2  per  cent; 
and  fibre,  4-9  per  cent  Half  the  albuminoids  and  fat, 
two-thirds  of  the  carbohydrates,  and  rather  less  than 
half  the  fibre  are  digestible. 

The  "  dried  residue,"  on  an  average,  contains  :  water, 
15  per  cent ;  albuminoids,  5^  per  cent ;  carbohydrates, 
49  per  cent;  fat,1  3^  per  cent;  and  fibre,  21  per  cent 
The  digestibility  bears  about  the  same  proportion  for 
the  different  nutrients  in  each  case  as  those  in  the  fresh 
1  /  Ether  Extract. 


residue.  It  appears  that  considerable  quantities  of 
apple  mast  are  sent  to  cake  manufacturers,  where  it  is  no 
doubt  blended  with  other  foods  in  the  manufacture  of 
compound  cakes.  In  Germany  it  is  sometimes  made 
into  jam. 

Spent  Hops. — Spent  hops  are  fairly  rich  in  nutrients, 
containing,  according  to  Wolff,  about  16  per  cent, 
albuminoids,  6  per  cent,  fat,1  40-5  per  cent,  carbo- 
hydrates, and  21  per  cent,  fibre.  Half  the  carbo- 
hydrates, two-thirds  of  the  fat,  one-third  of  the 
albuminoids,  and  very  nearly  one-seventh  of  the  fibre 
are  digestible. 

(/i)  Condimental  Poods. 

Fenugreek. — This  is  a  leguminous  plant  (Trigonelld]^ 
which  produces  seeds  with  an  aromatic  odour.  The 
commercial  fenugreek  meal  is  made  by  grinding  the 
seeds  down  to  a  meal  and  removing  the  husk,  bran,  and 
coarser  portions  out  of  it.  It  is  used  as  a  spice  or 
condiment,  and  for  this  purpose  is  sprinkled  on 
unattractive  or  inferior  foods  such  as  hay,  chopped 
straw,  and  bulky  fodders  generally.  It  can  be  bought 
at  approximately  2Os.  per  cwt. 

For  spicing  inferior  hay,  i  cwt.  may  be  added  to 
10  tons  of  hay. 

Locust  Beans  (Ceratonia  siliqua). — The  valuable 
part  of  the  locust  bean  plant,  or  carob  tree,  for  feeding 
purposes  is  the  thick  pod,  which  has  a  very  sweet  taste 
and  agreeable  smell.  It  grows  in  the  Mediterranean 
district.  The  pods  are  carefully  shaken  off  the  tree 
while  still  unripe,  and  sun-dried.  This  ripens  the  pod 
and  causes  it  to  darken  in  colour.  The  seeds  in  the  pod 

1  Ether  Extract. 


are  very  hard,  hence  it  is  usual  to  extract  them,  and 
retain  the  pods  chiefly  for  stock-feeding  purposes.  The 
following  is  the  composition : — 6  per  cent,  albuminoids, 
i£  per  cent,  oil,  70  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  6  per 
cent,  fibre.  The  carbohydrates  are  all  digestible. 

The  locust  beans  may  be  obtained  on  the  market 
as : — 

(1)  Nuts,  i.e.,  broken  down   to  approximately  half- 

inch  in  length. 

(2)  Coarsely  ground  meal — about  size  of  peas.     The 

above  are  both  very  suitable  for  lamb  foods,  etc. 

(3)  Medium  ground  meal — fine  for  horses. 

(4)  Finely  ground  meal — used  chiefly  for  spices. 

Aniseed  (Pimpinella  anisuni). — An  umbelliferous 
plant,  valuable  for  its  aromatic  fruits.  It  is  used  for 
spicing  foods,  and  thus  making  them  attractive  to 

Gentian. — The  root  of  the  gentian  plant  (Gentiana 
luted]  is  first  dried  and  then  ground  into  a  powder.  It 
is  a  most  valuable  stomach  tonic. 

Coriander. — The  fruit  of  the  coriander  plant  (Cori- 
andrum  sativum}  is  used  as  an  aromatic  stimulant  as 
well  as  a  spice  for  inferior  foods. 

Ginger. — Commercial  ginger  is  the  rhizome  of  the 
ginger  plant  (Zingiber  officinal}.  Rhizomes  are  dug  up 
and  plunged  in  boiling  water  for  a  few  minutes,  and 
dried  in  the  sun  (black  ginger) ;  or,  if  the  outer  skin  is 
scraped  till  white  after  washing,  it  is  called  white  ginger. 
When  mixed  with  foods  in  the  powdered  form  it  helps  to 
remove  the  gases  which  may  accumulate  in  the  stomach 
or  intestines. 

Cane  Sugar  Molasses. — This  is  the  by-product 
obtained  after  the  extraction  of  sugar  from  the  sugar-cane 


and  has  a  thick,  black  appearance,  with  a  sweetish  taste. 
It  contains  about  30  per  cent,  of  cane  sugar,  and  30  per 
cent,  of  other  sugars.  It  does  not  appear  to  have  the 
same  laxative  effect  as  beet  molasses,  which  contains 
50  per  cent,  more  salts  than  are  found  in  cane  sugar 
molasses.  The  molasses  are  used  very  largely  for 
mixing  with  inferior  or  unpalatable  foods  in  order  to 
give  them  an  agreeable  flavour.  Further,  it  is  used  for 
conditioning  animals,  and  provides  at  the  same  time 
a  useful  laxative  and  appetiser.  It  should  not  be  fed 
too  freely  to  breeding  animals,  as  it  is  believed  by  some 
to  cause  sterility. 

Beet  Sugar  Molasses. — The  molasses  obtained  from 
beet  sugar  factories  is  somewhat  bitter,  and  very 
laxative.  It  contains  a  large  amount  of  sugar  (45  per 
cent.),  which  is  present  chiefly  as  cane  sugar.  Further, 
it  contains  about  13  per  cent,  of  various  salts.  Beet 
molasses  by  itself  is  not  suitable  for  feeding  to  farm 
animals,  on  account  of  its  richness  in  alkaline  salts, 
chiefly  potash;  but  if  combined  with,  say,  sphagnum 
moss,  the  latter  neutralises  and  corrects  to  a  large  extent 
any  harmful  effects  on  animals  which  the  beet  molasses 
may  possess. 

Makbar. — Hops,  after  being  used  by  the  brewer,  are 
taken,  cleaned,  mixed  with  cane  sugar  molasses  and 
wheat  meal.  Hops  are  appetisers,  and  promote 
digestion.  At  the  same  time  they  form  the  absorbent 
for  molasses. 

Composition: — Oil,  2-05  per  cent;  protein,  8-37 
per  cent. ;  carbohydrates,  60-07  Per  cent. ;  minerals,  6-26 
per  cent. 

Molastella. — The  absorbent  in  this  case  is  tapioca 
meal.  It  is  mixed  with  cane  sugar  molasses,  giving  a 
brownish  coloured  meal,  and  is  made  at  the  Tapioca 


Flour  Mills  in  Java,  from  which  place  over  12,000  tons 
a  year  is  sold. 

Composition  : — Oil,  0-30  per  cent. ;  protein,  i-oo  per 
cent;  carbohydrates,  72-35  per  cent;  fibre,  5-15  per 
cent. ;  ash,  6-9  per  cent. 

Soya  Treacle  Cake. — The  basis  in  this  case  is 
soya  bean  after  all  but  2  per  cent,  of  oil  has  been 
expressed,  then  cane  sugar  molasses  is  added.  The 
meal  is  previously  cooked  by  a  special  process. 

Composition : — Protein,  40  per  cent. ;  oil,  2  per 
cent. ;  carbohydrates,  32  per  cent 

Molascuit. — The  absorbent  for  molasses  in  this  case 
is  the  pith  or  finer  parts  of  the  sugar  cane  which  remain 
after  the  sugar  has  been  extracted.  This  is  blended 
with  the  cane  sugar  molasses.  The  amount  fed  is 
J  Ib.  to  5  Ibs.  according  to  age  and  kind  of  animal,  and 
has  approximately  the  following  analysis  : — 

Protein,  1-88  per  cent.;  oil,  0-83  per  cent;  carbo- 
hydrates, 66-88  per  cent ;  fibre,  6-76  per.  cent. 

Molassine. — This,  like  molascuit,  is  made  by  adding 
cane  sugar  molasses  to  an  absorbent  (sphagnum  moss), 
and  has  approximately  the  following  composition  : — 

Protein,  6-30  per  cent,  (only  one-fifth  of  this  consists 
of  albuminoids) ;  oil,  r  per  cent. ;  carbohydrates,  46  per 
cent,  (three-quarters  of  this  is  cane  sugar) ;  fibre,  6  per 
cent ;  ash,  8  per  cent. 

Dried  apple  pomace  is  sometimes  used  as  an 
absorbent  for  molasses. 

(o)  Fodder  Crops. 

Clover  hay  is  the  richest  fodder  crop  in  albuminoids, 
containing  13  per  cent  It  also  contains  2j  per  cent 
fat,  37  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  25  per  cent,  fibre ; 


while  meadow  hay  contains  10  per  cent,  albuminoids, 
2\  per  cent,  fat,  42  per  cent,  carbohydrates,  and  26  per 
cent,  fibre. 

The  "  cereal "  straws  (wheat,  rye,  barley,  and  oats) 
are  poor  in  albuminoids  (3  to  4  per  cent.)  and  oil  (i  to 
2  per  cent).  They  are  moderately  rich  in  carbohydrates 
(33  to  38  per  cent),  but  these  consist  largely  of  various 
celluloses.  They  are,  however,  very  high  in  fibre  (37 
to  44  per  cent),  and  in  winter-sown  cereals  the  fibre 
may  be  so  high  that,  according  to  Kellner,  80  per  cent 
of  the  digestible  nutrients  of  these  cereal  straws  would 
be  required  to  furnish  sufficient  energy  for  mastication, 
digestion,  etc. 

Oat  straw  and  barley  straw  are  equally  rich  in 
albuminoids  (3!  per  cent),  whilst  wheat  and  rye 
straw  contain  3  per  cent  Fibre  is  highest  in  rye 
(44  per  cent.)  and  lowest  in  oat  straw  (37  per  cent). 
The  younger  the  straw  is  at  cutting-time,  the  richer  it 
is  in  albuminoids,  and  the  lower  it  is  in  fibre ;  while 
straw  which  is  allowed  to  become  dead  ripe  is  very 
poor  in  albuminoids  and  very  high  in  fibre. 

The  chaff  (barren  glumes)  has  a  slightly  higher 
nutritive  value  than  the  straw. 

Leguminous  straws  are  very  much  richer  in  nutri- 
ents than  cereal  straws.  Pea  straw  is  slightly  richer 
in  albuminoids  (9  per  cent)  than  bean  (8  per  cent), 
and  in  carbohydrates  34  per  cent  as  against  31  per 
cent,  in  bean  straw. 

Pea,  bean,  and  vetch  straws  have  all  "  a  binding 
tendency,"  and  require  feeding  in  conjunction  with 
some  laxative  food.  The  stems  are  rather  coarse, 
but  horses  appear  to  relish  them.  The  chaff  (empty 
pods)  has  about  the  same  nutritive  value  as 
clover  hay. 


To  the  feeder  the  fodder  crops  supply  a  bulky  and 
fibrous  food  which  opens  up  the  concentrated  foods, 
and  by  so  doing  allows  the  digestive  juices  to  do  their 
work  more  effectively.  The  term  "  bulky  "  means  that 
a  much  larger  weight  of  food  is  required  to  yield  a 
given  weight  of  nutrients  than  is  the  case  with  concen- 
trated foods. 

(p)  Green  or  Forage  Crops. 

Common  examples  of  Forage  crops  are : — Lucerne, 
clover,  vetches,  pasture  grass,  rape,  cabbages,  swede  and 
turnip  tops.  These  contain  a  large  proportion  of  water, 
varying  from  76  per  cent,  in  lucerne,  80  per  cent,  in 
pasture  grass,  and  up  to  88  per  cent,  in  the  case  of 
turnip  tops. 

Lucerne  is  richest  in  protein  (4!  per  cent.)  ;  followed 
by  clover  and  vetches,  3^  per  cent. ;  pasture  grass,  3 
per  cent. ;  rape,  2f  per  cent.  ;  cabbages,  2^  per  cent. ; 
while  turnip  tops  are  poorest  (2  per  cent). 

The  oil  is  less  than  I  per  cent,  in  all  cases,  while 
the  carbohydrates  and  fibre  are  both  less  than  10  per 

The  nutrients  are  considered  to  have  a  slightly 
less  value  in  these  green  foods  than  those  in  cereal 

Green  foods  generally  have  a  cooling  and  laxative 
effect  on  stock,  although  the  leguminous  crops  are 
less  potent  in  this  direction  than  the  other  crops. 

(g)  Root  Crops. 

Potatoes,  sugar  beet,  carrots,  mangels,  swedes,  and 
turnips  constitute  what  are  called  "  root  crops." 

Potatoes  and  sugar  beet  contain  about  75  per  cent, 
water ;  carrots,  87  per  cent. ;  mangels,  88  per  cent. ; 



swedes,  89  per  cent. ;  and  turnips,  90  per  cent. ;  hence 
they  are  all  very  succulent  foods.  Large  roots  contain 
a  larger  proportion  of  water  than  smaller  ones.  Liberal 
nitrogenous  manuring  also  increases  the  proportion 
of  water  in  roots. 

They  are  all  very  poor  in  protein  (less  than 
2  per  cent.)  and  oil  (J  per  cent).  Potatoes  are  fairly 
rich  in  carbohydrates  (21  per  cent.),  which  is  mostly 
present  as  starch  ;  and  sugar  beet  has  20  per  cent, 
largely  in  the  form  of  sugar ;  while  the  remainder  have 
less  than  ro  per  cent.  In  carrots,  mangels,  swedes, 
and  turnips  the  carbohydrates  are  present  largely  as 
sugar,  which  is  easily  digestible.  The  fibre  is  at  the 
same  time  low.  Potash  and  soda  predominate  in  the 
mineral  matter,  but  it  is  rather  poor  in  lime  and 
phosphoric  acid. 

These  root  crops  are  bulky  foods,  hence  they  are 
fed  more  liberally  to  ruminants. 

The  chief  characteristics  of  root  crops  to  the  feeder 
are  that  they  supply  a  bulky  and  very  succulent  food, 
which  has  a  cooling  and  laxative  effect  on  farm 
animals,  hence  root  crops  are  of  immense  importance  in 
counteracting  the  costive  tendency  of  straw  crops  and 
some  of  the  concentrated  foods. 

Ash  Constituents  in  Feeding  Stuffs. 

The  ash  constituents  are  usually  present  in  sufficient 
quantity  for  the  formation  of  bone  and  muscle.  Those 
of  most  concern  are  phosphoric  acid,  lime,  potash,  and 

Oil-cakes  and  bran  are  comparatively  rich  in  "  phos- 
phoric acid,"  while  meadow  hay  is  poor. 

Leguminous  straws — viz.,  bean,  pea,  vetch,  clover 
hay — as  well  as  leafy  produce  generally  (e.g.y  cabbages 


and  turnip  tops,  etc.),  are  all  comparatively  rich  in 
"lime,"  while  cereal  grains  (especially  maize  and  rice) 
and  potatoes  are  poor  in  this  constituent.  If  the 
drinking-water  is  hard,  this  may  supply  to  some  extent 
the  deficiency  in  the  food. 

Roots,  meadow  and  clover  hay,  leguminous  straws, 
and  oil-cakes  are  comparatively  rich  in  "potash,"  while 
cereal  grains  are  rather  poor. 

Many  foods  contain  insufficient  soda  for  the  require- 
ments of  the  animal  body,  and  this  is  best  supplied  in 
the  form  of  rock  salt,  so  that  the  animal  may  regulate  the 
quantity  at  will.  Common  salt  should  not  be  given  to 
pigs  or  poultry,  especially  with  sharps,  which  are 
slightly  acid,  otherwise  some  of  them  may  suffer  and 
even  die  from  salt-poisoning. 


The  chief  causes  which  are  responsible  for  variation 
in  the  composition  of  plants  are  :  ( I )  climate  ;  (2)  variety ; 
(3)  manuring ;  (4)  stage  of  ripeness  when  harvested ; 
(5)  weather  conditions  during  harvesting  and  storage. 

Climate. — It  is  well  known  that  Canadian  and 
Russian  wheats  are  richer  in  gluten  and  poorer  in 
carbohydrates  (starch)  than  British  wheats,  due  to  the 
shorter  growing  season  and  hotter  climate  in  Canada 
and  Russia  than  in  Britain. 

Flax  seed  grown  on  the  European  continent  is 
richer  in  oil  than  that  grown  in  Ireland. 

Grieg  and  Hendrick  (Aberdeen)  found  with  refer- 
ence to  oat  straw  that  it  varied  in  different  counties, 
e.g.)  Morayshire  straws  were  richer  in  albuminoids  and 
lower  in  fibre  than  those  under  trial  in  Ross  and 
Cromarty.  In  the  former  case  the  straw  of  Potato 


oat  averaged  4-43  per  cent,  albuminoids,  and  40-45 
per  cent,  fibre,  while  in  the  latter  case  the  figures 
were  2-81  per  cent,  and  47-12  per  cent,  respectively. 
The  explanation  being  that,  in  the  cold,  damp  season  of 
1903  the  straws  of  Potato  oat  as  well  as  Storm  King 
were  favourably  affected  in  the  fine  dry  climate  of 
Morayshire,  but  unfavourably  affected  in  the  moister 
climate  of  Ross  and  Cromarty. 

Variety. — Red  wheats  have,  generally  speaking, 
greater  "  strength,"  i.e.  are  richer  in  gluten,  than  white 
wheats.  At  the  same  time  they  are  correspondingly 
poorer  in  carbohydrates  (starch). 

With  oats  the  proportion  of  husk  varies  with  the 
variety.  The  husk  of  thin-"  skinned "  oats  (Sandy 
Newmarket,  Potato,  etc.)  would  not  generally  exceed  25 
per  cent,  while  thick-"  skinned  "  varieties  (Storm  King 
and  Tartar  King)  may  go  well  over  30  per  cent,  of  husk. 

Grieg  and  Hendrick's  experiments l  showed  that 
the  composition  of  the  "  dry "  oat  kernel  varied  in 
different  varieties ;  e.g.,  Potato  oat  gave  an  average 
analysis  in  three  counties  of  9-30  per  cent,  oil  and  15-5 
per  cent,  albuminoids,  while  Storm  King  was  poorer 
in  oil  (5-88  per  cent.)  but  richer  in  albuminoids  (16-51 
per  cent). 

Straws  from  different  varieties  of  oats  in  the  same 
experiments  also  varied  in  composition.  A  striking 
point  brought  out  was  that  straw  from  Storm  King 
in  Ross  and  Cromarty  was  lowest  in  fibre  (44  per  cent.), 
as  against  47-12  per  cent  in  such  a  favourite  oat  straw 
as  the  Potato. 

Manuring. — The  size  of  the  crop  is  very  much 
increased  by  liberal  manuring,  owing  to  larger  amounts 
of  mineral  matter  and  nitrogen  being  taken  up  in  solution 

1  Report,  1905,  Aberdeen  College. 


from  the  soil.  The  crop  grows  rank  and  sappy,  conse- 
quently the  nitrogenous  matter  is  largely  present  in  the 
form  of  amides.  Heavy  nitrogenous  manuring  would 
tend  to  increase  considerably  the  proportion  of  water  and 
probably  double  the  protein  in  the  plant,  while  phos- 
phatic  and  potassic  manures  would  tend  to  increase  the 
proportion  of  carbohydrates,  and,  by  causing  the  plant  to 
mature  earlier,  the  proportion  of  albuminoid  nitrogen. 

Small  mangels  may  contain  2  to  3  per  cent,  less 
water  than  large  mangels,  and  the  carbohydrates  be 
increased  by  the  same  amount;  hence,  ton  for  ton, 
small  roots  have  a  greater  feeding  value  than  large  ones. 
This  does  not  mean  a  small  crop  is  better  than  a  large 
one,  but  simply  emphasises  the  fact  that  in  a  30  or 
40  ton  crop  (per  acre)  it  is  better  to  have  the  roots 
of  medium  rather  than  of  very  large  size;  hence  it 
is  generally  wise  to  leave  the  plants  fairly  close  together 
at  singling  time. 

In  Ireland,  it  appears  from  a  Report  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  that  "complete"  mixtures1  of 
artificials  increased  the  bushel  weight  of  oats. 

At  Garforth  (1899  and  1900),  Herbert  Hunter 
carried  out  experiments  to  test  the  effect  of  various 
artificial  manures  on  the  composition  and  quality  of 
barley.  The  report  shows  that  a  nitrogenous  manure 
alone,  or  even  with  phosphatic  manure  in  addition, 
adversely  affected  the  quality,  which  was  only  improved 
when  "  complete  "  mixtures  were  used.  A  nitrogenous 
manure  in  incomplete  mixtures  appeared  to  increase  the 
percentage  of  nitrogen  in  the  grain,  but  when  applied  in 
conjunction  with  phosphates  and  potash,  the  proportion 
was  hardly  affected. 

1  A  "complete  mixture  "  of  artificials  refers  to  those  artificial 
manures  which  supply  Nitrogen,  Phosphates,  and  Potash. 



A  phosphatic  manure  improved  the  yield  of  barley 
grain  considerably,  but  had  little  effect  on  the  proportion 
of  phosphates  in  it.  The  potash  manure  did  not 
influence  the  yield  of  grain  greatly,  but  it  increased  the 
proportion  of  potash  in  the  grain.  The  "complete" 
mixture  gave  the  lowest  percentage  of  nitrogen,  and 
the  highest  percentage  of  potash. 

Stage  of  Ripeness  when  Harvested. — This  applies 
more  especially  to  seeds  and  meadow  hay  and  straw 
crops  generally,  as  well  as  to  roots.  An  example  taken 
from  Warington's  Chemistry  of  the  Farm  will  indicate  the 
general  effect  on  hay  and,  to  some  extent,  straw  crops. 

Table  showing  Variation  of  Composition  of  Meadow  Hay. 

Nitrogenous  Matter. 












per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

I4th-'  May    . 







gth  June    . 







26th  June    . 







The  grass  on  I4th  May  was  quite  young;  on  9th 
June  it  was  in  full  flower;  while  on  26th  June  it  was 
dead  ripe.  The  table  shows  that  as  the  plant  matures, 
the  proportion  of  nitrogenous  matter  and  ash  con- 
stituents diminishes,  while  the  proportion  of  carbo- 
hydrates and  fibre  increases.  At  the  same  time  the 
amides  are  largely  converted  into  albuminoids.  Young 
grass  is  richer  in  albuminoids  and  poorer  in  fibre  than 
older  grass.  When  both  bulk  and  digestibility  are 
taken  into  account,  hay  crops  should  be  cut  as  soon 
as  the  majority  of  the  plants  are  in  full  bloom,  because 
after  this  point  has  been  reached,  the  grasses  become 



hard  and  brittle,  due  to  the  increased  formation  of 
fibre,  and  passage  of  nutrients  into  seed ;  consequently 
they  are  less  digestible. 

Weather  Conditions  during  Harvesting  and 
Storage. — If  much  rain  falls  while  the  grass  is  being 
made  into  hay,  the  grass  may  begin  to  ferment  and 
turn  yellow  in  the  swath.  This  fermentation  would 
cause  some  splitting  up  or  decomposition  of  the 
nutrients,  with  evolution  of  carbon  dioxide  gas,  hence 
food  material  would  be  lost.  At  the  same  time 
the  rain-water  would  dissolve  a  certain  amount  of  the 
soluble  constituents  out,  especially  the  soluble  carbo- 
hydrates and  to  a  smaller  extent  the  nitrogenous 
matter  and  fat,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  following  table. 

Effect  of  Rain  on  Red  Clover  Hay  (Baesler's  Analysis}. 







Not  rained  on  . 
Rained  on  four^j 
weeks,  4^  ins.  >- 
rainfall.         J 

per  cent. 
1  6-0 


per  cent. 


per  cent. 


per  cent. 


per  cent. 


per  cent. 


In  the  "heating  of  hay"  the  hay  turns  a  bright 
yellow  or  brownish  colour,  and,  if  continued  much 
further,  ultimately  black.  Simultaneously  a  consider- 
able amount  of  heat  is  generated. 

When  hay  is  stacked  too  soon,  the  heat  generated  may  be  so 
intense  as  to  cause  it  to  ignite  (fire).  Firing,  however,  does  not 
take  place  until  a  few  weeks  have  expired,  as  the  heat  has  to 
drive  off  the  surplus  moisture  before  ignition  will  take  place. 

The  drier  the  hay  is  made  before  stacking,  the  less 
will  it  heat.  The  more  imperfect  the  drying  process 
the  more  it  will  heat ;  hence,  the  presence  of  a  certain 
amount  of  moisture  encourages  these  fermentative 


changes,  or  the  "  heating  "  process.  Warington  points 
out  that  the  soluble  carbohydrates  suffer  most,  the 
albuminoids  at  the  same  time  being  converted  into 
amides,  while  the  digestibility  of  the  fibre  is  improved. 


The  importance  of  a  regular  supply  of  green  food 
on  farms  where  live  stock  are  kept  from  early  spring 
to  late  in  the  autumn,  can  hardly  be  overestimated. 
Green  food  appears  to  be  the  natural  food  for  milk, 
consequently  a  special  attempt  should  be  made  to  have 
a  supply  in  the  early  spring  for  lambing  ewes  and 
milking  cows.  In  counties  where  the  pastures  are 
apt  to  fail  in  the  hot  summer  months,  forage  or  soiling 
crops  have  to  be  grown  to  tide  over  this  dry  period. 
This  was  more  often  the  case  in  the  days  when 
seed  mixtures  containing  rye  grass  and  clover  only  were 
used  for  seeding  down  land  to  permanent  pastures. 
Now,  however,  this  difficulty  can  be  largely  overcome, 
if  a  suitable  mixture  of  seeds  is  selected.  The  following 
hints  will  no  doubt  be  found  useful. 

Permanent  Pasture. 

The  ideal  pasture  is  one  which  has  a  close  turf  and 
gives  a  regular  and  abundant  supply  of  nutritious 
herbage  throughout  the  growing  season  of  the  year. 
In  order  to  secure  such  a  pasture,  it  is  necessary  to 
include  pasture  plants  which  grow  early  in  the  year  and 
those  which  grow  late ;  plants  of  both  tufted  (top 
grasses)  and  creeping  (bottom  grasses)  habits ;  those 
with  deep  tap  roots  as  well  as  those  with  shallow  roots. 
Further,  it  is  important  to  include  only  those  plants 
which  are  adapted  to  the  particular  soil  and  climate. 
A  not  unusual  way  of  making  up  a  pasture  mixture  at 


A.  Haymaking. — Cutting  a  fine  crop  of  Seeds  Hay  at  Mr  David  Arnott's 
Brechin,  Forfarshire  (p.  127). 

[Photos  by  Author* 

B.  Scotch  Haymaking. — Making  the  Tramp  Coil  at  Mr  David  Young's, 
Mill  Farm,  Invergowrie,  N.B.  (p.  127). 


[Between  pp.  88,  89- 


the  present  time  is  to  include  a  small  quantity  of  the 
seed  of  almost  every  grass  and  clover  which  has  any 
feeding  value  at  all.  This  system  has  some  advantages 
but  many  disadvantages,  inasmuch  as  it  is  expensive, 
and  a  number  of  second-rate  pasture  plants  are 
introduced  which  produce  only  scanty  feed  for  stock. 

With  the  object  of  securing  a  good  pasture  mixture 
of  maximum  productivity  on  the  most  economical 
lines,  the  writer  examined  the  herbage  of  a  large 
number  of  the  best  pastures  in  the  Border  district  of 
Scotland,  and  to  some  extent  in  England,  at  various 
seasons  of  the  year.  This  enabled  him  to  eliminate  a 
number  of  pasture  plants  from  the  mixture  which  were 
often  included,  and  include  only  those  plants  which 
were  actually  doing  their  duty  in  supplying  abundant, 
succulent  herbage  for  farm  live  stock. 

The  seeds  mixture;1  ultimately  arrived  at  was  as 
follows : — 

Ibs.  per  acre. 

Italian  rye  grass  ....  4 

Perennial  rye  grass       ....  3 

Cocksfoot  .  i  .  .  .  i 

Timothy  .....  2 

Meadow  fescue .....  4 

Tall  fescue         .....  . 

Rough-stalked  meadow  grass  t 

Red  clover  (perennial) ....  2 

Alsike  clover     .....  2 

White  or  Dutch  clover  i 

Wild  white  clover         .  .  .  .  i 

Trefoil    ......  2 

Chicory  ......  i| 

Burnet    ......  4 

Total  seeds  per  acre      .  .  .          32^ 

1  This  seeds  mixture  may  be  cheapened  somewhat,  without 
materially  affecting  the  utility  of  the  pasture,  by  reducing  the 
alsike  clover  to  i  Ib.  and  the  chicory  to  i  Ib.  each  per  acre. 


This  mixture  excels  most  other  mixtures,  inasmuch 
as  it  contains  grasses  and  clovers  along  with  a  small 
proportion  of  special  drought-resisting  plants,  such  as 
chicory  and  burnet.  In  fact,  it  is  a  modification 
of  the  Elliot  mixture,  but  in  the  opinion  of  the  writer 
and  many  practical  farmers  who  have  seen  them  grow- 
ing side  by  side,  is  much  more  suitable  on  land  up  to  800 
ft.  elevation.  In  Herefordshire  last  year  (1913),  when 
pastures  sown  with  local  mixtures  of  seeds  were  quite 
burnt  up  with  the  hot,  dry  summer,  those  sown  with  the 
above  mixture  continued  to  give  succulent  feed  for 
the  stock. 

In  Roxburghshire,  very  similar  mixtures  are  giving 
excellent  results  between  300  and  800  feet  above  sea- 
level,  as  at  Charterhouse,  Kelso,  and  Oxnam  Neuk, 

When  purchasing  seeds  for  pasture  mixtures  it  is 
most  important  to  have  a  guarantee  of  the  purity, 
germination,  and  bushel  weight  of  the  seeds. 

Preparation  of  Soil. — The  soil  should  be  freed  from 
weeds  and  well  cultivated,  so  as  to  secure  a  good  surface 
tilth.  Unless  the  land  is  in  "good  heart,"  it  should 
receive  a  dressing  of  slag  (5  cwt.)  and  kainit  (2  cwt) 
in  autumn  to  strengthen  the  clovers.  This  treatment 
has  enabled  many  farmers  to  grow  clover  successfully  on 
land  which  was  considered  to  be  "  clover-sick." 

Sowing  Seeds. — The  seeds  are  generally  sown  with 
a  cereal  crop,  or  with  rape.  Generally  speaking  it  is 
advisable  to  divide  the  seeds  into  two  parts,  and  sow 
one  part  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  the  other 
part,  so  as  to  ensure  a  more  uniform  distribution  of 
seeds  and  a  better  turf. 

After  Management. — The  land  should  be  rolled 
both  in  autumn  and  spring  if  there  is  a  danger  of  its 


being  too  loose.  If  the  grass  is  cut  for  hay  the  first 
year,  the  plants  should  not  be  allowed  to  ripen  before 
cutting,  otherwise  the  plants  will  suffer.  Thistles,  if 
present,  should  be  cut  in  the  late  summer  as  soon  as  the 
flowering  heads  have  formed.  Docks  should  be  pulled 
up,  when  possible,  immediately  after  heavy  rain. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  graze  a  young  pasture 
constantly  with  the  same  kind  of  stock,  as  it  scarcely 
gives  some  of  the  plants  a  chance  to  spread  and  fill  up 
the  bottom.  An  occasional  short  rest  of  say  two  weeks 
gives  plants  like  white  clover  an  opportunity  of  spread- 
ing. On  the  other  hand,  a  pasture  should  be  sufficiently 
heavily  stocked  to  prevent  its  becoming  rough.  Hard 
grazing  is  much  better  than  the  other  extreme.  An 
application  of  compost  (lime  and  earth)  is  always  effective 
in  sweetening  the  herbage  and  strengthening  the  clovers. 

Timothy  Meadows. 

The  value  of  timothy  hay  for  horses  is  probably 
not  so  widely  appreciated  as  it  should  be.  In  the 
first  place,  the  seed  is  comparatively  cheap,  and  the 
grass  flowers  a  fortnight  or  three  weeks  later  than 
Italian  rye  grass,  consequently  the  hay  harvest  does 
not  all  come  in  at  one  and  the  same  time.  Further, 
timothy  yields  a  very  heavy  crop  of  hay  of  high 
feeding  value. 

Timothy  thrives  best  on  moist,  deep  soils,  and 
should,  generally  speaking,  not  be  sown  on  sandy  or 
thin,  dry  soils.  The  seed  is  sown  in  the  usual  way 
with  one  of  the  cereal  crops,  at  the  rate  of  about 
20  Ibs.  per  acre.  Seeing  that  the  seed  is  so  small,  it 
is  important  to  have  the  surface  soil  in  a  fine  condition 
before  the  seeds  are  sown,  so  as  to  obtain  successful 


In  some  cases  meadow  fescue  l  is  included  with  the 
timothy,  to  the  extent  of  6  or  8  Ibs.  per  acre,  as  it 
flowers  approximately  the  same  time  (June)  and  yields 
hay  of  excellent  quality.  The  mixture  also  ensures 
a  more  uniform  crop.  In  other  cases,  Italian  rye  grass 
is  included  to  give  a  fairly  good  crop  of  hay  the  first  year. 
The  rye  grass  may,  however,  smother  the  timothy  some- 
what the  first  year,  and  if  included,  should  not  exceed 
8  Ibs.  per  acre.  The  argument  put  forth  is  that  timothy 
does  not  generally  grow  a  full  crop  the  first  year,  and 
Italian  rye  grass  holds  the  land  for  the  first  year 
and  then  dies  out,  leaving  the  ground  entirely  to  the 

Improving  Poor  Old  Pasture. 

There  are  several  ways  in  which  this  may  be  brought 
about.  Probably  the  first  essential  is  that  the  land 
should  be  drained  in  some  way  or  other ;  after  this 
a  suitable  manuring  will  be  required. 

A  very  effective  system  is  to  lamb  the  ewes  on 
a  rough  pasture.  The  ewes  then  tread  all  the  rough 
grass  away,  and  at  the  same  time  give  the  field  a  good 
manuring.  After  the  sheep  are  taken  out  of  the  field, 
the  herbage  grows  sweeter,  and  white  clover  develops, 
thus  giving  an  excellent  class  of  herbage  for  the  stock. 

In  rough,  sour,  benty  pastures  a  dressing  of  2  to 
4  tons  cob  (burnt)  lime,  or  10  cwts.  ground  lime  per  acre, 
sweetens  the  herbage  very  considerably.  Composts 
of  lime  and  earth  are  usually  very  effective. 

Generally  speaking,  an  excellent  mode  of  procedure 
is  to  give  the  grass-land  a  dressing  of  6  cwts.  basic 
slag,  and  3  cwts.  kainit  per  acre.  Experiments  in 

1  A  pound  each  of  rough-stalked  meadow   grass   and  white 
clover  is  sometimes  included  to  improve  the  aftermath. 


connection  with  various  agricultural  colleges  have 
shown  that  pasture  land  after  being  treated  in  this 
way  has  carried  a  much  heavier  stocking  of  sheep  per 
acre,  and  produced  a  much  larger  amount  of  live-weight 
increase.  (See  reports  of  the  Glasgow  and  Edinburgh 
Agricultural  Colleges,  also  Cockle  Park  experiments.) 

On  soils  rich  in  lime,  potassic  super  (super  and 
kainit)  gives  equally  good  results  as  at  the  Midland 
Dairy  Institute,  where  dairy  cows  grazing  on  manured 
plots  gave  considerably  larger  quantities  of  milk.1 
On  light  soils  a  dressing  of  4  cwts.  of  raw  bone 
meal  often  brings  about  the  desired  effect. 

Forage  or  Soiling  Crops. 

The  term  forage  or  soiling  crop  refers  generally 
to  those  crops  which  are  grown  on  arable  land  for 
their  stems  and  leaves,  and  are  cut  and  fed  to  stock 
in  the  green  state.  It  is  also  usual  to  include  rape  and 
mustard,  which  are  fed  off  by  sheep  on  the  ground. 

These  crops  are  all  important  in  the  south  and  east 
of  England,  where  the  climate  is  usually  hot  in  summer, 
and  the  land  is  considered  to  be  too  dry  to  grow 
permanent  grass  satisfactorily.  Hence  the  land  is  kept 
arable,  and  any  green  food  which  is  required  for  live 
stock  is  grown  in  rotation  cropping.  The  chief  plants 
which  are  used  for  this  purpose  are : — 

Rye,  oats,  barley,  Italian  rye  grass,  and  maize ; 
lucerne,  sainfoin,  vetches,  trifolium  and  trefoil. 

Rye,  Barley,  and  Oats  are  sown  either  in  the 
autumn  or  spring,  and  generally  along  with  vetches,  at 
the  rate  of  2  to  4  bushels  of  the  cereal  grain  to  I  bushel 

1  During  the  last  three  years  the  average  amount  of  milk 
produced  from  cows  fed  on  the  manured  plots  amounted  to 
93  galls,  per  acre  more  than  that  produced  from  cows  fed  on  the 
unmanured  plots. 


of  vetches.  The  resulting  crop,  which  is  bulky  and 
very  nutritious,  can  be  cut  about  four  to  six  months 
after  sowing. 

Italian  Rye  Grass  can  be  seeded  down  in  early 
spring  at  the  rate  of  2  to  2j  bushels  per  acre.  It  will 
then  be  ready  for  cutting  the  following  autumn,  and  if 
well  manured,  may  be  cut  three  to  five  times  the 
following  year. 

The  rye  grass  may  also  be  seeded  down  with 
a  straw  crop  in  the  usual  manner. 

Maize. — This  plant  is  now  being  grown  more  exten- 
sively in  the  South  of  England.  The  best  variety 
is  the  "  White  Horse-tooth,"  which  grows  quickly 
and  produces  a  large  amount  of  succulent  food.  The 
seed  should  not  be  sown  earlier  than  June,  and  at  the 
rate  of  i  to  2  bushels  per  acre.  In  order  to  prevent  to 
some  extent  the  depredations  of  wood-pigeons,  the  seed 
should  be  treated  with  tar  or  red  lead  before  sowing. 
The  crop  can  usually  be  cut  in  August  and  September. 

Lucerne  (Alfalfa)  may  be  sown  down  in  April  at  the 
rate  of  20  to  30  Ibs.  of  seed  per  acre,  either  with  a  straw 
crop  or  without.  If  with  a  cereal  crop,  care  should  be 
taken  not  to  sow  the  cereal  too  thick,  otherwise  it  may 
smother  the  lucerne  out.  A  dressing  of  basic  slag 
and  kainit  with  the  cereal  crop  would  strengthen  the 
lucerne  plants  and  make  the  crop  more  productive.1 
The  following  year  the  lucerne  could  be  cut  four  or  five 
times,  and  may  be  left  down  for  three  to  five  years. 

Sainfoin,  which  grows  well  on  very  dry,  chalky  soils, 
may  be  seeded  down  in  the  same  way  as  lucerne, 
but  with  about  50  Ibs.  of  milled  seeds  per  acre.  It  may 
1  At  the  West  of  Scotland  Experimental  Farm  (Kilmarnock) 
the  lucerne  on  plots,  which  had  been  inoculated  with  the  nodule- 
forming  bacteria  for  this  crop,  was  much  more  vigorous  than  on 
the  untreated  plots. 


be  cut  frequently  like  lucerne,  and  can  be  left  down 
for  several  years.  One  feature  of  it  is  that  it  thrives 
on  dry  chalky  soils  which  are  too  poor  for  lucerne. 

Vetches  or  Tares. — This  is  a  most  useful  crop  for 
forage  purposes,  and  may  be  seeded  down  in  "  breaks  " 
so  as  to  supply  a  succession  of  green  food  during  the 
summer  and  autumn.  As  mentioned  above,  cereal 
crops  are  often  sown  with  this  crop  to  support  the 
vetches.  Sow  2  to  3  bushels  per  acre. 

Trifolium,  or  Crimson  Clover. — This  plant  grows 
very  rapidly,  and  the  seeds  are  best  sown  in  early  August, 
at  the  rate  of  26  to  28  Ibs.  per  acre.  The  crop  can 
then  be  cut  the  following  year.  After  it  has  been  cut 
once,  the  plant  dies. 

Trefoil  may  be  sown  and  utilised  in  very  much  the 
same  way  as  trifolium.  Twenty  pounds  of  seed  per 
acre  is  sufficient. 

Rape. — If  sown  in  July  at  the  rate  of  5  to  6  Ibs. 
per  acre,  the  leafage  can  be  grazed  off  in  the  autumn. 

White  Mustard. — This  would  be  sown  in  July  or 
August  at  the  rate  of  20  Ibs.  per  acre,  and  grazed 
in  autumn. 


It  is  important  to  remember  that  the  solid  excrement 
represents  the  undigested  part  of  the  food  after  its 
passage  through  the  alimentary  canal.  The  other 
part  therefore  represents  the  amount  which  has  either 
been  digested,  or,  through  fermentation  in  the  ali- 
mentary canal,  has  escaped  in  the  form  of  gas.  Neglect- 
ing for  the  moment  the  possibility  of  a  small  amount 
being  decomposed  into  gases  and  escaping  in  the  breath 
or  otherwise,  the  difference  between  the  amount  of  the 
nutrients  supplied  in  the  food  and  that  found  in  the 
solid  excrement  represents  the  amount  which  has  been 


digested.  It  is  then  easy  to  calculate  by  difference 
the  amount  and  proportion  of  albuminoids,  oil,  carbo- 
hydrates, and  fibre  digested  respectively  by  the  various 
classes  of  farm  live  stock. 

The  method  adopted  for  this  purpose  is  briefly 
as  follows : — For  convenience,  a  male  animal  is  taken 
and  fed  on  the  experimental  food  for  a  week,  to  get 
the  animal  accustomed  to  the  new  diet  as  well  as 
the  old  diet  removed  from  the  system.  An  indiarubber 
bag  is  then  placed  behind  the  animal  so  as  to  catch  the 
solid  excrement.  The  food  is  carefully  weighed  and 
analysed  before  feeding,  and  the  dung  weighed  and 
analysed  by  the  same  method  as  that  employed  for 
the  food ;  then  by  subtraction  the  percentage  of  each 
nutrient  digested  in  the  food  can  be  ascertained. 

For  very  accurate  determinations  of  digestibility 
a  further  precaution  is  necessary,  more  especially  with 
ruminants.  Since  the  food  generally  ferments  in  the 
paunch,  gases  (carbon  dioxide,  marsh  gas,  hydrogen) 
are  generated  and  disappear  in  the  breath.  In  a 
similar  manner,  food  which  ferments  in  the  bowels 
of  farm  animals  in  general  often  decomposes  with 
the  evolution  of  gases  which  escape  from  the  bowels ; 
consequently  in  both  cases  this  part  of  the  food  is  not 
digested,  and  is  therefore  lost  to  the  animal.  It  is  only 
since  the  introduction  of  a  respiration  chamber1  that  the 
amount  of  loss  in  this  way  could  be  ascertained. 

1  The  respiration  chamber  is  an  air-tight  compartment  which 
is  used  at  a  few  research  stations  in  Germany,  where  the  animal 
is  placed  for  short  intervals  during  fattening,  etc.  The  animal  is 
supplied  with  air  of  known  volume  and  composition,  and  from 
time  to  time  it  is  drawn  off  and  analysed.  In  this  way  the  gases 
which  leave  the  animal  are  discovered  and  their  amount 
ascertained.  A  respiration  chamber  has  now  been  installed  in 
this  country  at  Cambridge,  but  no  results  are  as  yet  available. 


In  this  manner  a  large  amount  of  useful  information 
with  regard  to  the  composition  of  foods  and  the  digesti- 
bility of  same  has  been  accumulated.  Obviously  it  is 
only  the  digestible  part  which  is  available  for  mainten- 
ance and  production,  and  for  this  purpose  it  is  advisable 
to  know  that  the  proportion  of  digestible  albuminoids 
is  sufficient  in  the  ration. 

Individuality  in  Animals. — One  thing  which  strikes 
the  experimenter  is  the  difference  in  results  he  obtains 
from  fattening  a  given  number  of  cattle,  sheep,  or  pigs 
on  a  given  ration.  Although  the  individuals  which 
are  being  fed  on  the  same  ration  may  be  of  the  same 
breed,  may  even  be  the  same  live  weight  at  the 
commencement  of  the  experiment,  and  may  look  a 
very  level  lot,  yet  at  the  close  of  the  experiment  the 
individual  increases  in  live  weight  would  vary  consider- 
ably. Take,  for  example,  the  recent  cattle-feeding 
experiments  of  the  Edinburgh  and  East  of  Scotland 
Agricultural  College  (Report  31).  In  Lot  I.,  which  was 
fed  on  linseed  cake  and  Bombay  cotton  cake  with 
swedes  and  oat  straw  for  nineteen  weeks,  the  following 
results  were  obtained  with  three  black  cattle  : — 


No.  10 
No.  9 
No.  I 

The  different  capacities  of  these  three  cattle  for 
increasing  in  live  weight  during  fattening  is  most 
marked,  and  is  due  to  what  is  called  their  "  individuality  " 
or  "  individual  capacity"  for  fattening.  The  same  thing 
applies  to  horses,  sheep,  and  pigs.  There  are  "  good 
doers  "  and  "  bad  doers  "  in  each  class. 

Further,  the  amount  of  food  per  day  of  a  given 


Live  Weight 
at  Commencement. 

Gained  in 
Live  Weight. 

7  cwts.  3f  qrs. 

1  60  Ibs. 

7  cwts.  3    qrs. 

224  Ibs. 

7  cwts.  I     qr. 

350  Ibs. 



ration  which  a  two-year-old  fattening  bullock  can 
stand  varies  with  individual  animals.  One  will  show 
by  the  appearance  of  its  dung  that  it  is  digesting  it 
satisfactorily,  while  another  will  show  that  some  of 
the  food  is  passing  through  its  body  almost  unchanged. 
Ruminants  and  Non-Ruminants. — The  following 
two  tables  are  compiled  from  Kellner's  figures,  and 
show  the  comparative  digestibilities  of  ruminants  (sheep 
or  cattle)  as  compared  with  horses  and  pigs. 

Comparative  Digestibilities  of  Nutrients  in  Various  Foods 
by  Horses  and  Ruminants  (Kellner}. 

























































Organic  matter 
Protein     . 





















Fat  . 
Carbohydrates  . 































The  above  figures  show  the  proportion  of  each  of 
the  nutrients  digested  in  both  concentrated  and  bulky 

The  chief  points  to  notice  are  that  horses  do  not 
digest  fat  (ether  extract)  in  foods  nearly  so  well  as 
ruminants,  neither  have  they  the  same  power  of 
digesting  fibre  in  bulky  foods.  Protein  and  carbo- 
hydrates in  foods  generally  are  digested  just  as  well  by 
horses  as  by  ruminants. 



Comparative  Digestibility  of  Nutrients  in    Various  Foods  by 
Ruminants  and  Pigs  (Kellner). 






























































/o  • 





Organic  matter 















Protein    . 















Fat  . 






























Fibre       . 















Pigs  digest  practically  as  much  protein  in  con- 
centrates as  ruminants,  although  in  the  bulky  foods  they 
compare  less  favourably.  In  the  case  of  fat  in  foods, 
pigs  are  a  long  way  behind  ruminants,  although  they 
appear  to  digest  it  fully  better  than  horses ;  e.g.,  with 
beans  the  proportions  are  30  per  cent,  as  against  13  per 
cent,  with  horses;  with  maize,  74  per  cent,  against 
6 1  per  cent;  and  with  ground  linseed  cake,  80  per 
cent,  against  52  per  cent. 

In  the  case  of  carbohydrates,  pigs  digest  them  in 
concentrated  foods  almost  as  well  as  ruminants,  but  in 
bulky  foods  the  latter  have  the  advantage. 

The  pig,  however,  has  not  much  power  of  digesting 
fibre  either  in  concentrated  or  bulky  foods.  Except 
with  foods  very  low  in  fibre,  the  proportion  digested 
does  not  reach  25  per  cent.  Horses,  although  non- 
ruminants,  possess  this  power  to  a  greater  extent  than 
pigs,  on  account  of  their  enormously  capacious  bowels, 
including  the  blind  gut  (caecum),  where  bulky  foods  may 



be  temporarily  stored  and  ferment  a  little,  with  the 
result  that  the  fibre  is  rendered  more  digestible ;  but 
even  then  the  proportion  digested  falls  far  short  of  that 
possible  with  ruminants  when  both  are  fed  on  bulky 

Effect  of  Stage  of  Maturity  on  Digestibility.— 
This  can  best  be  illustrated  from  a  hay  crop,  as  it  may 
be  cut  and  harvested,  (i)  before  it  is  in  flower,  (2)  when 
it  is  in  full  flower,  or  (3)  after  it  has  passed  full-flower 
stage.  The  effect  of  cutting  and  harvesting  hay  at  each 
of  these  three  stages  on  the  digestibility,  is  given  in  the 
following  table,  taken  from  Warington  : — 

Digestion  by  Sheep  of  Hay  at  Different  Stages  of  Maturity. 

Date  cut. 

Proportion  of  each  Digested  per  100  Supplied. 






May  I4th  . 
June  9th   . 
June  26th. 









The  diminution  of  the  proportion  of  each  nutrient 
digested  as  the  grass  increases  in  age  is  very  striking, 
and  shows  how  difficult  it  is  to  generalise  as  to  the 
composition  and  digestibility  of  hay  crops. 

Effect  of  Work. — The  effect  of  work  with,  say, 
a  horse,  is  to  increase  the  respiration  considerably. 
This  means  more  oxygen  is  taken  into  the  lungs  and 
then  into  the  blood,  with  the  result  that  more  oxidation 
of  the  food  takes  place  and  more  heat  is  generated  in  the 
body.  There  is,  at  the  same  time,  an  increased  demand 
on  the  food  to  meet  the  energy  required  to  enable  the 


horse  to  perform  work  ;  hence  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  the  harder  or  more  difficult  the  work  is,  the  greater 
will  be  the  amount  of  food  required  (within  limits).  If, 
however,  a  food  difficult  to  digest  were  given  to  supply 
the  energy  required  for  work,  a  larger  proportion  of 
the  available  nutrients  would  be  required  to  overcome 
the  mechanical  difficulties  of  digestion  before  there 
would  be  any  nutrients  available  for  external  mechani- 
cal work.  Hence  the  importance  of  a  concentrated 
and  easily  digestible  ration  when  horses  are  doing 
hard  work. 

Experiments  do  not  show  that  a  larger  proportion 
of  the  food  is  digested  when  horses  are  at  work ;  in 
fact,  as  the  labour  increases  in  intensity  the  reverse  is 
the  case.  At  the  same  time,  a  richer  diet  should  be 
given  and  a  larger  amount  of  nutrients  fed. 


The  general  requirements  of  the  animal  vary  with 
the  kind  of  animal,  its  age,  whether  it  is  being  kept  in 
store  condition  or  for  purposes  of  production  (meat, 
milk,  or  work).  In  order  to  meet  these  requirements 
the  animals  must  be  supplied  with  food  ;  and  in  utilising 
the  artificial  foods  for  this  purpose,  one  should,  strictly 
speaking,  keep  in  mind  the  following  points : — 

(a)  The    chemical     composition     and     balance     of 


(b)  Digestibility  of  food  used,  and  the  albuminoid 


(c)  Utilisation   of    home-grown    stuffs   to   the   best 



(d)  Laxativeness  of  diet. 

(e)  Its  palatability. 
(/)  Economy. 

Composition. — It  is  obvious  that  a  ration  which 
is  to  meet  the  various  requirements  of  the  animal  must 
be  sufficiently  rich  in  nutrient  substances  (albuminoids, 
fat,  and  carbohydrates).  The  proportions  of  each 
of  these  nutrients  in  the  ration  is  a  point  of  some 
importance,  seeing  that  growth  in  size  and  the  produc- 
tion of  nitrogenous  tissues  (flesh,  sinew,  horny  substance, 
hair,  etc.)  can,  generally  speaking,  only  be  produced 
from  the  albuminoids  in  the  food. 

The  fat  and  carbohydrates  are  quite  as  good  as 
albuminoids,  in  fact  better,  for  the  production  of  heat, 
energy,  and  body  fat.  Further,  the  carbohydrates  are 
much  cheaper  than  albuminoids,  which  makes  it  advisable 
from  a  practical  point  of  view  to  see  that  the  proportion 
of  albuminoids  in  the  ration  should  not  greatly  or 
extravagantly  exceed  that  which  is  necessary  for  the 
production  of  nitrogenous  tissue  in  the  animal  body. 
Milk  is  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids,  hence  milking  animals 
require  a  more  liberal  allowance  of  albuminoids  than 
cows  which  are  not  milking. 

Another  very  important  point  is  that  the  "fibre  con- 
tent" of  the  concentrated  diet  should  be  low,  not  exceed- 
ing 1 5  per  cent,  in  fattening  rations,  and  usually  much  less. 

In  practice,  the  suitability  of  a  ration  may  be  ascer- 
tained very  approximately  from  its  chemical  composition 
so  far  as  the  balance  of  nutrients  is  concerned,  and  this 
method  will  be  employed  later  on  in  the  compounding 
of  rations. 

Although  the  balance  of  nutrients  in  the  ration 
may  be  calculated  sufficiently  near  for  practical  purposes 



from  the  chemical  composition,  yet  it  does  not  neces- 
sarily follow  that  the  nutrients  are  capable  of  being 
digested  by  stock  ;  hence,  when  one  wishes  to  balance 
a  food  accurately,  it  is  necessary  to  take  into  account  the 
digestibility  of  each  nutrient  in  the  food.  One  is  then 
able  by  calculation  to  tell  whether  the  amount  and 
proportion  of  digestible  albuminoids  are  sufficient. 

Albuminoid  Ratio. — The  "albuminoid  ratio"  is 
defined  as  the  ratio  of  the  "digestible"  albuminoids  to 
the  "digestible"  non-albuminoids.  Seeing  that  fat 
has  a  much  higher  value  than  carbohydrates  for  the 
production  of  heat  and  energy,  it  is  usual  to  multiply 
the  fat  by  2-3  to  get  the  non  -albuminoids  on  a 
comparative  basis  ;  z.e.t  I  Ib.  fat  is  considered  to  be 
equal  to  2-3  Ibs.  carbohydrates. 

Two  examples  will  give  the  method  of  arriving  at 
the  ratio,  remembering  that  only  the  "  digestible  "  part 
is  taken  in  each  case.  The  average  digestibilities  of 
most  foods  have  been  ascertained  sufficiently  near  for 
this  purpose  (see  p.  45). 

I.  Linseed  cake  contains  the  following  "  digestible  " 
constituents:  albuminoids,  25  per  cent.;  oil,  9^  per 
cent. ;  and  carbohydrates,  32  per  cent. 

Oil  x  2.3  + Carbohydrates -Albuminoids/  wil1  ?ive  ,the  falbu' 

^      minoid  ratio. 

9JX2.3          +  32  -r  25 

21.85  +  32  -  25 

53^5  -H  25  2.15 

Hence  the  albuminoid  ratio  is  as  1:2-15.  In  other 
words,  for  every  I  part  of  digestible  albuminoids 
in  linseed  cake  there  are  2-15  parts  (or  the  equivalent) 
of  carbohydrates. 

Again,  in  an  ordinary  ration  for  a  horse,  the  calcula- 
tion is  more  involved,  as  there  are  several  foods  mixed 



together  constituting  the  ration ;  e.g.,  with  a  horse 
receiving  per  day  14  Ibs.  oats,  2  Ibs.  beans,  18  Ibs.  hay, 
and  10  Ibs.  swedes,  we  shall  need  to  calculate  the 
amount  present  in  14  Ibs.,  2  Ibs.,  18  Ibs.  and  10  Ibs. 
respectively.  The  digestible  nutrients  in  these  foods 
are  as  follows  : — 




per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent 





Beans         . 




Meadow  hay 







Fourteen  pounds  of  oats  would  then  contain  ,',/,•,  th  of  the 
digestible  constituents  mentioned  above  ;  if,  therefore, 
the  digestible  constituents  for  each  food  are  multiplied 
by  the  number  of  pounds  taken  in  the  ration  and 
divided  by  100,  the  actual  amounts  of  nutrients  in 
the  ration  will  be  ascertained. 





Oats,  14  Ibs. 
Beans,  2  Ibs. 
Meadow  hay,  18  Ibs.    . 

per  cent.     *  Ibs. 
14  x    9  =  1-26 

2  X  19    -  3-60 

18  x    4  =  0-72 

IO  X     1   =     'O2 

PIT  cent.     *lbs. 

i  I   -5i  =  o-73 

2  X  Ij  =  002 

i8x  i    =  0-18 

IQXyV    =    O'OI 

per  cent.     *  Ibs. 

14x45   r=    6-30 
2  X  48   =   0-96 
18X41    =  7.38 

10  x    8  =  0-80 




*  The  division  by  100  is  only  shown  by  pushing  the  decimal  place  two   places 

.*.  0.94  x  2.3+  15.44-7-5.60  will  give  the  albuminoid  ratio  • 

or          2.162  +  15.44  +  5.60  „ 

or  17.602  +  5.60  „  „ 

Hence  the  albuminoid  ratio  of  this  ration  is  as  i  :  3-14. 


A.  Scotch  Haymaking. — Carting  home  the  Hay  with  special  cart  at 
Mr  John  Spiers',  Newton  Farm,  near  Glasgow  (p.  127). 

[Photos  by  Author. 

B.  Continental  Haymaking. — Carting  home  Hay  with  bullock  waggon 
at  Lauchstadt,  near  Halle,  Germany. 


Between  pp.  104, 105. 


Generally  speaking,  a  "  narrow "  albuminoid  ratio 
indicates  a  food  rich  in  nutrients,  a  large  proportion 
of  which  is  albuminoids ;  while  a  wide  ratio  indicates 
a  food  low  in  nutrients.  For  young  or  fattening 
animals  a  ration  with  an  albuminoid  ratio  of  i  to  3,  or 
in  some  cases  I  to  5,  may  be  taken  as  supplying 
a  sufficiency  of  albuminoids,  but  for  maintenance 
this  ratio  may  be  widened  considerably,  say,  i  to  8  or 
i  to  10. 

It  is  from  this  point  onward  that  several  very 
interesting  practical  difficulties  have  to  be  overcome. 

Home-grown  Poods  the  Basal  part  of  Ration. — 
Generally  speaking,  the  rotation  of  crops  adopted  on 
arable  land  supplies  the  farmer  with  large  quantities 
of  straw  and  roots.  Both  these  foodstuffs  are  bulky, 
and  comparatively  poor  in  nutrient  constituents.  The 
sale  of  these  crops  would  involve  a  large  amount  of 
labour,  and  as  their  sale  value  is  not  high,  it  is  usual 
to  consume  crops  such  as  these  on  the  farm  by  live 
stock,  in  order  to  convert  them  into  a  form  (beef  and 
mutton)  which  will  be  much  more  easily  marketed. 
Hence  the  utilisation  of  these  bulky  foods  in  an 
economical  way  must  be  kept  in  mind  in  making  up 
a  ration.  Concentrates  are  in  reality  only  employed 
to  make  up  the  deficiencies  in  these  bulky  foods  as 
required  for  the  particular  purpose. 

Ruminants  on  account  of  their  special  power  of 
dealing  with  bulky  foods  (more  especially  fodder 
crops),  consume  the  major  part  of  the  straw  and 
roots  on  the  farm.  Horses,  however,  have  fairly  con- 
siderable powers  of  digesting  these  bulky  fodder  crops 
(see  p.  98),  but  pigs  have  great  difficulty  in  this 

Further,   the   bulky   and   fibrous   nature   of  fodder 


crops  (straw)  throws  a  considerable  amount  of  internal 
work  on  an  animal,  since  it  has  to  be  chewed  and  mixed 
with  saliva  (masticated),  carried  along  the  alimentary 
track  and  dealt  with  by  the  stomach,  intestines,  etc. 
The  work  of  the  excretory  organs  is  also  increased,  and 
it  appears  that  the  nutrients  in  bulky  fodders  have  not 
much  value  for  the  production  of  increase  or  energy,  but 
are  valuable  chiefly  for  the  production  of  heat  in  the 
animal  body.  Zuntz  showed  that  with  a  horse  fed 
entirely  on  wheat  straw,  which  is  one  of  the  hardest  and 
most  indigestible  of  straws,  that  the  energy  required  to 
deal  with  this  hard,  coarse  food  was  greater  than  the 
energy  supplied  by  the  food  ;  hence  the  horse  ultimately 

We  have  already  seen  that  the  production  of  work 
(external  energy)  and  increase  in  body  weight  can  only 
be  obtained  from  the  margin  of  nutrients  which  are 
left  after  the  nutrients  have  supplied  the  animal  with 
the  necessary  energy  to  deal  with  (masticate)  the  food 
in  the  mouth,  as  well  as  along  the  alimentary  track  till  it 
leaves  the  system.  The  bulky  part  of  the  ration  leaves 
such  a  small  residue  or  surplus  of  digestible  nutrients 
for  production,  that  it  is  necessary  to  add  concentrates 
to  these  bulky  foods  to  raise  the  whole  character  of 
the  ration. 

This  is  brought  about  in  the  following  way  : — Con- 
centrates are,  generally  speaking,  foods  which  are  rich 
in  nutrients  of  high  digestibility.  The  energy  required 
for  mastication,  etc.,  is  comparatively  small,  consequently 
there  is  a  large  surplus  of  nutrient  material  for  produc- 
tion, and  when  added  to  the  bulky  food  they  raise  the 
available  surplus  for  production  of  each  pound  of  the 
ration  considerably  above  that  of  the  original  bulky 


The  concentrate  by  itself  would  not  suit  the  peculiar 
digestive  system  of  ruminants,  which  is  intended  by 
nature  to  deal  with  bulky  foods.  Bulky  foods,  there- 
fore, serve  a  useful  purpose  in  opening  up  highly 
concentrated  foods,  thus  enabling  the  digestive  juices 
to  do  their  work  more  effectively. 

Laxativeness. — Too  much  stress  has  probably  been 
placed  in  the  past  on  the  actual  chemical  composition  of 
the  food,  while  what  may  be  called  in  contradistinction 
the  "  mechanical "  composition  has  been  largely  over- 
looked. By  "mechanical"  composition,  is  meant  the 
ease  or  difficulty  with  which  foods  are  masticated  and 
passed  through  the  alimentary  canal.  Foods  like 
pasture  grass,  roots,  linseed  cake,  bran,  etc.,  pass  along 
the  food  canal  with  comparative  ease,  and  are  called 
"  laxative  foods  "  ;  while  others  like  hay,  straw,  Bombay 
cotton  cake,  and  other  concentrated  foods  high  in  fibre, 
only  pass  slowly  or  with  difficulty,  and  are  called 
astringent  or  "  binding  "  foods.  A  ration  extreme  in 
either  of  these  ways  does  not  give  the  digestive  organs 
a  fair  chance  of  doing  their  duty  on  the  food.  Scouring 
animals  do  not  usually  fatten  or  increase  in  live  weight 
rapidly,  nor  do  animals  which  are  too  stiff  in  the  dung ; 
a  happy  medium  is  eminently  desirable,  hence  a  great 
thing  in  making  up  a  ration  is  to  blend  it  so  that  it  will 
pass  through  the  animal  at  a  rate  which  will  enable  it 
to  get  the  maximum  benefit  out  of  the  food. 

The  writer  has  studied  the  reports  of  most  of  the 
cattle  and  sheep  feeding  experiments  which  have  been 
carried  out  in  recent  years  in  this  country,  and  it  appears 
fairly  obvious  that  most  of  the  disappointing  rations 
which  have  been  used  have  failed  on  the  mechanical 
side,  i.e.,  in  being  too  high  in  fibre  and  "  too  binding." 
On  the  other  hand,  palatable  rations  comparatively  low 


in  fibre,  and  correctly  balanced,  so  far  as  laxativeness  is 
concerned,  have  given  much  better  results  than  their 
chemical  composition  would  lead  one  to  expect,  provided 
the  proportion  of  albuminoids  was  not  too  low. 

In  practice,  the  farmer  has  to  use  his  judgment  and 
vary  the  concentrate  according  to  the  bulky  ration  that 
is  available,  e.g.)  sheep  receiving  immature  roots  and 
hay  require  a  binding  concentrate  like  Bombay  cotton 
cake.  The  same  applies  to  cows  on  new  grass  in  spring. 
On  the  other  hand,  a  ration  for  a  bullock  may  be  too 
binding,  and  in  this  case  a  laxative  concentrate  (linseed 
cake,  etc.)  would  be  necessary. 

It  is  difficult  to  over-estimate  the  value  of  knowing 
the  percentage  of  fibre  in  concentrates  when  compound- 
ing rations,  seeing  that  the  fibre  depreciates  the  value  of 
the  particular  concentrate  for  fattening  purposes.  The 
Fertiliser  and  Feeding  Stuffs  Act  only  requires 
guarantees  to  be  given  by  the  seller  for  oil  and 
albuminoids.  This,  however,  is  very  good  so  far,  but 
the  Act  would  be  even  more  valuable  if,  in  addition, 
the  fibre  content  had  to  be  included  in  the  guarantee. 
The  farmers  would  then  have  the  necessary  particulars 
on  the  invoice  for  making  up  rations. 

Palatability. — There  are  some  concentrates,  e.g.  rape 
cake,  which  are  rich  in  nutrients,  but,  on  account  of  their 
insipid  taste  or  unpleasant  aroma,  are  not  relished  by 
stock.  The  consequence  is  that  the  animal  does  not 
eat  as  much  as  is  necessary,  say,  for  rapid  fattening, 
and  in  fact  may  not  improve  in  condition  at  all. 

On  the  other  hand,  if  the  food  is  attractive  in 
flavour  and  aroma,  the  animal  devours  it  with  avidity, 
and  consumes,  if  available,  a  larger  amount  of  food. 
At  the  same  time  the  flow  of  digestive  juices  on  the 
food  is  stimulated  to  a  much  larger  extent,  consequently 


a  larger  quantity  of  food  is  digested  and  the  animal 
benefits  accordingly. 

The  great  aim  of  the  feeder  is  to  have  all  the  foods 
which  he  feeds  to  stock,  palatable,  and  if  they  are 
naturally  deficient  in  flavour  or  aroma,  he  must  add 
treacle,  locust  beans,  etc.,  to  sweeten  them,  and  aromatic 
seeds,  such  as  aniseed,  fenugreek,  etc.,  to  give  them  an 
attractive  smell  (see  pp.  76  and  131). 

Economy. — In  the  making  up  of  rations  for  farm 
live  stock,  the  business  farmer  will  keep  in  view  the 
possibility  of  substituting  one  class  of  concentrated 
food  for  another  (e.g.  gram  for  beans),  as  long  as  the 
substitute  is  cheaper L  and  is  equally  suitable  so  far  as 
the  digestible  constituents  are  concerned.  Sometimes  a 
flavourless,  but  otherwise  good,  substitute  for  a  con- 
centrate may  be  utilised  provided  it  is  made  attractive 
by  spicing. 

Again,  hay  or  grain  which  is  not  very  good  through 
being  weathered  during  harvesting,  may  be  utilised 
for  feeding  purposes,  provided  it  is  only  fed  in  small 
quantities  at  a  time  after  it  has  been  mixed  with  other 
wholesome  foods. 

In  certain  cases,  considerable  saving  might  be 
effected  by  chaffing  the  bulky  fodders,  and  bruising  any 
grain  that  may  be  included  in  the  ration.  This,  apart 
from  avoiding  waste,  reduces  the  amount  of  energy 
required  for  masticating  the  food,  thus  leaving  a  greater 
surplus  of  nutrients  for  production  (see  p.  140). 

1   For  rough  method  of  ascertaining  whether  foods  are  dear  or 
cheap,  see  p.  122. 



The  chief  art  in  making  up  rations  is  to  supply  the 
animal  with  a  balanced  ration  which  is  digestible, 
palatable,  and  sufficiently  laxative. 

Generally  speaking,  the  basal  part  of  the  ration 
for  horses,  cattle,  and  sheep  consists  of  home-grown 
bulky  fodders  (grass,  hay,  and  straw)  and  roots. 
These  are  nearly  all  poor  in  albuminoids,  fat,  and 
carbohydrates.  At  the  same  time  the  fodder  crops 
are  very  high  in  fibre,  hence  the  need  to  enrich  the 
ration  for  production  purposes  (beef,  mutton,  bacon, 
milk,  work)  by  adding  concentrated  foods  which  are 
rich  in  albuminoids,  fat,  and  carbohydrates,  but 
usually  low  in  fibre. 

(1)  The  Approximate  Method. 

The  concentrated  part  of  ration  is  the  chief  con- 
sideration in  this  method. 

Horses. — A  full-grown  horse  at  work,  receiving  a 
basal  ration  of,  say,  ij  stones  hay  and  4  to  7  Ibs.  roots 
per  day,  should  have  the  following  conditions  fulfilled 
in  the  concentrated  part  of  ration  :— 

1.  It  should  contain  12  to  16  per  cent,  albuminoids. 

2.  It  should  contain  4  to  5  per  cent.  fat. 

3.  It  should  not,  as  a  rule,  contain  over  8  per  cent. 


4.  The  quantity  to  feed  should   be   approximately 

I  Ib.  per  100  Ibs.  live  weight. 

To  test  a  given  ration,  multiply  the  percentages  of 
albuminoids,  fat,  and  fibre  by  the  number  of  pounds  of 
each  food  in  the  ration,  and  divide  the  total  percentages 
of  each  of  the  nutrients  by  the  total  number  of  pounds 
of  concentrated  food  in  the  daily  ration. 


Take,  for  example,  the  following  daily  ration  : — 



in  Ration. 




per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

Cracked  maize,  4  Ibs. 




Bruised  oats,  5  Ibs.   . 




Bran,  3  Ibs. 




Bean  meal,  2  Ibs. 




(a)  Calculation  of  Percentage  of  Albuminoids  in 

Concentrated  Food — 

Maize  meal      .  .     4  Ibs.  x   io|  per  cent.   =  42 

Bruised  oats    .  .     5    „     x  n         „  =55 

Bran    .  .     3    „     x   14         „  =42 

Bean  meal       .  .     2    „     x  25         „  =   50 

14    »  189 

.'.  Percentage  of  albuminoids  =  — ?  =  13^  per  cent. 


(b)  Calculation  of  Percentage  of  Oil  in   Concentrated  Food — 

Maize  .  .  .4  Ibs.  x  5    per  cent.  =   20 

Oats  .  .     5    „     x  5  =25 

Bran  .  .     3    „     x  4        „  =12 

Beans  .  .  .     2    „     x  i^      „  =3 

r4    „  _6o 

.'.   Percentage  of  oil  =  —  =  4^  per  cent. 

(c)  Calculation  of  Percentage  of  Fibre  in  Concentrated  Food — 

Maize  .  .  .4  Ibs.  x     2  per  cent.  =     8 

Oats  .  .  .     5    „  x  10        ,,  =50 

Bran  .  .  .     3    „  x     9        „  =27 

Beans  .  .  .     2    ,,  x     7         „  =14 

14    „  99 


.*.  Percentage  of  fibre  =  —  =  7  per  cent. 



This  rather  heavy  ration  for  a  work-horse  meets  the 
above  requirements,  and  is  therefore  a  "  balanced  "  ration 
for  a  work-horse. 

No  account  is  taken  of  the  carbohydrates,  as,  with 
ordinary  food-stuffs  which  satisfy  the  above  require- 
ments, it  may  generally  be  assumed  that  they  will  be 
present  in  sufficient  quantity. 

Cattle. — Fattening  bullocks,  dairy  cows,  or  very 
young  cattle. — Basal  ration,  straw  and  roots  or  hay 
and  roots,  or  hay,  straw  and  roots. 

(a)  Bullocks  in  early  stages  of  fattening  with  straw  and 
roots  :  concentrated  part  of  ration  should  contain  : — 




.     15  to  20  per  cent. 
.       4  to    6       „ 
(not  exceeding)    15       „ 

Feed  at  the  rate  of  \  to  I  Ib.  concentrates  per  100  Ibs. 
live  weight. 

Take  for  example  a  daily  ration  for  a  two-year-old 
bullock  weighing  800  Ibs.,  allowing  J  Ib.  per  100  Ibs. 
live  weight. 

Concentrates  in  Ration  per  Head. 




Maize  meal     .         .         .2  )bs. 
Egyptian  cotton  cake      .2    ,, 






4  Ibs. 




In  Mixed  Ration   . 

16*  % 



(b)  Later  stages  of  fattening  with  straw  and  roots, 
concentrated  part  of  ration  should  contain  : — 




.     20  to  25  per  cent. 
.       6  to    8       „ 
(not  exceeding)  10       „ 


Feed    at   the    rate    of    I  Ib.   concentrates   per  100  Ibs. 
live  weight. 

Take   for   example   a   daily  ration    for  a  two-year- 
old  bullock  (8  to  9  cwts.) : — 

Concentrates  in  Ration  per  Head. 




Decorticated  cotton  cake.    3  Ibs. 
Egyptian  cotton  cake      .  2    ,, 
Maize  meal     .         .         .  4    „ 





9  Ibs. 




In  Mixed  Ration     . 

23*  % 



(c)  Cows  in  milk  getting  hay  and  roots,  concentrated 
part  of  ration  should  contain  : — 




.     16  to  20  per  cent. 

4  to    6       „ 
(not  exceeding)  10       ., 

With  a  cow*  weighing  8  cwts.,  and  in  full  milk  (3 
galls,  per  day),  the  following  would  be  a  suitable 
daily  ration  : — 

Concentrates  in  Ration  per  Head. 




Decorticated  cotton  cake  2  Ibs. 




Bran       .         .         .         .  2    „ 




Ground  oats   .         .         •  3    » 




Maize     .         .         .         .  3    „ 




I  o  Ibs. 




In  Mixed  Ration    . 




The    amount    of    concentrated    food    required    by 
milking  cows  would  be  \  to  \  Ib.  for  every  pound  of 


114         THI       0CK1  EfiDBI  s  COMPANION* 

yielded  per  'lay;  ^.,  -  •/,.  milk 

food  per  'lay. 

A  belt'  ;;ive  each  milk  cov/  j  to  £  lb. 

of  concentrated  food  per  d ay  for  every 

2  ]}/•„   f'  ;,ilk 

yielded  per  day  (i.e.,  i  lb.  [>cr  quart  of  milk). 
K<^  yonn"  HHI  in  fits. — For 


following   '.taii'larH    would    \t<:    Mjitabh:   for    /'///////// 
part  of  ration  5— 



•>re  :,  '• 

Feed  i  to  2  lb»,  per  JOG  ;l)i. 

Sheep,—  Fattening     "tcg»w     or    "hoggf" 
receive  hay  and  roots  in  addition  to  concentrates.     1 
concentrated  foods  should  same  a  tioti 

as  the  standards 

Allow  i  II;.  for  every  TOO  Ibs,  live  weight. 

•\y  lambs  would  require  the  same  standard  for 
concentnted  food  ai  reiy  ^oung  animals^and  be  fed 
at  the  same  rale,  viz.,  i  to  2  it,  .  per  100  Ibs. 

Pig  Fattening. — For  pigs,  iis  old,  rece: 

ft  gallon   of  skim   milk    per  day,  with   a   meal    : 

Albuminoids         .  .  .     10  to  j  5  jx;r  r  • 

Oil ...  »     fl  to    /;      „ 


Feed  2  to  /;  rated  food  per  d 


i'-y  ine-al  ^o    lb->.;  and    skir/j   milk    (\    ^allv 
red    tr,    ;  ,,-jderfully    j^ood     ration     for 


a  .six  to  eight  month**'  old  fat  pig.    The  meal 

in  tin,  case  contains  albuminoid*,  10  per  cent;  fat, 

md  fibre,  5  per  cent 

With   whey  tii':  proportion  of  albuminoids  in  the 

.:i     ,houM    approximate  to  the  higher   figure   (15 

P'-r  cent).     The  addition  of  pea  meal  would  help  to 

brin?',  about.  this  result 

%  The  Daniflh  Method, 

'I'})':  Cop':nhaf><:h  Kxp':rim':nt.  Station  ha  ,  <•  ,t  ablrJi'-'l 

ndards  which  are  being  used  by  many  of 
Hi':  "<  'v'  .ouatiani  in  Denmark  chiefly  for  the 

of  dairy  cow»  and  the  fattening  of  pig», 

The  "Danish  food  standard"  10  i  Ib.  of  (what  is 

ndard    grain,  viz,,   barley  and    maize, 

'I'h':  values  of  all  ordinary  foods  used  are  expressed  in 

r  is  of  the  amount  which  is  considered  equal  to  I  Ib, 

of  barley  or  maize  for  feeding  purposes.    After  many 

!H  they  regard   t.h<:   following  equivalent  amounts 

for  praMiYal 

Equivalent  i  of  i  Ib,  Barley  or  Maize  (Danith  Pood  Standard^), 

Decorticated  cotton  cake  and  earth-nut  cake     .  0-8  Ji>. 

.'1  Hnteed  cake         .                               .  o<9  „ 

Wh*;;tf,  barley,  ar.'l  in:»i/'-                              .              ,  I/O  „ 

Oat,  .  .  ,  , 

Cummin*  (malt  »prout»)    .  1-2  „ 

'  at  bran           ,                                ,  '-4  » 

Milk          .          .          .                (one  quart)  2-5  „ 

•  *5  H 

Uoiled  potato*      .                                              .  4/0  „ 

firewert '  grainf ,  potatoes ,  »traw  chop  or  chaff1  5-0  „ 

•  k  or  buttermilk   .                     ,           ,  6*0  „ 

^)recn  xra»»  or  clover        .                                   ,  $<o  „ 

Hoot  rroji';  or  for;i;/<:  r.roj/;                              ,               ,   IO»O  w 



The  foods  mentioned  on  the  preceding  page  include 
those  fed  to  pigs  as  well  as  those  fed  to  dairy  cows,  and 
from  the  preceding  list  suitable  foods  are  selected  for  the 
building  up  of  rations  approximately  on  the  following 
lines : — 

"Milking  Cows:1— One  "Danish  standard"  is 
allowed  for  every  150  Ibs.  live  weight  of  animal;  in 
addition,  one  standard  for  every  3  Ibs.  of  milk  produced 
per  day,  but  the  foods  in  the  ration  are  selected  in 
such  a  way  as  to  supply  a  sufficiency  of  digestible 
albuminoids.  Take  a  cow  which  is  900  Ibs.  live  weight, 
the  "  food  standards  and  requirements  of  digestible 
albuminoids  "  would  be  as  follows  : — 

Daily  Milk  Yield. 

Danish  Food  Standards 
required  in  Ration. 

Minimum  Requirements  of 
Digestible  Albuminoids 
in  Ration. 

I  gall. 


I   Ib. 

2      „ 



3     „ 


2      „ 

4      n 



An  example  will  illustrate  how  to  ascertain  if  a 
given  ration  conforms  to  this  standard.  With  a  cow 
giving  3  galls,  of  milk  per  day  the  same  ration  may 
be  taken  as  the  one  for  milk  cows  (p.  113). 

Ration  per  Head. 

per  cent, 
in  Foods  taken. 

in  Ibs. 
in  Ration. 

Swedes,  30  Ibs  
Hay,  1  74  Ibs  
Decorticated  cotton  cake,  2  Ibs. 
Bran,  2  Ibs  
Oats  (crushed),  3  Ibs. 
Maize  meal,  3  Ibs. 

0-25  per  cent. 




0-075  Ib- 
0-700    , 
0-720  , 

0-200    , 

0-270    , 
0-210    , 

Digestible  Albuminoids  in  Ration  .         .         .     2-175  IDS- 



Ration  per  Head. 

Equal  to  One 
"  Food  Standard." 

Food  Standards 
in  Ration. 

Swedes,  30  Ibs  
Hay,  174  Ibs.     .         .        . 
Decorticated  cotton  cake,  2  Ibs. 

10     Ibs. 

2-5    , 
•8    , 

1-4    , 
i-i    , 

10     , 





Oats  (crushed),  3  Ibs. 
Maize  meal,  3  Ibs. 

Food  Standards  in  Ration      .         •        .         .19-6 

The  requirements  according  to  the  Danish  standard 
for  a  cow  giving  3  galls,  of  milk  per  day  are : — 16 
food  standards  and  a  minimum  of  2  Ibs.  digestible 
albuminoids ;  hence  the  above  ration  is  more  than 
sufficient.  It  will  be  noticed  that  in  calculating  these 
standards  the  fodder  crops  and  roots  are  included  in 
the  calculations. 

Fattening  Pigs. — Weaned  pigs  are  divided  into 
four  groups  or  classes,  according  to  live  weight,  viz. : — 

1.  Under 

2.  40  tO 

40  Ibs. 
60  Ibs. 

60  to  1 20  Ibs. 
120  to  200  Ibs. 

The  rations  allow  for  each  pig  receiving  from  two 
up  to  about  six  food  standards  according  to  age,  and  as 
skim  milk  is  a  very  common  constituent  of  Danish  fatten- 
ing rations,  they  are  made  up  on  the  following  lines : — 

Proportion  of  each  Constituent  fn  Ration. 


in  Ration. 

Skim  Milk. 

Barley  Meal,  or 
its  Equivalent 
in  Meals. 

Roots,  or 
Green  Foods. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 


2  to  3 




3  to  4 





4  to  5 





5  to  6 






A  pig  in  class  3  (60  to  120  Ibs.  live  weight)  may 
receive  a  ration  of  nearly  f  gall,  skim  milk,  5  Ibs. 
barley  meal,  and  3  Ibs.  boiled  potatoes.  This  will  work 
out  as  follows  : — 

Proportion  of 


Amount  Equal 
to  One 
Food  Standard. 

Food  Standards 
in  Ration. 

each  Constituent 
in  Ration  on 
Food  Standard 


Skim  milk,  6  Ibs. 



1  6  per  cent. 

Barley  meal,  4^  Ibs.     . 



75       „ 

Boiled  potatoes,  2  Ibs.  . 



9       „ 

The  proportion  of  each  food  in  the  ration  is  very 
approximately  correct,  but  we  have  six  food  standards 
in  the  ration  when  there  should  be  beween  four  and 
five ;  hence  by  reducing  each  food  in  the  ration  by 
one-sixth,  we  should  have  five  food  standards  in  the 
daily  ration.  The  correct  mixture  would  then  be  5  Ibs. 
skim  milk  (J  gall.) ;  barley  meal,  3f  Ibs. ;  potatoes, 
if  Ibs. 

(3)  The  Scientific  Method. 

Kellner^s  Standard  Rations,  per  1000  Ibs.  Live   Weight. 


Kind  of  Animal. 


AVaf  f  or 






Growing  cattle  (fattening),  6  to 
12  months  old,  and  weighing 





about  550  Ibs.  live  weight 





Fattening  oxen  (full  grown) 

24  to  32 



13  to  16 

Milking  cows,  yielding  3  galls. 
per  day  of  milk  per  1000  Ibs. 

live  weight      .... 

27  to  33 

2-6  to  3-0 



Sheep  (fattening),  full-grown     . 

24  to  32 




Pigs  (fattening) 

28  to  33 




Horses  (medium  work)       .         .    21  to  26          1-6 





In  this  case  the  body  requirements  of  the  animal 
have  been  found  by  Kellner  after  his  laborious  and 
exceedingly  important  work  with  animal  nutrition  at 
Mochern  (Leipzig).  Half  a  dozen  standard  rations  are 
given  as  examples.  (See  table  on  preceding  page.) 

A  new  element  is  introduced  in  this  table,  namely, 
that  of  the  dry  matter.  Take,  for  example,  the  ration 
for  a  dairy  cow  given  on  p.  116;  then,  by  reference  to 
the  table  on  p.  46,  it  is  not  difficult  to  arrive  at  the 
dry  matter  in  a  food  : — 

Ration  per  Head. 

Percentage  of 
Dry  Matter 

Pounds  of 
Dry  Matter 

in  Food. 

in  Ration. 

Swedes,  30  Ibs. 



Hay,  17  J  Ibs.  . 



Decorticated  cotton  cake,  2  Ibs 



Bran,  2  Ibs. 



Oats  (crushed),  3  Ibs. 



Maize  meal,  3  Ibs.    . 



Total  Dry  Matter  in  Ration    .        .        .     27-36  Ibs. 

The  weight  of  digestible  albuminoids  has  been 
calculated  out  on  p.  116,  and  in  the  same  way  the 
digestible  fat  and  digestible  carbohydrates  may  also 
be  ascertained.  The  content  of  this  ration  is  con- 
sequently found  to  be  : — 


lellner's  Standard 
per  1000  Ibs.  Live 
Weight.     Milk 
Yield,  8  galls, 
per  day. 

Actual  in  Food 
for  Cow  of  900  Ibs. 
Live  Weight. 

Food  Required 
per  1000  Ibs. 
Live  Weight 
at  same  rate. 




Dry  matter     . 

27  to  33 



Digestible  albuminoids  . 

2'6  to  3-0 



Digestible  fat 




Digestible  carbohydrates 

13-9  to  15-3 




It  will  be  observed  that  this  ration,  which  has 
satisfied  the  Approximate  method  and  the  Danish 
method,  is  found  to  be  a  little  too  low  in  digestible 
albuminoids  when  the  scientific  method  is  employed. 
If,  however,  the  decorticated  cotton  cake  were  increased 
by  \  Ib.  per  head  per  day,  the  digestible  albuminoids 
would  be  raised  to  2-63  Ibs. ;  the  whole  ration  would 
then  supply  the  requirements  of  the  Kellner  standard. 

The  farmer  will,  as  a  rule,  find  that  the  approximate 
method,  which  is  much  the  simplest,  will  generally  be 
sufficient  for  his  purpose. 


It  is  very  difficult  to  devise  a  satisfactory  method 
of  valuing  foods,  seeing  that  they  vary  so  much  in 
composition  and  digestibility.  The  value  of  the  food 
to  the  animal  must  be  taken  in  conjunction  with  the 
value  of  the  manurial  residue,  if  its  real  value  is  to 
be  obtained.  Even  when  all  these  are  taken  into 
account,  and  the  food  valued  accurately  from  its  chemical 
constituents,  there  are  such  important  things  as  palat- 
ability,  laxativeness,  etc.,  for  which  it  is  difficult  to  fix 
a  proper  value. 

The  "  Food  Unit "  system  values  the  food  from 
its  chemical  composition  alone,  without  considering  its 
digestibility ;  while  the  second  system  takes  into  con- 
sideration the  food  which  is  retained  by  the  animal 
body,  and  makes  allowance  for  the  manurial  residue. 

(a)  Food  Unit  System. — The  method  employed  in 
obtaining  the  number  of  "  food  units  "  in  a  food,  is  by 
multiplying  the  actual  percentage  of  albuminoids  and 
oil  by  2j,  and  adding  these  results  to  the  percentage  of 
carbohydrates.  The  total  then  represents  the  number 


of  food  units  in  the  food.  E.g.^  linseed  cake  contains  : 
albuminoids,  30  per  cent.  ;  oil,  10  per  cent.  ;  carbo- 
hydrates, 34  per  cent.  ;  hence  :  — 

30  x  2  \  +  10  x  2  J  +  34  =  Food  units  in  linseed  cake. 

75      +      25      +34  = 

i34  =  „  „ 

The  "  value  of  a  food  unit,"  or  the  "  unit  value,"  is 
obtained  by  dividing  the  price  per  ton  by  the  number 
of  food  units  in  the  food.  E.g.,  suppose  the  above 
linseed  cake  could  be  bought  for  £9  per  ton,  the  unit 

u   u       £9  . 

value  would  be  —  2-  =  —    -   =    is.  4d. 
134          134 

One  could  now  value  approximately  and  compare 
other  linseed  cakes  by  ascertaining  the  food  units  they 
contain  and  multiplying  this  number  by  is.  4d. 

This  system  may  also  be  used  for  valuing  and  com- 
paring foods  of  a  similar  nature  and  composition  ;  e.g., 
decorticated  cake  and  soya  bean  cake. 

Albu-  on  Carbo-  Pood 

minoids.  hydrates.         units. 

Decorticated  cotton  cake    .     41x2^  +  9x2^     +     26     =     151 
Soya  bean  cake  .        .        .     43x2!  +  7x2^     +     27     =     152 

The  food  units  in  these  two  foods  are  practically  equal, 
and  unless  the  units  in  one  case  are  more  valuable  than 
those  in  the  other,  the  cakes  would  be  of  equal  value.  The 
unit  value  of  decorticated  cotton  cake  is  approximately 
is.  2d.,  that  is,  2d.  less  than  for  linseed  cake,  which 
shows  that  a  level  "  unit  value  "  for  all  concentrated 
foods  is  not  feasible. 

Further,  foods  rich  in  fibre  require  much  more 
energy  for  digestion,  and  are  consequently  less  valuable 
per  food  unit  for  feeding  purposes. 

A  rough  idea  of  whether  any  particular  food  is  cheap 
or  dear  at  present  market  prices  may  be  obtained  by 


putting  money  values  on  the  albuminoids,  oil,  and 
carbohydrates1  respectively  guaranteed  in  the  food 
under  consideration ;  but  for  this  purpose  it  is 
necessary  to  divide  concentrated  foods  into  two 
groups,  according  to  their  fibre  content,  viz. : — 

Group  I.  Those   containing  less  than   12  per  cent. 

fibre   (except   those   with    over   40   per   cent. 

Group  II.  Those  containing  over  12  per  cent,  fibre 

(including    those     with     over    40    per    cent. 


Then  by  allowing  the  following  unit  values 2  (which, 
by  the  way,  may  vary  from  year  to  year),  viz. : — 

Albuminoids.  Oil.  Carbohydrates. 

I.     33.  3d.  33.  3d.  is.  3d. 

II.     23.  gd.  2s.  9d.  is.  id. 

the  estimated  value  per  ton  will  be  obtained. 

The  following  examples  will  show  how  to  apply 
this  method  with,  say,  linseed  cake,  oatmeal,  decorticated 
cotton  cake,  and  dried  brewers'  grains  : — 

Group  I.  Linseed  Cake.  Oatmeal. 

Albuminoids  .  30  %  at  3/3  =  ^4  17  6  15  %  at  3/3  =  ^2  8  9 
Oil  .  .  .  10%  at  3/3=  112  6  8  %  at  3/3=  i  6  o 

Carbohydrates      34  %  at  1/3=    2    2    6         60  %  at  1/3=    315    o 

Prices  per  ton  .        .^8126          .        .        .     £7    9    9 

Group  II.  Decorticated  Cotton  Cake.  Dried  Grains. 

Albuminoids     .  41  %  at  2/9  =  ^5  12    9  20  %  at  2/9  =  ^2  15  o 

Oil    .         .         .  9  %  at  2/9=    i    4    9  7  %  at  2/9=    o  19  3 

Carbohydrates  26%ati/i=    i    8    2  42  %  at  i/i  =    2    5  6 

Prices  per  ton  .         .  £8    5    8          .         .         .     £5  19    9 

1  The  percentage  of  carbohydrates  is  not  stated  on  an  invoice, 
and  an   average  analysis   for  the  food  in  question  will  need  to 
be  taken  from  the  average  analysis  given  on  pp.  45-47. 

2  These  prices  are  for  autumn  of  1914. 


When  the  market  price  is  in  excess  of  the  estimated 
value  the  food  is  generally  dear,  when  below,  it  is 
cheap,  provided  the  condition  is  good  and  it  is  suitably 
blended.  It  will  be  noticed  that  this  system  does  not 
take  any  notice  of  the  palatability  of  a  food,  and  only 
indirectly  the  digestibility,  but  includes  manurial  value. 

(b)  Manurial  Residue. — The  undigested  part  of  the 
food,  known  as  the  solid  excrement,  is  fairly  rich  in 
nitrogen,  phosphates,  and  potash,  consequently  it 
has  considerable  value  as  a  manure  for  farm  crops. 
Further,  the  digested  part  is  only  partially  retained 
by  the  animal  body,  which  makes  the  liquid  excrement 
rich  in  nitrogen  and  potash. 

These  residues  have  been  valued  by  Hall  and 
Voelcker  in  the  following  table  (see  pp.  124-26).  In 
practice  the  full  theoretical  manurial  value  of  the  residue 
is  not  realised,  on  acount  of  leakage,  which  is,  even  with 
the  greatest  care,  considerable,  and  in  other  cases 
enormous.  An  allowance  has  been  made  in  the  last 
column  of  the  table  for  leakage  of  manurial  constituents, 
but  it  is  necessary  that  precautions  should  be  taken  to 
have  an  impervious  floor,  to  prevent  washing  by  rain  as 
well  as  heating  of  the  manure,  if  these  manurial  values 
are  to  be  realised. 

The  net  cost  of  the  food  for  feeding  purposes  is 
therefore  the  total  cost  per  ton,  less  the  value  of  the 
residue  actually  retained  in  the  manure. 


Several  devices  have  to  be  adopted  by  the  feeder 
of  stock  to  overcome  difficulties  which  arise  in  his 
efforts  to  supply  the  stock  with  a  wholesome,  palatable, 
and  at  the  same  time  economical  ration.  Some  of 
these  are  as  follows  : — 



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1.  Drying,  or  Haymaking. — Green  foods  like  grasses 
and  clovers  are  made  into  hay  (i.e.  dried  in  air),  after 
which,  with  ordinary  care,  they  will  keep  sweet  for  one 
or  more  years. 

In  England  it  is  usual  to  cut  the  grass,  turn  it  and 
possibly  ted  it,  till  sufficiently  dry.  A  side-delivery 
rake  places  it  in  a  row,  from  which  it  is  made  into  small 
heaps  called  "cocks,"  containing  \  to  I  cwt.  each.  After 
a  few  days  it  is  carted  and  made  into  a  stack,  the 
whole  operation  being  concluded  in  a  week  or  a 
fortnight,  according  to  the  weather. 

In  Scotland  as  soon  as  the  grass  is  turned  and 
approximately  air-dried,  although  too  green  to  cart 
it  is  placed  in  large  heaps  or  "  tramp  coils  "  in  the  field, 
each  containing  10  to  20  cwts.  of  hay.  In  wet  districts 
a  "  boss "  is  placed  in  the  middle  to  facilitate  drying. 
After  one  or  two  months  it  is  carted  and  stacked. 

The  chief  difference,  although  not  constant,  is  that 
English  hay  "sweats"  a  little,  and  becomes  a  nice 
brownish  yellow  colour,  while  the  Scotch  hay  retains, 
more  or  less,  its  natural  colour. 

2.  Silage. — Occasionally  in  Great  Britain  the  weather 
is  very  wet  at  haymaking  time,  and  any  hope  of  getting 
the  grass  dried  with  the  sun  may  seem,  at  the  moment, 
remote.  In  such  a  case,  the  grass  may  be  cut  and 
carted  at  once  into  a  stack,  or  in  some  cases  a  cemented 
pit  called  a  silo.  The  grass  settles  down  very  consider- 
ably, and  becomes  dark  brown  in  colour,  with  a  very 
strong  smell.  It  is  then  called  silage.  Stock,  however, 
eat  it,  and  it  has  a  rather  laxative  effect  on  the  system. 
Although  grass  may  be  preserved  in  this  way,  it  is 
better,  where  possible,  to  make  it  into  hay. 

In  America,  green  maize  is  chaffed  and  blown  into 
a  tall  cylindrical  building  (silo).  It  is  simply  trodden 


down  with  a  couple  of  men,  and  will  then  keep  for  two 
years  or  even  more.  This  silage  has  a  much  nicer  ap- 
pearance than  silage  made  from  grass  in  Great  Britain. 

3.  Chaffing. — This  term  is  applied  to  the  cutting  of 
hay  and   straw  into  very  short  lengths  by  machinery. 
The  resulting  chaff  or  chop  is  most  useful  for  mixing 
with  pulped  roots  and  concentrated  foods.     In  this  way 
the  hay  and  straw  go  much  further,  largely  because  there 
is  less  wasted  from  the  rack  or  "  cratch."     Hay  of  rather 
inferior  quality  can  be  gradually  worked  off  in  this  way. 

For  fattening  animals  the  mechanical  energy 
demanded  from  the  body  to  chew,  masticate,  and  pass 
these  bulky  foods  along  the  alimentary  canal  is 
minimised  when  the  hay  and  straw  have  been  chaffed 
in  this  way.  The  same  thing  applies  to  grinding 
concentrated  foods. 

4.  Pulping,  fingering,  and  slicing  Roots. — For  young 
stock  as  well  as  for  mixing  with  chaffed  hay  and  straw, 
the  roots  must  be  reduced  to  small  pieces  by  machinery. 
Pulping   cuts   the   roots   into  very  small  pieces,  while 
fingering  cuts  the  roots  into  pieces  like  human  fingers. 
Slicing  means  cutting  the  roots  into  parallel  slices  of, 
say,  half-inch  in    thickness.     Pulped  roots  are  chiefly 
used  for  mixing  with  chaffed  hay  and  straw  ;  fingered 
roots,  although  sometimes   fed  with  chaff,  are  largely 
used  for  sheep ;   while  sliced    roots  are  fed   to  cattle 
which  are  unable,  on  account  of  teething  changes,  to 
eat  or  "break"  whole  roots. 

5.  Grinding,  Rolling,   and   Nutting. — These   terms 
refer  to  different  methods  of  bruising  seeds,  grain,  or 
cakes.     Grinding   reduces   the   food   to  a    meal,   while 
rolling  simply  squeezes  it  out  flat.     Meal  is  preferable 
for  feeding  with  chaffed   hay  and   straw.     Rolled  oats 
are  better  fed  to  horses  in  the  dry  state. 


A.  Crop  of  Green  Maize  at  the  MacDonald  Agricultural  College, 
Quebec  (p.  127). 

[Photos  by  Author. 
B.  American  Silo?.— Specially  constructed  to  store  Maize  Silage. 

[To  face  p.  120. 


Cakes  may  be  ground  down  to  a  meal,  or  may  be 
broken  into  small  pieces  or  "  nuts."  In  the  latter  case 
the  cake  is  said  to  be  "nutted."  Some  cake  manu- 
facturers are  making  the  cake  into  cakettes,  and  in  a 
few  cases  small  "nuts"  or  cubes  of  one  inch  each  side; 
the  great  advantage  being  that  it  dispenses  with 
nutting  the  cakes  on  the  farm. 

6.  Softening    Coarse     Poods. — Coarse,    hard    con- 
centrates like   undecorticated  cotton   cakes  should   be 
nutted  for  a  week  or  a  fortnight  before  being  fed  to 
stock,  as  the  nutted  cake  absorbs  moisture  from  the  air 
and  becomes  very  much  softer.     Apart  from  this,  nails 
may  sometimes  be  detected  and  removed  before  feeding. 

Hay  and  straw  chop,  wheat  chaff,  and  oat  chaff  may 
be  mixed  with  pulped  roots,  and  possibly  water  added. 
The  mass  is  left  for  at  least  half  a  day  to  enable  the 
moist  roots  and  water  to  soften  the  coarse  straw,  and 
later  bring  about  slight  fermentation,  so  as  to  make 
the  ration  more  attractive  to  stock. 

Inferior  foods  are  often  used  up  in  this  way,  the 
food  being  made  attractive  with  treacle,  locust-bean 
meal,  or  other  condimental  foods  (see  p.  76). 

7.  Steeping. — Many    folks    believe     that     if    con- 
centrated foods  are  steeped  in  water  and  fed  to  milking 
cows  in  the  form  of  a  thick  gruel  or   "crowdy,"  that 
the  yield  of  milk  will  be  increased.     This  may  be  the 
result  for  a  short  time  after   the  commencement,  but 
experiments   at    Offerton    Hall,    County    Durham,    do 
not  show  that  this  method  of  preparing  the  food  is 
justified  by  results. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  give  either  wheat  or  barley 
in  the  raw  state  to  horses;  in  fact,  wheat  is  often  blamed 
for  giving  horses  "fever  of  the  feet"  (laminitis).  If, 
however,  these  foods  have  been  previously  steeped, 



they  can  be  fed  to  horses  as  part  of  the  ration  without 
much  fear. 

For  calves  the  gruel  fed  to  them  may  be  made  by 
steeping  the  meals  in  cold  water  for  half  a  day  before 
feeding,  instead  of  scalding  it  and  feeding  almost 

8.  Cooking  or  Steaming. — This  is  applied  to  foods 
which  have  either  been  steamed  or  treated  with  hot  water. 
It  has  the  effect  of  softening  the  food,  and  often  improving 
the  palatability.  Experiments  do  not  appear  to  show 
that  cooked  food  is  more  digestible  than  uncooked, 
although  it  may  be  more  readily  eaten  by  stock. 

With  horses,  foods  which  have  been  boiled  (beans, 
barley,  linseed)  or  treated  with  boiling  water  and  made 
into  a  mash  (bran),  are  used  in  the  winter  months  to 
facilitate  the  casting  of  the  coat  The  same  foods  may 
be  used  as  occasional  laxatives. 

For  pigs,  potatoes  may  be  boiled  or  steamed  and 
mashed  up  with  meals,  so  as  to  make  an  attractive  feed. 

Cake  manufacturers  generally  cook  or  steam  the 
foods  before  they  press  them  into  cakes  for  cattle 
feeding.  Calf  meals  are  often  made  into  gruels  with 
boiling  water  before  being  served  to  young  calves ; 
those  calf  meals  containing  ground  linseed  cake  should 
be  moistened  and  stirred  with  a  little  cold  water  before 
adding  boiling  water,  otherwise  the  gruel  is  apt  to  form 
into  lumps  and  the  inside  of  the  lumps  remain  uncooked. 

9.  Warming  foods  in  cold  weather  may  have  a 
rather  considerable  effect,  seeing  that  all  cold  food 
taken  into  the  system  must  be  heated  up  to  the 
temperature  of  the  body  at  the  expense  of  the  food  ; 
further,  the  effect  of  a  sudden  chill  on  the  system  of 
stock  generally  does  not  tend  to  improve  the  health. 
There  appears  to  be  ground  for  believing  that  in  cooked 


foods  or  gruels  fed  warm,  any  benefit  derived  is  more 
due  to  their  being  fed  warm  than  to  the  actual  cooking. 

10.  Condiments.— These  are  generally  vegetable 
substances  which  give  flavour  and  often  aroma  to 
unpalatable  foods,  thus  making  them  acceptable  to 
stock.  Appetising  foods  appear  to  increase  the  flow 
of  the  digestive  juices,  and  encourage  stock  to  eat  a 
larger  quantity  than  they  would  otherwise  do.  In 
fattening  cattle  this  is  very  important,  since,  generally 
speaking  and  within  certain  limits,  the  more  food  the 
animal  can  be  induced  to  eat,  the  quicker  it  will  fatten, 
and  some  saving  will  have  been  effected  on  the  food, 
more  especially  with  regard  to  the  maintaining  of 
the  body  temperature  at  approximately  40°  F.  above 
atmospheric  temperature  for  a  shorter  period  than 
would  otherwise  have  been  the  case. 

In  the  case  of  horses  doing  hard  work,  they  may 
not  eat  a  sufficient  quantity  of  unattractive  foods  to 
enable  them  to  perform  their  daily  work,  consequently 
they  lose  flesh,  but  with  the  addition  of  some  condimental 
food  they  may  often  be  induced  to  eat  sufficient  food 
each  day  to  keep  them  fit  and  trim  for  the  work. 

The  same  argument  could  be  applied  to  young 
animals  which  are  growing  rapidly.  Hence  for  rapid 
growth,  fattening,  and  for  work,  even  with  concentrated 
but  possibly  tasteless  or  unpalatable  foods,  it  is  advis- 
able and  often  necessary  to  add  spices  to  the  ration  to 
make  it  more  appetising. 

With  inferior  foods,  such  as  hay  which  has.  been 
weathered  and  probably  gone  slightly  mouldy,  it  is 
very  necessary  to  add  spices  or  condiments  to  disguise 
the  flavour.  Theoretically  such  hay  should  not  be  fed, 
but  in  practice  it  is  often  necessary  to  use  hay  up 
in  this  way. 


Condiments  and  condimental  foods  are  only  used 
in  sufficient  quantity  to  make  the  other  concentrated 
foods  attractive.  They  may  consist  of  one  substance, 
or  a  mixture  from  several  sources  ;  e.g.,  broken  (kibbled) 
locust  beans,  ground  locust  beans,  malt  coombs 
(cummins),  treacle,  and  possibly  oatmeal  and  oat 
hulls,  are  all  single  substances  which  are  commonly 
used.  Locust  beans  and  treacle  sweeten  foods  con- 
siderably, while  cummins  and  oatmeal  give  a  pleasant 

Condimental  mixtures  may  contain  several  in- 
gredients which  stimulate  the  flow  of  saliva  and  diges- 
tive juices,  and  to  some  extent  purify  the  blood.  The 
following  would  be  a  fairly  typical  and  cheap  J  cwt. 
mixture : — 

Sulphur          .....  4  Ibs. 

Saltpetre        .  .  .  .  4    „ 

Common  salt .  .  .  .  I     „ 

Fenugreek  (powdered)          .  .          .  .  2    „ 

Gentian       (       „        )  .  .  i     „ 

Aniseed      (        „         )  .  i     „ 

Ginger        (       „        )  .  .  i     „ 

Locust-bean  meal      ,  .  .  .  14     „ 

Maize  meal    .  .  .  .  .  28    „ 

56  Ibs. 


The  type  of  draught  horse  which  is  at  the  same 
time  most  suitable  for  work  and  most  valuable  when 
the  horse  is  to  be  sold,  is  one  which  possesses  a  good 
constitution,  a  big  massive  body,  with  sound  legs  and 
feet.  The  horse  should  have  good  action,  clean  flat 
bones,  and  its  legs  should  be  attached  to  the  body 


and  shaped  in  such  a  way  as  to  stand  severe  work. 
In  addition,  horses  affected  with  roaring,  grunting, 
shivering,  cribbing,  and  similar  defects  should  be 

Undoubtedly  the  breeding  of  the  animal  has  a 
great  part  to  play  in  securing  an  animal  of  this  type, 
especially  when  one  remembers  that  so  many  defects 
like  sidebone,  ringbone,  shivering,  etc.,  are  hereditary ; 
but  what  concerns  us  chiefly  at  this  point  is  the  feeding 
of  horses  from  birth  to  maturity,  in  such  a  way  as  to 
secure  size,  substance,  and  avoid  injuring  the  legs  by 
careless  feeding  ;  in  fact,  muscular  development  in  young 
horses  is  all-important. 

Brood  Mares. — It  is  usual  to  commence  the  mare 
breeding  at  about  three  years  old,  the  period  of  gesta- 
tion extending  over  eleven  months.  Pregnant  mares 
require  plenty  of  fresh  air  and  exercise,  and  a  fairly 
liberal  diet,  which  is  sufficiently  rich  in  albuminoids  and 
bone-forming  materials  (phosphates  and  lime)  to  support 
and  develop  the  foetus.  Cold  spring  water  should  not, 
generally  speaking,  be  given  to  mares  in  foal,  as  well 
as  any  foods  that  are  liable  to  produce  flatulency  or 
colic,  e.g.,  bean  meal,  raw  potatoes,  etc. 

Unless  the  mare  is  out  at  grass  at  foaling  time, 
she  will  require  a  fairly  laxative  diet,  e.g.,  bran  mashes, 
etc.,  so  as  to  get  her  bowels  working  fairly  freely,  and 
thus  facilitate  foaling.  If  the  mare  is  to  foal  in  a  loose- 
box,  it  should  have  been  previously  cleaned  out  and 
disinfected,  so  as  to  free  the  walls  and  floors  from  the 
germs  which  are  responsible  for  navel  ill  or  joint  felon  ; 
in  fact,  the  navel  should  be  disinfected  and  tied 
immediately  after  foaling  with  string  which  has  been 
previously  soaked  in  a  disinfectant. 

Grass   is  the   natural  food  for  milk,  but  if  this  is 


insufficient  or  not  available,  it  will  be  necessary 
to  gradually  substitute  the  bran  mashes  at  foaling 
time  with  other  concentrated  foods,  which  will  in- 
crease the  flow  of  milk,  such  as  ground  oats,  maize 
meal,  bran,  bean  meal  and  linseed  cake.  Mangels, 
swedes,  or  forage  crops  (vetches,  etc.)  would  be  most 
useful  along  with  some  nice  sweet  hay.  If  roots  are 
scarce,  treacle  may  be  used  on  the  hay  crop. 

The  Foal. — As  soon  as  the  foal  is  strong  enough  to 
stand  up,  it  may  be  necessary  to  assist  it  in  getting  its 
first  drink  of  milk.  Shortly  after  this  drink  it  is  usual 
for  the  bowels  to  work. 

If  the  foal  is  persistently  costive,  it  would  be 
necessary  to  give  the  mare  a  more  laxative  diet,  e.g., 
bran  mashes,  roots,  forage  crops,  etc.,  while  in  extreme 
cases  the  foal  may  be  given  a  tablespoonful  of  castor 

Mare's  milk  is  poor  in  albuminoids  (2  per  cent.) 
and  fat  (ij  per  cent.),  but  rich  in  sugar  (5j  per  cent), 
hence  for  orphan  foals  cow's  milk  may  be  used,  pro- 
vided it  is  made  to  approximate  to  the  composition 
of  mare's  milk.  This  can  be  done  by  taking  two-thirds 
cow's  milk  and  one-third  water,  adding  one  or  two 
teaspoonfuls  of  sugar  for  every  pint  of  the  mixture  of 
milk  and  water. 

In  Norfolk,  after  foals  are  two  weeks  old  they 
are  sometimes  fed  in  addition  to  their  mother's  milk 
with  skim  milk,  boiled  linseed,  and  bean  meal, 
getting  by  weaning  time  (six  months  old)  probably 
as  much  as  2  galls,  milk  and  3  to  4  Ibs.  mixed  meals 
per  day. 

The  Young  Horse. — The  great  thing  to  keep  in  mind 
at  this  time  is  to  encourage  the  production  of  hard  flat 
bone,  sound  legs  and  feet ;  but  if  the  foal  is  kept  in 


close  boxes,  standing  on  heating  manure  and  liberally 
fed,  there  is  great  danger  that  this  ideal  will  not  be 
realised.  Without  doubt  the  best  way  is  to  leave  the 
young  horses  out  in  the  fields  altogether,  provided  they 
can  run  into  a  shed  at  will  when  the  weather  is  bad, 
as  well  as  to  receive  their  daily  supply  of  hay,  cake, 
and  corn.  There  is  no  finer  concentrated  food  for 
young  stock  than  a  mixture  of  3  parts  crushed  oats, 
2  parts  bran,  and  I  part  linseed  cake,  given  at  the 
rate  of  i  to  2  Ibs.  per  100  Ibs.  live  weight.  With  this 
open-air  life  the  young  horses  get  plenty  of  exercise. 
Every  effort  should  be  made  to  expand  the  heels  of  the 
young  horse's  feet  and  develop  the  frog.  To  do  this,  it  is 
necessary  to  bring  the  frog  in  contact  with  the  ground, 
so  that  the  pressure  on  the  frog  will  tend  to  expand 
the  heels.  Careful  shoeing  is  most  important  when 
the  young  horse  is  old  enough  to  have  shoes  on. 
If  the  shoe  is  hinged  at  the  toe,  so  as  to  move  laterally 
at  the  heels,  it  will  encourage  the  heels  to  expand. 
The  concentrated  part  of  the  ration  should  be  rich  in 
albuminoids,  so  as  to  develop  as  much  as  possible 
the  muscular  part  of  the  young  horse.  The  horse 
would  be  ready  for  work  at  about  two  to  three  years 
of  age. 

Work-Horses. — Generally  speaking,  the  ration  of 
horses  doing  fast  work  should  be  richer  in  albuminoids 
and  less  bulky  than  that  which  would  be  required  for 
those  doing  slow  work.  When  the  horses  are  not  at 
work  the  quantity  of  concentrated  food  given  may  be 
considerably  diminished.  Inferior  foods  should  only 
be  fed  in  small  quantities  at  a  time,  along  with  com- 
paratively large  quantities  of  wholesome  foods,  and 
changes  of  diet  should  always  be  made  gradually. 

It    will    now   be    helpful,    in   compounding    rations 


for  horses,  to  discuss  the  various  suitable  foods 
and  the  particular  form  in  which  these  should  be  fed. 

Hay  and  Straw. — Horses  much  prefer  the  stronger 
stemmed  grasses  (rye  grasses  and  timothy,  etc.),  and 
clovers  when  made  into  hay,  than  the  softer  meadow 
hay.  Old  meadow  hay,  however,  is  preferred  by  some 
for  hunters. 

New  hay  which  is  heating  (i.e.  in  the  sweat)  should 
not  be  fed  to  horses  at  all,  if  it  can  be  avoided,  other- 
wise it  is  almost  sure  to  cause  their  legs  to  swell.  Hay 
which  has  been  heavily  manured  with  nitrate  of  soda 
adversely  affects  the  kidneys. 

Horses  receiving  straw  as  well  as  hay  are  con- 
sidered to  "  keep  better  in  their  wind,"  and  stand  hard 
work  better  than  those  fed  on  hay  alone.  The  cost  of 
long  food  can  therefore  be  somewhat  cheapened  by 
including  straw. 

If  the  hay  and  straw  are  chaffed  and  mixed  with 
meals,  they  can  be  made  to  go  further,  partly  because 
less  is  wasted.  Inferior  hay  may  be  spiced,  so  as  to 
get  the  horses  to  eat  it  readily. 

Oats. — New  oats  should  be  carefully  fed,  as  they 
have  a  tendency  to  make  horses'  legs  swell.  Young 
horses  and  "  bolters  "  should  have  oats  crushed  or  rolled, 
in  order  that  they  may  digest  them  better.  The 
former  have  difficulty  in  grinding  whole  oats  during 
the  time  their  teething  changes  are  taking  place. 
Bruised  oats  are  more  economical  to  feed  than  whole 
oats,  due  partly  to  men  feeding  them  chiefly  by 
measure.  It  is  a  very  wasteful  plan  to  give  a  horse 
more  than  it  can  clean  up  each  time.  The  feed  of 
oats  should  not  be  given  immediately  before  watering, 
otherwise  the  coarse  hulls  may  be  washed  into  the 
bowels,  thus  causing  irritation  and  colic. 


A.  "  Speed  the  Plough." 
It  takes  a  pair  of  "  good  "  horses  to  plough  in  the  Carse  of  Gowrie 

[Thotos  by  Author. 

Carting  a  good  crop  of  Oats  at  Chesham  Lodge,  Great  Eccleston, 
Gr.rstang,  Lanes. 


A.  "  Lady  Manifred  "  at  the  Edinburgh  Show. 
A  fine  type  for  fast  work. 

[Photos  by  Author. 

B.  Shoeing  Competition  at  the  Valletts,  near  Hereford. 
Good  shoeing  is  as  important  as  good  feeding. 

[Betiveen  pp.  136  and  137. 


It  is  usually  considered  that  horses  which  grind 
down  whole  oats  and  fodder  crops  for  themselves  stand 
severe  work  better  than  those  receiving  bruised  oats 
along  with  chaffed  hay  and  straw. 

Barley. — Not  very  suitable ;  should  not  be  fed  unless 
steeped  or  boiled. 

Wheat. — Must  be  fed  with  caution,  as  it  is  so  often 
blamed  for  giving  horses  fever  of  .the  feet  (laminitis). 

Peas  and  Beans. — These  foods  are  rich  in  albu- 
minoids, consequently  they  have  the  power  of 
developing  and  strengthening  the  muscles,  which  is  all- 
important  for  horses  doing  hard  work.  For  fast  work 
they  are  especially  useful,  and  their  poverty  in  fat 
makes  them  all  the  more  suitable  for  this  purpose. 

They  may  be  included  in  the  ration  to  the  extent 
of  2  to  3  Ibs.  per  day,  but  horses  receiving  them  should 
be  regularly  exercised  if  not  at  work,  otherwise  they 
may  become  too  lively. 

Bean  meal  is  a  rather  sticky  food  when  moistened 
with  water,  and  needs  to  be  mixed  with  chop  or  bulky 
concentrates  like  bran  or  dried  grains,  to  open  it  up. 
If  fed  in  too  large  quantities  it  may  cause  flatulency  or 

Maize. — A  useful  food,  but  is  very  heating  on 
account  of  its  comparative  richness  in  fat  (5  per  cent), 
and  should  not  be  fed  alone.  It  is  best  used  in  combina- 
tion with  oats,  bran,  peas,  beans,  or  dried  grains,  up 
to  6  Ibs.  per  day.  For  slow  work  the  proportion  of 
maize  in  the  mixture  should  be  higher  than  for  fast 
work.  It  is  either  fed  as  a  meal  or  cracked. 

Bran. — This  bulky  concentrate  is  extremely  useful 
for  mixing  with  bean  meal,  maize,  oats,  etc. 

When  made  into  a  mash  with  hot  water  it  has  a 
laxative  effect,  and  it  is  a  common  practice  on  some 


farms  to  give  horses  bran  mashes  at  week  ends.  This 
is  useful,  especially  when  the  horses  have  had  high 
feeding  through  the  week.  It  is  not  wise  to  mix  ground 
oats  with  a  bran  mash  and  feed  at  once,  as  the  mash 
travels  through  the  system  comparatively  quickly  and 
may  carry  some  of  the  rough  hulls  of  the  oats  into  the 
bowels  before  they  have  got  properly  softened,  possibly 
causing  colic.  Boiled  linseed,  boiled  beans,  or  boiled 
barley  may  be  used  in  the  same  way  as  bran  mashes, 
especially  at  times  when  the  horse  is  casting  its  coat. 

Some  of  the  best  farmers  have  ceased  to  give  horses 
mashes  at  week  ends,  as  they  consider  it  better  to  give 
them  two  to  three  tablespoonfuls  per  head  daily  of 
linseed  oil  on  the  chop  food.  In  this  way  there  is  less 
risk  than  when  the  horse  receives  big  doses  of  the 
laxative  food  (bran  mashes)  at  week  ends  only. 

Roots. —  Roots  are  very  useful  for  keeping  the  bowels 
in  working  order.  Carrots  are  the  most  suitable  roots 
for  horses,  next  come  swedes.  Potatoes  are  apt  to 
cause  colic  (flatulency)  unless  carefully  and  sparingly 
fed.  It  is  best  to  feed  roots  regularly  to  work-horses 
to  the  extent  of  3  to  10  Ibs.  per  head  per  day. 

Suitable  Rations  for  Horses. 

The  table  on  the  opposite  page  shows  typical  daily 
rations  of  concentrated  foods1  for  farm-work  horses  which 
weigh  on  an  average  between  1200  and  1300  Ibs.  each, 
keeping  in  mind  the  following  "standard"  with  concen- 
trated food:  albuminoids,  12  to  16  per  cent. ;  fat,  4  to  5 
per  cent. ;  fibre  (not  exceeding),  8  per  cent. ;  and 
allowing  I  Ib.  concentrated  food  for  every  roo  Ibs.  live 
weight  of  horse. 

1  Farmers  wishing  to  make  up  similar  rations  of  concentrated 
foods  should  refer  to  special  table  of  analyses  on  p.  188. 



Ration  2  is  very  low  in  fibre,  and  would  be  very 
suitable  for  feeding  to  horses  receiving  liberal  allow- 
ances of  oat  straw  in  the  long  food.  Ration  4  would 
do  very  well  when  horses  were  getting  hay  and 
straw.  Linseed  cake  or  linseed  oil  or  roots  may 
be  added  as  required,  to  make  the  ration  sufficiently 

Daily  Ration  of 
Concentrated  Food. 

Average  Composition  of  Mixture. 




per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 


8  Ibs.  oats       .         .\ 
2  Ibs.  maize    .         .  >- 
2  Ibs.  beans     .         .J 





8  Ibs.  maize    .         .  "1 

2  Ibs.  bran       .         .  i- 




2  Ibs.  gram     .         .J 


6  Ibs.  maize    .         .^ 
2  Ibs.  beans     .         .  | 

3  Ibs.  dried  grains  .  I 
I  Ib.  sharps     ,         .J 




2  Ibs.  oats       .         .^ 
2  Ibs.  sharps  . 
4  Ibs.  maize    .         .  !- 




2  Ibs.  bran 
2  Ibs.  gram     .         .J 

"Short"    v.  "Long"  Feeding. 

The  question  is  often  asked  whether  it  is  worth 
while  to  chaff  the  hay  and  bruise  the  corn  for  horses. 
It  is  now  generally  admitted  that  it  is  much  more 
economical  to  adopt  the  "  short  feeding "  method  ;  but 
in  the  case  of  horses  which  can  deal  with  their  food 
in  the  whole  state,  they  will  stand  hard  work  better 
than  those  receiving  chaffed  hay  and  bruised  grain. 


The  two  examples  given  below  will  show  the  economy 
of  "short"  feeding. 

(a)  The  London  Tramway  Company  had  at  one 
time  6000  horses.  These  were  divided  into  two  lots 
of  3000  each.  Lot  I.  received  crushed  oats,  hay,  and 
straw  chop,  while  Lot  II.  had  their  food  in  the  natural 
state.  The  horses  in  each  lot  were  doing  the  same 
class  of  work,  and  in  spite  of  Lot  II.  getting  a  heavier 
ration,  the  advantage  was  with  Lot  I.  ;  e.g. — 

Ration,  Lot  2.  Ration,  Lot  II. 

1 6  Ibs.  crushed  oats.  19  Ibs.  whole  oats. 

7^  „    chopped  hay.  13    „     long  hay. 
2^  „    cut  straw. 

It  was  found  that  the  "  short "  ration  saved  £60 
per  day  on  3000  horses  over  that  fed  in  the  natural 
state.  The  total  saving  for  the  year  on  6000  head 
was  £22,300,  making  an  average  saving  of  £4,  75.  8d. 
per  head  in  favour  of  "short  feeding." 

(U)  Messrs  Stirling  Bros.,  Darlingfield,  Kelso,  kept 
careful  records  of  the  amount  of  food  consumed  by 
five  pairs  of  farm-work  horses  for  two  consecutive 
years.  During  the  first  year  the  hay  was  fed  in  the 
long  state,  and  the  grain  unbruised ;  while  for  the 
second  year  the  hay  was  chopped  and  the  grain 
bruised.  The  quality  of  concentrated  food  given  per 
day  varied  in  both  cases  with  the  work  done ;  e.g., 
for  the  ordinary  farm  work,  three  feeds  were  given 
per  day,  during  very  busy  times  four  feeds,  while  on 
Sundays  only  two  feeds  per  day  were  given. 

During  the  three  summer  months  each  year  when 
the  horses  were  out  at  grass,  they  received  very  little 
corn,  hence  the  following  average  daily  rations  are 
only  for  forty  weeks  of  the  year,  and  have  in  fact 


been   calculated    from    the   bulk   quantities    used    each 
year:  — 

Whole  Feed  (  1st  Year).  Chop  Feed  (2nd  Year). 

22  Ibs.  oats  (whole).  18  Ibs.  crushed  oats. 

1  8  Ibs.  hay  (long)  7  Ibs.  cut  hay. 

10  to  12  Ib.  swedes.  10  to  12  Ibs.  swedes. 

Wineglassful  linseed  oil.  Wineglassful  linseed  oil. 

2  Ibs.  beans  during  heavy  work. 

Oat  straw,  ad  lib. 

The  total  quantities  consumed  in  each  of  these 
years,  disregarding  the  linseed  oil  and  roots,  which 
were  the  same  in  both  cases,  were  as  follows  :  — 

Whole  Feed.  Chop  Feed. 

10  horses  for  40  weeks.  10  horses  for  40  weeks. 

170  qrs.  oats  (356  Ibs.  per  140  qrs.  oats,  at  iSs.  per 

qr.),  at  i8s.          .         .  .£153  qr  .....  .£126 

22  tons  hay,  at  ^3  per  ton        66    9  tons  hay,  at  ,£3    .         .        27 

i  ton  beans,  at  £7,  los.  7^ 

Oat  straw  (estimated)     .        1  5 
Power  and  extra  labour  .          5 

The  cost  of  food,  therefore,  was  very  approximately 
£40  per  year  less  for  the  chop  feed,  which  means  an 
average  saving  for  the  year  of  nearly  £4.  per  horse. 
Mr  Stirling  also  adds  that  the  horses  kept  their  con- 
dition through  the  busy  part  of  the  year  on  the  farm 
with  the  chop  feed,  but  in  previous  years  had  always 
gone  down  in  condition  on  the  ration  consisting  of 
"  long  hay  and  whole  oats." 

(c)  Mr  George  B.  Shields,  Dolphingston,  near  Edin- 
burgh, considers  that  he  saves  considerably  more  than 
£4  per  head  per  year  through  feeding  the  hay  and 


straw  cut  and  oats  bruised.  The  proportions  he  used 
were  12  sacks  of  oats  to  10  cwts.  of  hay  and  oat 

Watering. — The  safest  plan  is  to  give  water  to 
horses  before  the  feed  of  corn,  as  there  is  some  danger 
of  the  unsoftened  coarse  hulls  of  oats  or  similar  foods 
getting  washed  into  the  bowels,  and  there  causing 
colic,  if  the  horse  is  watered  immediately  after  the  feed 
of  oats. 

When  it  is  inconvenient  to  give  the  water  before 
the  feed,  watering  should  be  delayed  for,  say,  half  an 
hour,  so  that  the  food  may  have  time  to  soften  and  get 
acted  on  by  the  gastric  juice  in  the  stomach,  before 
it  is  carried  on  into  the  bowels. 

It  is  also  very  risky  to  give  horses  cold  spring 
water  when  they  come  up  very  hot  and  tired ;  in 
fact,  a  large  quantity  of  water  at  atmospheric  tem- 
perature, which  is  much  less  risky,  is  scarcely  advis- 
able under  these  conditions,  as  it  may  give  the 
horse  colic  through  the  sudden  chilling  of  the 
system.  A  much  safer  plan  is  to  give,  say,  half  a 
pailful  of  water  with  the  chill  taken  off,  as  soon 
as  the  horse  comes  up ;  then  after  it  has  had  time 
to  cool  down,  it  may  be  allowed  to  have  its  fill  of 

Horses  doing  fast  work,  such  as  trotting  or  hunting, 
should  have  the  quantity  of  water  strictly  limited  before 
starting  off,  otherwise  they  will  be  burdened  with  the 
water,  and  perspire  very  freely. 

Cost  of  Keeping  a  Farm-work  Horse  for  a  Year. 

It  is  a  very  common  thing  to  give  horses  simply 
oats  for  the  concentrated  feed  for  ordinary  work,  and 


to  add  beans  for  hard  work,  hence  the  following  rations 
are  taken : — 

Summer  Ration — ist  June  to  3ist  August  (thirteen 
weeks) — i  bus.  oats  per  week,  grazing  on  pasture,  and 
cut  green  food  in  stable. 

Winter  Ration — ist  September  to  3ist  May  (thirty- 
nine  weeks) — 2  bus.  oats,  \  bus.  beans,  I  cwt.  hay  in 
addition  to  roots,  per  week. 

Summer  Cost  for   Thirteen    Weeks — 

13  bus.  oats,  at  2s.  6d.  .  .  £i   12     6 

13  weeks'  grazing,  at  2s.    .  .  .160 

13      „       cut  fodder,  at  35.  .  .     I    19     o 

-    £4  i?     6 
Winter  Cost  for  Thirty-nine  Weeks— 

78  bus.  oats,  at  2s.  6d.       .  .  .  ^9  15     o 

9|     „    beans,  at  45.          .  .  .1190 

39  cwt.  hay,  at  33.  .  .5170 

Roots  and  condiments      '.  .  .0100 

18     i     o 

TOTAL  COST  OF  FOOD  PER  YEAR  .     .   ^22  18  6 

Blacksmith,  say  303.  per  year      .  .  .  i   10    o 

Repairs  to  gears  (saddler),  say  2os.  .  .  i     o     o 

Depreciation  (very  variable),  say  505.  .  .  2  10     o 

Veterinary  surgeon  and  risk,  say  205.  .  .  i     o    o 

Interest,  5  per  cent,  on  £40  capital  .  .  200 

COST  OF  KEEPING  HORSE  PER  YEAR         .      ^30  18    6 

It  may  be  taken  that  the  cost  of  keeping  a  pair 
of  farm-work  horses  for  a  year  is  from  .£50  to  £60. 
The  farmer  may  put  down  £100  as  being  very  approxi- 
mately the  cost  of  keeping  a  good  waggoner  or  hind, 
and  a  pair  of  horses. 

Score  Card  for  Shire  or  Draught  Horses. 

The  following  "student's"  score  card  was  specially 
drawn    up    by     the    writer     for     use    in    the     winter 


School   of  Agriculture   of    the    Herefordshire    County 
Council : — 


1.  Height  of  horse  at  withers  in  hands  (estimated) 

2.  Amount  of  bone  on  fore  leg  in  inches  (estimated) 

3.  Age,  from  its  teeth,  to  nearest  half-year  . 

General  Appearance,  20  points — 

4.  POWERFUL— Broad  and  massive  body,  low  set 

5.  ACTIVE — Action  to  be  noticed  walking  as  well  as  trotting 

6.  HEIGHT — according  to  age 

Legs  and  Feet,  28  points — 

(N.£. — Unless  an  animal  secures  half  maximum  points  for 
legs  and  feet,  it  need  not  be  considered  further.) 

7.  FEET — Shape,  size,  and  quality  of  horn. 

8.  Quality  of  bone  and  feather 

9.  FORE  PASTERNS  AND  JOINTS— up  to  elbows . 

10.  HIND  PASTERNS  AND  JOINTS— up  to  lower  thigh  . 

Head  and  Neck,  8  points — 

11.  HEAD 

12.  NECK — Muscular,  well-arched,  fitting  neatly  on  shoulders 
Shoulders,  8  points — 

13.  Long  and  sloping — fitting  well  on  to  the  body 
Body,  20  points — 

14.  CHEST — Deep  and  wide,  giving  large  heart-girth   . 

15.  RlBS — Long,  and  well-arched  from  back 

1 6.  BACK — Short  and  broad 

17.  LOIN — Broad  and  strong        .... 

Hind  Quarters,  1 6  points — 

18.  Long  and  Broad.     Tail  well  set  on 

19.  UPPER  AND  LOWER  THIGHS — well  developed 

The  following  points  of  a  typical  Shire  horse  are 
given  to  guide  students  in  score-carding : — 

Shire  Horse. 

*i.  Height  of  horse,  about  17  hands. 
2.  Bone — About  n  inches  below  knee  and  12  inches  below  hock. 

*  The  numbers  to  explanatory  notes  correspond  to  foregoing  table. 


[To  face  p.  144. 


*3.  Age  by  Teeth — Has  full  mouth  of  "  temporary  "  teeth  at  two 
years  and  of  "permanent"  teeth  at  five  years  of  age. 
Temporary  incisors  have  a  neck,  and  are  whiter  and 
smaller  than  the  permanent  incisors.  Temporary  incisors 
are  cast  about  six  months  before  the  permanent  teeth 
are  full  up  and  in  wear.  Horse  "aged"  after  eight 
years  old. 

At  about  three  years  old,  horse  has  "  central "  pair  of  per- 
manent incisors  up  and  in  wear. 

At  about  four  years  old,  horse  has  "lateral"  pair  of  per- 
manent incisors  up  and  in  wear. 

At  about  five  years  old,  horse  has  "corner"  pair  of  per- 
manent incisors  up  and  in  wear. 

At  about  six  years  old,  the  "  mark  "  begins  to  disappear  out 
of  "  central "  pair. 

At  about  seven  years  old,  the  "  mark  "  begins  to  disappear  out 
of  "  lateral "  pair. 

At  about  eight  years  old,  the  "mark"  begins  to  disappear 
out  of  "  corner  "  pair. 

At  eleven  years  old,  Galvayne's  groove  appears  on  the  side 
of  the  corner  teeth,  just  below  the  gum. 

At  fifteen  years,  the  groove  has  extended  about  half-way 
down  the  corner  teeth. 

At  twenty  years,  this  groove  extends  full  length  of  corner 

At  twenty-five  years,  the  groove  is  only  seen  on  the 
lower  half  of  the  corner  teeth,  i.e.,  it  has  grown  half-way 

At  thirty  years,  the  groove  has  practically  disappeared. 

4.  Powerful — Indicated  by  broad,  deep,  and  massive  body  on 

short,  muscular  legs. 

5.  Action — Straight  and  level — no  rolling  ;  good  walker,  with  a 

bold  and  free  trot. 

6.  Size — To  be  judged  from  age,  as  indicated  by  teeth. 

7.  Feet — Wide,  open  at  heels,  free  from  suspicion  of  flatness  ; 

horn  of  good  quality. 

8.  Bone  and  Feather — Bone,    clean   and   fat.      Hair,   luxuriant 

and  silky,  neither  wiry  nor  woolly. 

*  The  numbers  to  explanatory  notes  correspond  to  foregoing  table. 



*9.  Fore  Legs — Big  and  massive.  Pasterns,  sloping  but  not  too 
long.  Knees,  squary  and  large.  Arms,  strong  and 
muscular  ;  tendons  and  ligaments  well  developed. 

10.  Hind  Legs — As  far  as  applicable  same  as  fore  legs.  Hocks, 
should  be  big  and  bony  ;  but  clean,  fairly  close  together 
when  horse  is  standing,  and  especially  so  when  trotting. 

n.  Head — Masculine  appearance;  intelligent.  Disposition — 

12.  Neck — Strong  and  muscular,  well  arched,  sloping  gradually 

on  to  shoulders. 

13.  Shoulders— Long  and  sloping  ;  fitting  well  on  to  body. 

14.  Chest—  Deep  and  wide,  with  good  heart-girth. 

15.  Ribs — Should  be  long,  and  well  arched  from  back. 

1 6.  Back — Short  and  broad. 

17.  Loin — Broad  and  strong. 

18.  Hind  Quarters — Wide,  long  and  massive.     Tail  well  set  on. 

19.  Upper  and  Lower  Thighs — Well  developed. 

Shire  Mare. 

The  mare  generally  differs  from  the  horse  in  being  smaller 
(about  1 6  hands),  feminine  in  appearance,  with  docile  dis- 
position and  placid  temper. 

Body  should  be  slightly  longer,  to  give  room  for  foal. 

Both  mare  and  horse  should  be  sound  and  possess  a  good 

*  The  numbers  to  explanatory  notes  correspond  to  foregoing  table. 


Veal  is  the  flesh  of  the  young  fat  calf,  and  has 
long  been  a  favourite  article  of  diet.  It  is  produced 
largely  in  the  neighbourhood  of  big  towns,  and  on 
this  account  is  found  to  a  much  larger  extent  in 
England  than  in  Scotland,  where  the  number  of  large 
towns  is  comparatively  small.  Another  important 
reason  is  that  in  Scotland,  where  so  many  young 
bullocks  are  fed  off  in  cattle  courts,  there  is  a  large 
demand  for  young  calves  which  it  is  intended  to  fatten 


off  at  about  two  years  old,  consequently  prices  are 
often  given  for  calves  a  few  days  old,  which  will  pay 
the  breeder  better  than  that  obtainable  after  vealing 
them,  especially  if  he  has  another  important  outlet  for 
the  milk.  In  fact,  the  conditions  which  determine 
whether  calves  should  be  vealed  or  not,  are — cheap 
calves,  surplus  milk^  and  a  good  price  for  veal.  With 
these  conditions  fulfilled,  vealing  can  proceed  either 
by  allowing  the  calves  to  suck  their  dams  or  by 

(1)  The  Natural  Way. — This  consists  in  allowing  the 
cow  to  suckle  the  calf,  and  it  is  thus  that  the  finest  quality 
of  veal  is  produced.     The  calf  is  fed  entirely  on  new 
milk,  and  obtains  it  direct  from  the  cow  in  small  quan- 
tities at  a  time,  and  as  often  as  nature  demands  it.     The 
suckled  calf  requires  very  little  attention,  and  on  this 
account  the  system  is  often  adopted  in  practice.     At  first 
the  newly  born  calf  is  unable  to  take  all  the  milk,  and  the 
surplus  will  need  to  be  removed.     This  may  be  done 
either  by   hand,   or   by    allowing   another   bigger   calf 
which    is    getting    an    insufficient    supply    for     rapid 
fattening,  to  clean  the  udder  out  once  or  twice  a  day. 
With  deep  milkers,  it  may  be  necessary  to  give  each 
cow   a   couple   of  calves    from   the  beginning.     These 
would    have   sufficient   for   the   first   few   weeks,   after 
which  it  might  be  necessary  to  remove  one,  or  allow  it 
periodically  to  suck  another  cow,  in  order  to  keep  them 
both  fattening  rapidly.     This  system  is  not  so  suitable 
for   cows   which    are    kept    for   dairy   purposes,   as   it 
unsettles   them,    and    unless    the    cows    are    carefully 
stripped   each  day,  the   annual  yield   of  milk  will  be 
considerably  diminished. 

(2)  Hand-feeding. — This  system  is  especially  suited 
to  dairy  farms  in  spring,  as  there  is  often  a  surplus  of 


milk  available  at  this  time.  The  young  calf  can  be 
given  as  much  of  its  mother's  milk  as  it  requires,  and 
that  which  remains  may  be  given  to  other  calves  which 
need  a  little  extra  to  bring  them  along  rapidly.  Dr 
Gillespie  wrote  a  few  years  ago  :  "  Hand-feeding  requires 
skill,  and  above  all  careful  management  and  unremit- 
ting personal  superintendence.  The  person  in  charge 
must  be  thoroughly  reliable,  and  very  painstaking,  and 
the  food  must  be  given  with  scrupulous  care  and 
regularity."  These  are  weighty  words,  and  it  will  be 
instructive  to  look  at  some  of  the  points  in  detail  which 
make  for  successful  calf-feeding, 

The  Calf  Box. — The  preparation  of  the  calf  box 
previous  to  the  introduction  of  the  calf  is  all-important, 
because,  unless  this  point  is  attended  to,  there  is  great 
danger  of  white  scour,  or  similar  diseases,  attacking 
the  calves  and  spoiling  the  results.  The  box  should 
therefore  be  cleaned  out,  the  floor  disinfected,  and  the 
walls  lime-washed.  The  ventilation  should  be  thorough, 
in  order  to  secure  a  gentle  current  of  fresh  air  through 
the  box.  Light  in  the  boxes  is  also  good,  provided 
it  is  not  too  strong.  With  these  conditions  fulfilled — 
namely,  light,  fresh  air,  and  cleanliness — the  calf  may 
be  safely  introduced  on  to  a  comfortable  bed  of  clean 
straw.  Quietness  is  essential  for  rapid  fattening,  and 
unless  each  calf  has  a  separate  box,  they  should  be  tied 
up  by  the  neck  sufficiently  short  to  prevent  them 
reaching  their  neighbours.  In  the  north  of  England 
they  are  often  fastened  between  two  stakes,  to  prevent 
the  calves  licking  their  coats  ;  while  in  Holland  they  are 
kept  in  small,  dark  boxes,  with  a  round  hole  cut  in  the 
door,  and  a  cover  over  it.  When  this  cover  is  removed, 
the  calf  makes  for  the  light,  and  receives  its  ration  of 
milk  for  the  time  being. 


Pood. — The  food  used  in  the  production  of  veal 
should  be  capable  of  giving  a  nice,  whitish  coloured 
flesh ;  and  no  more  suitable  food  has  been  found  than 
milk,  the  only  drawback  being  that  it  is  an  expensive 
food,  especially  where  there  is  a  demand  for  it  for 
human  consumption.  When  eggs  are  cheap,  a  raw 
egg  is  sometimes  switched  in  the  milk ;  these  are  also 
fairly  expensive  for  this  purpose.  It  is  therefore 
quite  natural  from  an  economic  point  of  view  that 
milk  or  cream  substitutes,  such  as  linseed  jelly,  ground 
linseed  cake  made  into  a  gruel,  or  cod-liver  oil,  should 
be  used ;  but  the  difficulty  is,  that  when  used  most  of 
these  are  apt  to  darken  the  colour,  or  otherwise 
diminish  the  value  of  the  veal.  The  old  practice  of 
frequently  bleeding  the  calves  to  whiten  the  flesh  is 
now  discontinued,  and  most  folks  consider  that  the 
lump  of  chalk  which  is  sometimes  placed  in  the  manger 
is  more  for  the  purpose  of  correcting  acidity  in  the  calf  s 
stomach,  than  for  whitening  the  flesh.  After  the  calf 
gets  two  or  three  months  old,  the  flesh  gradually  loses 
in  colour,  and  it  is  not  advisable  to  keep  calves  longer 
than  this  for  veal ;  in  fact,  seeing  that  the  best  veal  is 
produced  by  milk,  and  that  milk  is  an  expensive  food,  it 
is  imperative,  from  a  business  standpoint,  to  veal  calves 
as  rapidly  as  possible.  A  little  buttermilk  may  be  used 
to  advantage,  as  will  be  pointed  out  later  on. 

The  Art  of  Feeding. —  Great  care  has  to  be 
exercised  in  the  hand-feeding  of  calves  during  the  first 
few  days  of  their  lives ;  the  same  thing  also  applies  to 
calves  which  have  been  bought  in.  In  the  first  place, 
the  milk  should  always  be  given  direct  from  the  cow, 
as  it  contains  the  animal  heat,  and  has  not  undergone 
any  changes  in  composition.  A  calf  often  drinks  more 
than  is  good  for  it  during  the  first  day  or  two,  if  given 


as  much  as  it  will  take ;  then  about  the  third  day  it  is 
apt  to  turn  sickly,  scour,  and  refuse  to  take  satisfactorily 
for  a  time.  This  gorging  of  the  calf's  stomach  with 
milk  often  brings  on  "scouring,"  which  might  have 
been  avoided  had  the  quantity  been  restricted.  During 
the  first  day,  a  pint  each  time,  three  times  a  day,  is 
quite  sufficient ;  and  with  an  average  Shorthorn  calf  of 
about  88  Ibs.  live  weight  at  birth, 

i !  galls,  of  milk  per  day  by  the  end  of  the  first  week, 

2  galls,  per  day  by  end  of  the  second, 

2\  galls,  per  day  by  end  of  the  third,  and 

3  galls,  per  day  by  end  of  the  fourth, 

is  as  much  as  the  calf  can  economically  use. 

As  newly  drawn  milk  is  slightly  alkaline  in  reaction, 
it  is  not  uncommon  for  the  appetite  of  the  calf  to  lose 
its  sharpness  towards  the  third  or  fourth  weeks  when 
receiving  a  liberal  supply  of  milk.  The  writer  found 
it  a  distinct  advantage  to  add  to  the  sweet  milk  a  little 
buttermilk,  a  small  quantity  at  first,  increasing  it  to 
about  i  part  of  buttermilk  to  10  parts  of  sweet  milk. 
This  was  begun  when  the  calves  were  a  fortnight  old, 
and  had  the  effect  of  sharpening  their  appetites,  with 
the  result  that  the  increases  obtained  during  its  use 
sometimes  amounted  to  over  20  Ibs.  per  week.  The 
buttermilk  has  no  injurious  effect  on  the  quality  of  the 
veal,  and  calves  fed  on  milk  with  a  little  buttermilk 
added,  often  scale  heavier  weights  than  one  would 
anticipate  from  their  apparent  size. 

Another  point  to  bear  in  mind  is  that  frequent 
feeding  at  regular  intervals  is  a  decided  advantage. 
Average  Shorthorn  calves,  fed  three  times  a  day,  may 
be  made  T  50  to  160  Ibs.  (i  i  stones)  live  weight  and  ready 
for  the  butcher  by  the  time  they  are  a  month  old ;  while 


with  calves  fed  twice  a  day,  it  will  take  an  extra  week, 
and  even  then  they  will  scarcely  be  as  heavy  as  those  fed 
three  times  a  day.  To  put  it  another  way,  by  feeding 
three  times  a  day,  about  9^  Ibs.  milk  give  I  Ib.  of 
increase,  while  with  feeding  twice  a  day,  it  will  take 
roj  to  ii  Ibs.  of  milk  to  give  the  same  result.  The 
extra  week  taken  to  fatten  is  also  a  consideration 
with  veal  in  England,  because  as  soon  as  Easter  is  past, 
one  is  generally  faced  with  a  falling  market ;  and  with 
two  equally  good  calves,  one  sold  at  Easter,  and  the 
other  a  week  after,  the  difference  in  price  might 
possibly  be  id.  less  for  each  pound  of  veal,  which 
means  about  8s.  less  for  a  calf  weighing  160  Ibs.  live 

It  is  important  to  know  how  much  the  milk  used 
for  vealing  calves  would  bring  in  if  made  into  cheese 
or  butter.  Taking  9!  Ibs.  milk  as  yielding  I  Ib.  increase 
in  live  weight,  I  gall,  milk  as  yielding  I  Ib.  cheese,  and 
2\  galls,  milk  I  Ib.  of  butter,  the  following  comparative 
values  are  arrived  at :  when  veal  is  selling  at  9d.  per 
Ib.,  cheese  made  from  the  same  quantity  of  milk  will 
need  to  sell  at  5.82d.  per  Ib.,  and  butter  at  I4.56d. 
per  Ib.  This  takes  no  account  of  the  extra  labour  in- 
volved in  cheese  and  butter-making,  and  it  must  not 
be  forgotten  that  the  colostrum  could  not  be  used  for 
butter  or  cheese-making,  although  very  suitable  for 
calf-feeding,  both  of  these  points  make  vealing 
calves  compare  more  favourably  than  is  at  first 

Conclusions. — It  may  be  taken  that  9d.  per  Ib.  for 
veal,  6d.  per  Ib.  for  cheese,  and  is.  3d.  per  Ib.  for  butter 
are  very  approximately  equivalent  quantities.  These 
equivalents  will  only  hold  when  the  three  processes 
are  carried  out  equally  well.  Sixpence  per  pound  is  not 


difficult  to  get  for  cheese,  and  pd.  per  Ib.  is  as  much  as 
can  be  expected  for  veal,  so  that  when  veal  falls  in 
value  it  will  no  longer  compare  favourably  with  cheese- 
making.  Butter,  on  the  other  hand,  often  falls  below 
is.  3d.  per  Ib.,  and  on  this  account  veal  production  will 
often  give  as  good,  if  not  better,  results  than  butter- 

With  careful  feeding  a  gallon  of  milk,  or  even  less, 
will  easily  yield  I  Ib.  of  increase  (equal  to  -6  Ib.  veal), 
where  the  calves  are  fed  three  times  a  day.  At  this 
rate  the  return  for  milk  consumed,  including  the 
colostrum,  works  out  to  be  5|d.  to  6d.  per  gall. 

Buttermilk,  if  available,  should  be  included  in  the 
proportion  of  I  part  to  10  parts  of  milk,  after  the  calves 
are  a  fortnight  old. 

Probably  four  to  five  weeks  is  as  long  as  it  is 
advisable  to  hand-feed  calves  intended  for  veal  on  a 
dairy  farm,  or  until  they  have  reached  160  Ibs.  live 
weight  or  96  Ibs.  veal.  An  effort  should  also  be  made 
to  have  the  calves  fat  at  the  time  veal  commands  a 
high  price,  or  the  returns  for  vealing  will  not  be  great. 
It  must  usually  be  regarded  as  a  convenient  way  of 
utilising  surplus  milk. 


The  particular  system  one  would  adopt  in  the 
rearing  of  calves  depends  first  of  all  on  whether  it  is 
a  dairy  farm  or  an  arable  farm.  In  the  former  case 
the  calves  are  generally  reared  by  hand,  while  in  the 
latter  it  is  more  usual  to  adopt  the  natural  method  by 
allowing  the  cows  to  suckle  their  calves.  In  the  latter 
case  the  rent  of  the  land  would  probably  determine 
whether  it  is  necessary  for  the  cow  to  rear  more  than 



[Photo  by  Messrs  Loram  Bros. 
Milking  Devon  Suckling  Calf. 

First  prize  at  the  Royal  Show,  Shrewsbury,  1914 ;  owned  by  Messrs  Loram  Bros. 

[Photo  by  Author. 

B.    Group  of  well-bred  Dairy  Shorthorn  Calves  being  hand-reared  at 
Lord  Lilford's  Home  Farm,  Northants. 


[Between  pp.  152,  15S. 


one  calf;  e.g.,  on  £2  per  acre  land  the  cow  would  no 
doubt  need  to  suckle  two  or  three  calves  during  the 
season,  while  on  £3  per  acre  land  she  may  suckle  her 
own  calf  and  another  for  say  two  months,  then  another 
pair  for  the  next  two  months,  and  finally  have  a 
single  calf  up  to  the  end  of  the  period  of  lactation. 
As  far  as  is  practicable  the  calves  should  arrive 
not  later  than  the  end  of  March,  because  late  calves 
do  not  make  anything  like  the  same  progress  as  early 

With  pedigree  cattle,  one  does  not  see  cows  rearing 
two  calves,  as  the  fancy  price  obtainable  for  good 
pedigree  stock  will  admit  of  more  expensive  feeding, 
and  it  is  not  unusual  to  find  a  calf  taking  all  the  milk  that 
two  cows  will  produce,  especially  with  the  beef  breeds. 
Good  breeding  is,  however,  very  important  in  com- 
mercial cattle  for  beef  production,  as  they  generally 
give  a  better  return  for  the  feeding  in  actual  body 
increase  than  inferior  bred  ones.  In  like  manner  a 
milking  pedigree  is  equally  important  for  dairy  cows. 

Calves  fed  in  the  natural  method  need  very  little 
attention,  as  compared  with  the  hand-reared  ones, 
and  the  feeding  of  the  cows  is  the  same  in  both  cases. 
When  the  calves  are  intended  to  mature  early,  they 
should  be  taught  to  eat  linseed  cake  or  bran  and 
ground  oats  at  one  and  a  half  to  two  months  of  age, 
and  the  quantity  per  day  should  be  increased  as  the 
milk  yield  from  the  cow  diminishes.  The  calves  may 
be  getting  anything  between  2  to  6  Ibs.  of  concentrated 
food  per  head  per  day  by  the  time  they  are  twelve 
months  old.  Hay  would  at  the  same  time  be  given 
when  grass  is  not  available. 

Some  persons  appear  to  think  that  calves  can  be 
"  roughed,"  i.e.,  receive  the  roughest,  mouldiest  hay,  and 


inferior  foods  generally.  This  kind  of  treatment  causes 
them  to  lose  their  "  calf-flesh,"  with  the  result  that  they 
are  longer  in  maturing,  and  never  get  the  size  and  show 
the  quality  which  they  might  have  done  had  they  been 
fed  more  liberally.  Stock-owners  are  becoming  more 
alive  to  the  importance  and  profitableness  of  keeping 
calves  intended  for  beef  in  good  condition  during  the 
first  twelve  months.  Early  maturity  or  baby  beef  is 
the  great  aim  of  to-day,  and  it  is  wise  economy  to  see 
that  they  do  not  lose  their  "  calf-flesh." 

Hand-Rearing. — This  is  practised  on  dairy  farms 
where  the  milk  is  required  for  milk-selling,  cheese- 
making,  or  butter-making.  The  calves  are  fed  three 
times  a  day  from  two  to  four  weeks  on  their  mothers' 
milk,  after  which  time  the  whole  milk  should  be 
gradually  substituted  with  separated  milk  and  a  fat 
substitute  such  as  cod-liver  oil,  cotton-seed  oil,  or  a 
suitable  calf  meal. 

A  word  of  caution  is  necessary  at  this  point  in 
feeding  newly  born  calves  which  have  been  bought  in 
the  market  or  elsewhere.  These  calves  are  brought  to 
their  new  home  hungry  and  starved,  and  it  is  quite 
natural  to  give  them  on  arrival  a  large  feed  of  milk,  to 
which  the  calf  is  not  yet  accustomed,  consequently 
the  calf  scours,  and  in  several  cases  is  lost.  A  much 
better  plan  is  to  place  it  in  a  warm  box,  give  it  a  dose 
of  castor  oil,  and  then  feed  it  with  about  a  quart  of 
newly  drawn  milk  three  times  a  day  for  the  first  two 
or  three  days,  after  that  gradually  increase  the  quantity. 

Where  cod-liver  oil  is  used  as  a  fat  substitute,  one 
should  commence  when  the  calf  is  about  two  weeks  old 
with  a  very  small  quantity  at  first,  and  gradually 
increase  up  to  a  maximum  of  I  tablespoonful  each 
meal  by  the  end  of  the  first  month.  It  is  best  to  pour 


the  oil  into  a  pail  first,  and  then  after  adding  the  milk, 
stir  it  well  to  mix  the  oil  with  it.  The  milk  should 
then  be  fed  immediately.  As  the  calf  grows  bigger  it 
requires  more  food,  and  this  is  best  made  up  by  feeding 
J  Ib.  linseed  cake  per  day  in  addition  to  the  above- 
mentioned  quantity  of  cod-liver  oil.  This  method, 
although  comparatively  cheap,  can  only  be  adopted 
when  pure  oil,  free  from  acidity,  can  be  obtained. 

Professor  Hendrick  (Aberdeen)  demonstrated  in 
1908  that  cotton-seed  oil  could  also  be  used  for  this 

Calf  Meals. — The  safest  and  best  fat  substitute, 
however,  is  a  suitable  made  calf  meal,  provided  it  has 
been  properly  made. 

The  following  are  three  very  useful  calf  meals  : — 

1.  Equal   parts   of  ground    linseed   cake    and    fine 

middlings  (seconds). 

2.  Ground  linseed  cake,  2  parts ;  oatmeal,  2  parts ; 

and  ground  linseed  meal,  I  part. 

3.  Oatmeal,   2    parts ;    maize    meal,    2    parts ;    and 

ground  linseed  meal,  I  part. 

The  writer  has  found  from  experience  that  the  first 
two  of  these  give  very  good  results.  The  third  proved 
a  very  satisfactory  mixture  in  the  Irish  Department  of 
Agriculture's  calf-rearing  experiments.  These  calf  meals 
are  made  into  gruels  by  taking,  say,  for  ten  calves  2  Ibs. 
of  mixed  meals  in  a  pail,  adding  a  little  cold  water,  and 
stirring,  so  as  to  make  the  meal  into  a  thick  paste,  then 
add  i  to  i  J  galls,  boiling  water,  and  stir  well  to  prevent 
any  lumpiness  in  the  gruel.  Leave  for  about  half  an 
hour,  then  add  milk,  separated  or  skim  milk,  buttermilk, 
etc.,  as  the  case  may  be,  until  it  is  made  sufficiently  thin 
to  drink  ;  the  temperature  should  not  be  above  blood 


heat  when  fed  to  the  calf,  otherwise  the  hair  round  its 
nose  will  come  off.  If  boiling  water  is  difficult  to  get, 
cold  water  may  be  used,  as  long  as  the  gruel  can  be  left 
for  twelve  hours.  In  this  case  it  is  necessary  to  warm 
the  gruel  before  feeding. 

The  gradual  substitution  of  whole  milk  by  gruel 
may  commence  at  the  end  of  the  second  week  ;  but  if 
the  whole  milk  is  not  urgently  required,  the  calf  will  be 
all  the  better  to  get  whole  milk  for  the  first  four  weeks. 
In  about  a  fortnight's  time  the  whole  milk  would  be 
all  substituted  with  separated  milk  and  gruel. 

Second  month. — During  the  second  month  the  calf 
meal  gruel  would  be  continued  and  gradually  increased 
in  quantity  up  to.  say,  \  or  J  Ib.  per  head  per  day  along 
with  \\  to  2  galls,  separated  milk.  After  a  meal  the 
calf  may  be  tempted  to  suck  at  a  little  linseed  cake  or 
bran  and  oats  until  it  will  eat  them  out  of  a  trough.  In 
this  way  calves  can  be  taken  out  of  the  sucking  habit, 
and  at  the  same  time  eat  something  which  will  do  them 
good.  It  is  wonderful  how  keen  calves  become  after 
bran  and  oats. 

It  is  important  to  know  how  to  regulate  the 
laxativity  of  a  calf's  diet.  This  is  not  difficult  if  one 
remembers  that  skim  milk,  separated  milk,  butter- 
milk, and  fine  middlings  (seconds)  have  generally  a 
binding  tendency,  while  useful  laxatives  are  linseed 
meal,  ground  linseed  cake,  whey,  roots,  and  grass. 

Third  month. — The  calf  will  no  doubt  have  shown 
some  inclination  to  eat  a  little  nice,  sweet  hay,  and  it 
should  now  have  the  opportunity  of  eating  some  in 
order  to  develop  its  first  stomach  (paunch),  which  is 
as  yet  comparatively  small.  The  gruel  may  now  be 
withheld  at  mid-day,  and  replaced  by  a  small  feed  of 
equal  parts  of  "  nutted  "  linseed  cake,  bran  and  ground 


oats.  If  available,  a  few  pulped  roots  may  be  added 
to  the  cake,  bran  and  oats.  The  concentrated  mixture 
works  out  at  19  per  cent,  albuminoids,  5  per  cent,  oil, 
and  9  per  cent,  fibre,  which  is  a  fairly  satisfactory 
"  standard  "  for  calves. 

Fourth  month. — Gruel  can  now  be  gradually  reduced 
in  quantity,  and  the  allowance  of  dry  concentrated  food 
increased  to  I  Ib.  per  head  per  day  by  the  end  of  the 
month.  The  calf  will  require  more  hay  or  cut  grass, 
unless  it  is  out  at  grass.  If  no  grass  is  available, 
continue  with  pulped  or  better,  fingered  roots. 

Fifth  month. — Separated  milk  and  gruel  can  now  be 
discontinued.  The  cake  and  meal  mixture  would  need 
to  be  gradually  increased  up  to  2  Ibs.  per  head  per  day 
by  the  end  of  the  sixth  month. 

For  the  second  six  months  the  concentrated  mixture 
may  consist  of  I  part  linseed  cake,  I  part  bran, 
and  2  parts  ground  oats,  giving  a  composition  in  the 
mixture  of:  albuminoids,  17  per  cent. ;  oil,  6J  per  cent. ; 
and  fibre,  g\  per  cent. 

Cotton  cakes  should  not  be  given  to  cattle  under 
twelve  months  old,  as  the  undecorticated  cakes  are  too 
high  in  fibre,  and  the  decorticated  cotton  cake  may  also 
cause  digestive  troubles  unless  fed  with  caution.  If  fed 
at  all,  it  should  be  in  small  quantities  at  a  time,  mixed 
with  maize  and  ground  oats. 

In  this  way  a  lovely  young  animal  may  be 
made  by  the  end  of  the  first  twelve  months,  and 
although  it  may  not  be  quite  so  "bloomy"  as  one  fed 
on  whole  milk,  yet  the  difference  will  not  be  great,  and 
it  will  have  been  produced  much  more  economically 
(see  p.  1 60).  Mr  Lindsay,  in  a  paper  before  the 
Agricultural  Discussion  Society  at  Aberdeen  Uni- 
versity in  1905,  said  he  preferred  a  pail-reared  to  a 


suckled  calf  for  beef  production,  because  the  latter  did 
not  weigh  so  heavy  as  it  looked,  on  account  of  the 
carcass  having  too  much  calf-fat ;  while  the  pail- 
reared  one  gave  a  much  better  carcass  of  meat, 
and  would  give  more  satisfaction  to  the  butcher  and 

Calf-Rearing  Experiments. 

Three  common  systems  of  rearing  calves  have  been 
carefully  tested  in  the  exceedingly  useful  calf-rearing 
experiments  carried  out  by  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture for  Ireland  in  1903-4.  These  results  agree  so 
closely  with  the  writer's  experience  that  the  main 
points  of  these  trials  are  given  below. 

The  calves  were  all  males  of  the  Cross  Shorthorn 
type,  and  were  purchased  locally  (Collooney,  Ireland) 
about  the  end  of  April,  the  average  age  being  five 
weeks.  After  being  divided  up  in  four  lots  of  ten 
calves  each,  they  were  fed  for  a  few  days  to  prepare 
them  for  the  particular  rations  they  were  intended  to 

First  Summer. — During  the  first  summer  of  twenty 
weeks,  each  lot  was  fed  on  a  different  rearing  food,  but 
after  that,  they  all  received  exactly  the  same  treat- 
ment, until  the  bullocks  were  seventy-three  weeks 
old.  The  rations  for  the  first  twenty  weeks  per  head 
were  : — 


1.  Whole  milk,  6  quarts  per  day. 

2.  Skim  milk,  6  quarts  per  day. 

3.  Separated  milk  and  cod-liver  oil  (J  to  2  oz.  per  day). 

4.  Separated  milk  plus  meal  mixture   of — 2   parts   oatmeal,  2 

parts  maize  meal,  and  I  part  linseed  meal. 



Assuming  the  cost  of  whole  milk  to  be  4f  d.  per  gall. ; 
separated  milk,  id.  per  gall. ;  cod-liver  oil,  5s.  6d.  per  gall.  5 
linseed  meal,  173.  per  cwt. ;  maize  meal,  6s.  per  cwt.,  the 
cost  of  food  during  the  first  twenty  weeks  works  out 
as  follows : — 


Rearing  Ration. 

Total  Cost 
per  Head  for 
20  weeks. 

Aver.  Increase 
per  Head  in 
20  weeks. 

Cost  per  100  Ibs. 
of  Live  Weight 

£      S.      D. 


£     8.      D. 


Whole  milk        . 

4      I     2 


I      8     I 


Skim  milk  . 

I    12     6 


o  13    7 


Separated    milk    and 

cod-liver  oil  . 

i  10    5 


0    12      7 


Separated    milk    and 

calf  meal 

i     7    8 


o  10    5 

During  the  last  two  weeks  of  the  above  period 
each  calf  received  i  to  J  Ib.  maize  meal  while  being 

First  Winter. — This  period  extended  over  twenty- 
four  weeks,  when  each  calf  got  an  average  daily  ration 
of  i  Ib.  linseed  cake  and  I  Ib.  of  crushed  oats,  in  addi- 
tion to  rye  grass  and  meadow  hay  ad  lib. 

Second  Summer  (twenty-nine  weeks). — Linseed 
cake  and  crushed  oats  continued,  but  no  hay  was  given 
after  26th  April,  the  cattle  being  allowed  to  graze  from 
1st  April  1904. 

The  following  table  gives  the  average  increases  per 
lot  during  the  seventy-three  weeks,  in  addition  to  the 
amount  realised  when  the  bullocks  were  sold  at 
£i,  6s.  5|d.  per  cwt.  (unfasted  live  weight),  which  is 
equal  to  £i,  8s.  4|d.  per  cwt.  fasted  live  weight.  The 
balances  show  what  amount  is  left  in  each  case  to  pay 



for  everything  except  the  special  feeding  during  the 
first  summer  (twenty  weeks)  : — 

Table  giving  Summary  of  Seventy-three   Weeks'  Feeding. 

Lot  1. 
Whole  Milk. 

Lot  2. 
Skim  Milk. 


Milk  and 
Cod-liver  Oil. 

Lot  4. 

Milk  and 
Calf  Meal. 

No.  of  Calves  in  lot     . 
Aver,  weight  at  com- 
mencement of  experi- 
Aver,  weight  at  end  of 
73  weeks  . 


133-6  Ibs. 
893-9   ,, 


142-5  Ibs. 
786-8   „ 


145-8  Ibs. 
830-2    „ 


145-8  Ibs. 
847-7    „ 

TOTAL   GAIN   IN    73 
WEEKS    . 

760-3  Ibs. 

644-4  Ibs. 

684-4  Ibs 

701-9  Ibs. 

Aver,    value    of    Bul- 
locks when  sold 
Cost    of    Rearing  for 
first  20  weeks   . 

^IO    II      O 

4     i     2 

£9     5     9 

I    12       6 

£9  15   ii 
i   10     5 

£10    o     i 
i     7     8 

BALANCES    LEFT,    to 
pay  for  all  but  cost  ol 
first  20  weeks'  feeding 

£6     9  10 

£7  13     3 

£S     5     6 

£*  12     5 



£i     3     5 

£i  15    8 

£2     2     7 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  average  value  of  bullocks 
at  end  of  experiment  in  Lot  4  was  only  iis.  behind 
that  of  Lot  i,  while  the  cost  of  rearing  during  the  first 
twenty  weeks  was  £2,  135.  6d.  more  for  Lot  i  than  for 
Lot  4,  and  this  after  taking  the  whole  milk  (Lot  i) 
at  only  4f  d.  per  gall.,  while  the  calf  meal  and  separated 
milk  are  fairly  near  their  present  value. 

In  the  cod-liver  oil  lot  the  average  results  are 
very  good,  but  three  calves  have  fallen  out  of  the 


experiment,  which  is  rather  a  significant  point.  It  is 
not  quite  up  to  the  calf  meal  lot  either  in  live  weight, 
increase,  or  economy. 

Cost  of  Rearing  a  Calf  for  first  Twelve  Months. 

If  the  calf  is  fed  with  calf  meal  and  separated 
milk  in  addition  to  a  fairly  liberal  supply  of  dry  con- 
centrated food,  the  cost  of  feeding  for  the  first  twelve 
months  would  be  approximately  as  follows  with  an 
average  Shorthorn  calf: — 

First  Week— 

Colostrum     ......      £o     I     2 

Second,  Third^  and  Fourth  Weeks— 

Mother's  milk,  varying  from  I  to  2  galls,  milk  per 
day  =  31^  galls.,  at  6d.  per  gall.  .  .  .        o  15     9 

Next  Five  Months — 

2  galls,  of  separated  milk  per  day  =  300  galls.,  at 

id.  per  gall.  .  .  .  .  .150 

Cakes  and  meals,  varying  from  J  to  2  Ibs.  per 
day=i57^  Ibs.,  at  fd.  per  Ib.       .  .  .        o    9  10 

Summer  Grazing — 

Twenty  weeks,  at  6d.  per  week       .  .  .0100 

Winter  Months  (seventh  to  end  of  twelfth  month) — 
8  cwt.  swedes,  at  8d.  per  cwt.          .  .  .054 

4  cwt.  hay,  at  35.  6d.  per  cwt.          .  .  .        o  14    o 

5  cwt.  cake,  etc.,  at  75.  per  cwt.      .  .  .         1150 

COST  OF  FOOD  FOR  YEAR       .  .  .     ^5  16    i 

If  the  calf  had  to  be  purchased,  it  would  cost  from 
£i  to  £3.  The  cost  of  attendance  and  risk  for  the 
year  may  be  put  down  at  £2  to  £3,  hence  the  total 
cost  of  rearing  the  calf  for  the  first  year  works  out  to 
approximately  £8  or  £10. 




In  the  Irish  Department  of  Agriculture's  winter  and 
summer  calf-rearing  scheme  it  was  shown  that  the 
autumn-  and  winter-born  calves  generally  gave  better 
results  for  the  feeding  than  those  born  in  spring. 
Take  for  example  the  following  figures  from  vol.  ix., 
No.  4,  of  the  Department's  Journal  (1909),  pp.  697-9, 
and  reported  on  by  Mr  J.  M.  Adams,  the  Instructor  in 
Agriculture  : — 

When  Born. 

Aver.  Live 

Aver.  Number 
of  Days  Old. 

Approx.  Aver. 
Daily  Increase 
in  Live  Weight. 

Aver.  Cost  of 
per  year. 

cwts.   qr.    Ibs. 


£        S.      D. 

November    . 

5      i     27 




April    . 

4      o     12 



7    6     5 

When  the  value  of  the  calves  was  taken  into 
account  as  well  as  cost  of  food,  including  grazing, 
attendance,  insurance,  and  interest  on  capital,  there  was 
an  average  profit  on  the  November  calves  of  93.  id. 
per  head,  while  in  the  case  of  the  April  calves  there  was 
an  average  loss  of  i6s.  5d.  In  a  similar  trial  carried 
out  at  Kinsale,  and  reported  on  by  Mr  W.  F.  Prender- 
gast,  the  County  Instructor  in  Agriculture,  very  similar 
results  were  obtained  ;  but  the  average  loss  on  summer 
calves  was  reduced  to  is.  7^d.  per  head.  There  was 
also  a  bigger  mortality  in  calves  born  in  summer 
(9  per  100)  when  compared  with  those  born  in  winter 
(05  per  100). 

Turning  out  to  Grass. 

Calves  which  are  born  in  the  earlier  months  of  the 
year  should  in  most  cases  be  turned  out  to  grass  in 


June.  For  the  first  day  or  two  a  couple  of  hours  or 
so  would  be  long  enough,  so  as  to  get  them  accustomed 
to  the  pasture  grass  and  open-air  life.  After  the  first 
week  they  may  be  left  out  altogether.  The  gruel  and 
cake  mixture  may  be  given  in  the  same  way  as  above, 
but  the  mid-day  meal  should  be  abandoned  for  two 
reasons : — 

(a)  They  do  not  need  it  when  they  can  eat  grass. 

(b)  To   encourage   them    to   eat  grass  only  in  the 

middle  of  the  day  when  the  dew  is  off. 

The  effect  of  this  interesting  device  is  that  the 
calves  live  on  "  dry "  grass  chiefly,  and  thus  do  not 
suffer  from  husk  or  hoose  to  the  same  extent.  After  the 
night  feed  of  gruel,  followed  by  concentrated  dry  food 
mixture,  they  lie  down  all  night  and  hardly  get  up  till 
called  to  the  morning  meal,  after  which  they  lie  down 
again  till  10  or  11  A.M.  The  middle  part  of  the  day  is 
then  spent  in  eating  grass,  and  it  is  always  advisable 
to  keep  them  on  a  dry  "  short "  pasture.  It  is  generally 
advisable  to  keep  them  off  young  clover,  or  a  mixture 
of  rye  grass  and  clover,  in  the  autumn. 


Dairy  cattle  are  kept  mainly  for  the  production  of 
milk  ;  but  as  milk  is  a  perishable  article  of  diet,  it  is 
necessary  either 

(a)  To  sell  or  use  it  immediately  ;  or 

(b)  Make  it  into  butter  or  cheese. 

Butter  should  keep  fresh  and  good  for  a  week 
or  a  fortnight,  while  cheese  would  not  be  ripe  and 


ready  for  eating  until  it  is  from  a  month  to  twelve 
months  old.  Dairy  cows  may,  then,  be  required  for 
milk,  butter,  or  cheese  production,  and  for  each  of 
these  branches  of  dairying  a  particular  kind  of  milk  is 

Milk  selling. — In  this  case  volume,  or  a  large  milk 
yield,  is  all  important  as  long  as  it  keeps  up  to  the 
Government  standard  for  butter-fat  (3  per  cent.),  and 
solids  other  than  fat  (8J  per  cent.).  At  the  same  time 
the  milk  should  be  free  from  taints,  either  from  food 
or  bad  odours.  The  chief  breeds  of  cows  for  this 
purpose  are  Shorthorns,  Ayrshire,  South  Devons, 
Welsh  (dairy)  cattle,  Kerries,  and  Dexter  Kerries.  The 
Shorthorns  are  more  especially  suited  to  good  land  and 
heavy  hand-feeding,  while  the  other  breeds  will  stand 
more  exposure  and  thrive  on  scantier  fare.  First 
crosses  often  give  excellent  results,  e.g.  Shorthorn- 

Buttermaking. — Here  volume  of  milk  is  not  so 
important,  but  the  amount  of  butter-fat  which  the  cow 
yields  during  the  year ;  i.e.,  volume  and  richness  in 
butter-fat  must  be  considered  together.  It  is  also 
important  that  the  fat-globules  should  be  large,  so  that 
the  cream,  which  consists  largely  of  butter-fat,  will 
separate  all  the  more  readily.  Generally  speaking, 
cream  with  large  fat-globules  gives  the  finest 
quality  of  butter.  The  most  suitable  breeds  of 
cattle  for  this  purpose  are  Jerseys,  Guernseys,  South 
Devons,  and  Shorthorns.  Ayrshire  milk  has  small 
fat-globules,  and  is  consequently  more  difficult  to 

Mr  Matthews,  in  the  1909  Journal  of  the  R.A.S.E., 
gives  a  tabular  statement  of  the  average  amount  of 
milk  from  different  breeds  which  is  required  to  yield 



i  Ib.  butter.     This  figure  is  what  is  called  the  "  butter 
ratio  "  of  the  milk. 




Red  Polls   . 






Shorthorn    . 


Lincoln  Red  Shorthorn 






South  Devon 



Kerry  . 


Dexter  Kerry 



Longhorn    . 



Guernsey     . 





Cheesemaking. — Milk  for  this  purpose  should  have 
small  fat-globules,  and  at  the  same  time  be  fairly  rich 
in  butter-fat,  so  as  to  give  a  rich,  mellow  cheese.  In 
this  case  the  cream  does  not  rise  so  quickly,  with  the 
result  that  the  renneted  milk  coagulates  or  curdles 
before  the  cream  has  time  to  rise  to  the  surface.  The 
fat  is  then  enclosed  and  carried  down  in  the  curd, 
giving  a  much  richer  cheese.  Milk  from  the  Ayrshire 
breed  is  specially  suitable  for  cheesemaking  on  account 
of  the  fat-globules  being  small,  but  thousands  of  tons  of 
cheese  are  made  each  year  from  Shorthorn  milk,  which 
if  skilfully  managed  gives  excellent  results. 

The  importance  of  milk  rich  in  butter-fat  for  cheese- 
making  has  been  demonstrated  by  Mr  D.  K.  Robb 
F.H.A.S.,  of  the  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College 
in  a  most  convincing  manner.  The  following  table 
shows  the  amount  of  cheese  made  from  10  gallons  of 
different  qualities  of  milk  in  each  case,  in  addition  to 
the  return  [per  gallon,  .assuming  the  cheese  made 



from  poor  milk  to  be  as  valuable  as  that  from  richer 
milk,  which  is  a  big  assumption  : — 

Quantity  of 
Milk  taken. 

of  Fat. 

Yield  of 
Green  Cheese. 

Value  of 
Green  Cheese, 
at  6d.  per  Ib. 

Return  of  Milk 
per  Gallon 
based  on 
yield  of  Cheese. 



S.      D. 





3     o 





3     71 





4     *4 





4     9 





5     21 





5     8 





6     2i 


These  figures  show  that  the  value  of  milk  for  cheese 
production  varies  with  its  richness  in  butter-fat.  Within 
the  above  limits  (i.e.  2  per  cent,  to  5  per  cent,  butter- 
fat),  the  value  increases  at  the  rate  of  I  Jd.  per  gallon 
for  i  per  cent,  increase  in  butter-fat  content. 

Points  of  a  Typical  Dairy  Cow. 

Head. — The  head  should  be  neat  and  intelligent, 
fairly  wide  between  the  eyes,  broad  between  the  nostrils, 
fairly  long  from  eyes  to  nose,  and  the  eyes  rather 

General  appearance. — A  "  wedge-shaped  "  body 
generally  denotes  milk ;  i.e.,  the  withers  should  be 
fine ;  ribs  not  too  well  arched,  but  long,  giving  great 
depth  to  the  body.  The  loin  and  hind  quarters  should 
be  as  wide  as  possible,  giving  the  wedge-shape  from 
withers  to  hind  quarters.  Further,  when  the  cow  is 
viewed  from  the  side,  the  fore  quarters  should  be  com- 
paratively light  consistent  with  a  good  constitution,  and 


the  body  increase  in  depth  and  massiveness  from  the 
fore  to  the  hind  quarters. 

Leg  bones  should  be  rather  fine,  and  the  tail  not 
too  thick. 

Skin. — This  is  a  most  important  point,  as  good 
milkers  generally  have  a  rather  thin,  soft,  flexible 
skin  with  an  oily  feel.  The  hair  should  be  soft  and 
velvety.  Hidebound  cows  with  coats  of  coarse  hair 
are  not  generally  good  milkers. 

Udder. — This  varies  with  the  different  breeds  in 
shape,  but  should  in  all  cases  be  symmetrical,  with  teats 
of  equal  size,  big  enough  to  grasp  with  the  hand,  but  not 
too  large,  and  placed  well  apart.  The  udder  should 
generally  extend  well  forward  and  well  backward, 
giving  great  capacity.  The  skin  of  the  udder  should 
be  very  elastic,  and  shrink  considerably  after  milking 
each  time. 

General  indications  regarding  Quantity  and  Quality  of 
Milk. — Cow  wedged-shaped,  fine  along  the  shoulders 
and  back,  slender  neck,  thin  tail ;  milk-veins  large, 
prominent,  branched,  and  big  at  the  point  where  they 
turn  into  the  body  (milk-wells).  Udder  capacious, 
soft  and  elastic.  Escutcheon  or  milk  mirror,  which  is 
formed  by  hairs  on  back  of  udder,  pointing  upwards 
instead  of  downwards,  is  regarded  by  some  as  a 
reliable  guide.  This  peculiar  marking  often  con- 
tinues upward  in  a  broad  band.  At  the  same 
time  the  back  part  of  udder  may  have  tufts  of 
hairs  or  "  ovals "  on  it,  and  these  are  considered 
a  good  sign,  especially  if  the  blood-vessels  are 
prominent  on  back  of  udder  and  considerably 

Quality  is  indicated  by  a  thin,  flexible,  mellow  skin ; 
soft  velvety  hair ;  skin    inside  ears  yellowish ;   in    fact 


the   skin   generally  should  have   an    oily  feel.     Horns 
also  slightly  yellow  at  base. 

Building  up  a  Herd. 

It  is  very  useful  to  know  the  various  points  of  a 
good  dairy  cow,  but  in  breeding  dairy  cattle  successfully 
one  should  know  something  of  the  milking  pedigree  or 
milk  record  which  the  respective  parents  have.  The 
keeping  of  milk  records  has  been  one  of  the  secrets  of 
success  in  countries  like  Denmark,  and  during  more 
recent  years  it  has  become  fairly  common  in  this 
country.  This  enables  the  breeder  to  select  from  his 
herd  those  cows  which  give  a  large  quantity  of  milk 
each  year,  which  is  at  the  same  time  rich  in  butter- 

The  bull  used  on  a  dairy  farm  should  also 
be  carefully  selected,  possess  a  strong  masculine 
body,  a  good  constitution,  and  in  addition  a  good 
milking  pedigree.  The  following  example  will  show 
the  care  which  has  been  taken  at  the  Geneva  Experi- 
mental Farm  (New  York  State)  with  their  Jersey 
stock  bull  (Blue  Belle  Prince).  In  addition  to  being 
entered  in  the  herd  book,  he  possessed  the  following 
qualifications : — 



No.  70,075.          -I  Dam — BLUE  BELLE  PRINCESS,  No.  157,364. 
Born  6th  October  1904.  Milk  record     .         .      8121  Ibs. 

(.  Butter      ...        557  Ibs. 

The  bull's  dam  had  therefore  a  record  of  giving  over 
5  cwts.  butter  in  a  year.  The  advantages  of  keeping 
these  records  are  that  they  tend  to  raise  the  milking 
capacity  of  dairy  cows  very  considerably,  inasmuch  as 
individual  records  are  kept  which  enable  one  to 


•I.  Daiiy  Cattle  tethered,  close  to  Lund,  Sweden. 

[Photos  by  Author. 

Pedigree  Dairy  Shorthorn  Cow,  "  Baroness  Stately,"  owned  by 
Lord  Lilford,  Lilford  Hall,  Oundle,  Northants. 
This  cow  yielded  over  800  galls,  last  year. 


[Between  pp.  168,  16P. 


discover  and  discard  poor  and  unprofitable  milkers. 
The  quality  of  the  milk  is  also  ascertained,  and  in  this 
way  each  animal  has  a  "milking"  pedigree  which  is  a 
marketable  commodity,  seeing  that  it  will  either  increase 
or  mar  the  selling  price  of  the  animal. 

When  milk  records  are  kept,  cows  can  be  fed 
according  to  their  milk  yield,  which  is  the  only  logical 
way.  These  records  give  the  owner  important  informa- 
tion with  regard  to  the  variation  of  composition  due 
to  period  of  lactation,  season  of  the  year,  or  other 
causes.  Although  a  gallon  of  milk  weighs  from  io± 
to  loj  Ibs.,  it  is  generally  sufficiently  near  and  much 
more  convenient  in  these  records  to  consider  10  Ibs. 
milk  as  being  equal  to  I  gall.,  seeing  that  measuring 
the  milk  is  rather  unsatisfactory. 

In  order  to  encourage  the  breeding  of  dairy  cows 
which  give  a  large  yield  of  good  quality  milk,  and  at 
the  same  time  yield  a  large  quantity  of  butter-fat  each 
year,  the  Brit1'  h  Dairy  Farmers'  Association1  give 
valuable  prizes  annually  at  the  London  Dairy  Show 
on  the  following  scale  of  points  :  — 

Milking  Trials  and  Inspection  Prizes. 

The  points  to  be  awarded  in  the  milking  trials  will 
be  as  under  : — 

One  point  for  every  ten  days  since  calving,  de- 
ducting the  first  forty  days,  with  a  maximum  of 
twelve  points. 

One  point  for  every  pound  of  milk  yielded  per 
day,  taking  the  average  of  two  days'  yield. 

1  The  Board  of  Agriculture  are  now  encouraging  the  keeping 
of  milk  records  in  England,  by  making  grants  from  the  Develop- 
ment Fund  to  those  counties  which  carry  out  the  scheme. 


Twenty  points    for  every  pound    of  butter-fat  pro- 
duced per  day. 
Four  points  for  every  pound  of  "  solids  other  than 

fat"  yielded  per  day. 

Deductions. — Ten  points  each  time  the  fat  is 
below  3  per  cent. ;  ten  points  each  time  the 
"solids  other  than  fat"  fall  below  8-5. 

No  prize  will  be  given  to  cows  in  the  milking  trials 
which  do  not  come  up  to  the  following  standard  :— 

Points  (for  Cows). 

Pedigree  Shorthorns         .             .             .  100 

Lincolnshire  Red  Shorthorns       .             .  100 

Non-Pedigree  Shorthorns            .             .  no 

Jerseys       .....  95 

Guernseys .....  85 

Ayrshires    .....  90 

Red  Polls  .....  90 

South  Devons        ....  100 

Kerries       .....  80 

Dexters       .....  75 

The  standard  for  heifers  in  the  milking  trials  will  be 
two-thirds  the  points  fixed  for  the  cows. 

The  following  example  will  show  how  the  system  is 
applied  at  the  Dairy  Show  : — 

Shorthorn  Cow— LADY  SYBIL. 

Points  awarded. 

Days  since  calving,  forty-one  days     .  .          o-i 

Average  daily  milk  yield,  45-8  Ibs.     .  .         45-8 

Average  daily  yield,  butter-fat,  1-78  Ibs.         .         35-6 
Average  daily  yield,  solids  not  fat,  4-05  Ibs. .         16-2 
Total  points  awarded       .  .  .         97*7 

There  were  no  deductions  in  this  case, 


Butter  Tests. 

The  prizes  are  awarded  according  to  the  following 
scale  of  points:1 — 

One  point  for  every  ounce  of  butter;  one  point 
for  every  completed  ten  days  since  calving, 
deducting  the  first  forty  days.  Maximum 
allowance  for  period  of  lactation,  twelve  points. 

Fractions  of  ounces  of  butter,  and  incomplete  periods 
of  less  than  ten  days,  to  be  worked  out  in 
decimals,  and  added  to  the  total  points. 

In  the  case  of  cows  obtaining  the  same  number  of 
points,  the  prize  to  be  awarded  to  the  cow  that 
has  been  the  longest  time  in  milk. 

No  prize  or  certificate  to  be  given  in  the  case  of: — 

(a)  Cows   under    five   years   old    failing   to   obtain 

twenty-eight  points  ;  or  in  the  case  of  Jerseys, 

thirty  points. 
(&)  Cows  five  years  old  and  over  failing  to  obtain 

thirty-two   points ;  or  in   the  case   of   Jerseys, 

thirty-five  points. 

The  following  example  shows  how  the  total  marks 
are  obtained : — 

Shorthorn  Cow — SOUTHFIELD  NANCY. 

Points  awarded. 
Average  daily  butter  yield  while  at  Dairy  Show,  in 

ozs.,  57  ozs. 57 

Days  since  calving,  thirty- seven  days  .  .         ... 

Total  marks  gained  ....         "5?" 

1  For  the  George  Bateman  Nelson  (Coronation)  Challenge  Cup, 
value  ^25,  the  quality  of  the  butter  is  also  taken  into  account,  and 
five  marks  are  given  in  each  case  for  colour,  flavour,  and  texture. 


Feeding  the  In-Calf  Cow. — It  is  usual  for  cows  to 
have  their  first  calf  when  they  are  from  two  to  three 
years  of  age.  During  the  pregnant  period  they  should 
get  plenty  of  fresh  air  and  exercise  in  addition  to  a 
fairly  liberal  supply  of  nourishing  food,  which  will  enable 
the  development  of  the  foetus. 

Generally  speaking,  cotton  cakes,  brewers'  grains, 
frozen  turnips,  and  potatoes  should  be  avoided.  Heavy 
feeding  of  concentrated  foods,  and  especially  cotton 
cakes,  appear  to  make  the  cow  subject  to  milk  fever. 
As  the  time  of  calving  approaches,  the  ration  should 
be  of  a  more  laxative  nature.  Bran  mashes  are 
especially  useful,  and  if  these  are  not  sufficient,  the 
cow  may  be  given  a  dose  (J  to  I  Ib.)  of  Epsom-salts. 


Milk,  like  other  secretions  in  the  body,  is  produced 
from  the  blood,  the  nutrients  in  which  have  been 
supplied  by  the  consumption  of  food  (see  pp.  24  to 
31).  The  particular  organ  concerned  in  giving  milk 
its  characteristic  properties  is  called  the  udder 
(mammary  gland). 

The  udder  consists  of  two  halves,  right  and  left. 
Each  half  is  again  divided  into  two  more  or  less 
independent  "quarters,"  with  separate  outlets  called 
"  teats." 

The  interior  of  each  quarter  is  made  up  of  yellow 
glandular  tissue,  which  is  very  diagrammatically  repre- 
sented in  the  figure  on  p.  173. 

The  udder  is  well  supplied  with  blood,  which  is 
forced  round  the  circulatory  or  vascular  system  by  the 
heart,  and  it  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  the  quantity 
and  quality  of  milk  yielded  should  bear  some  relation 



to   the   amount   and   quality  of  the  blood  circulating 
through  the  udder  each  day. 

The  course  taken  by  the  blood  is  along  the  principal 
artery  (aorta)  leading  the  blood  away  from  the  heart. 
This  main  artery  branches  periodically  in  order  to 
supply  the  various  organs  with  blood,  but  the  branch 
leading  the  blood  to  the  udder  passes  along  backwards 
to  the  hind  quarters,  then  in  a  downward  direction 

Alveolus  or  sac. 

Small  lobes  (lobules)  of  alveolus. 

Muscles  under  the  control  of  the  cow 

Milk-duct  (Ductus  lactiferonus). 
Milk  cistern. 

Muscles  not  controllable  by  the  cow 

Milk  outlet  of  teat. 

Structure  of  a  Quarter. 

along  the  thigh  until  it  enters  the  mammary  gland, 
inside  which  it  divides  in  the  usual  way  into  a  large 
number  of  very  fine  blood-vessels  (capillaries)  with 
very  thin  walls.  The  capillaries  practically  mat  them- 
selves round  the  alveoli,  and  in  this  way  the  alveoli  are 
able  to  absorb  from  the  blood  any  nutrient  material 
which  they  require  for  the  manufacture  of  milk.  These 
capillaries  gradually  join  up  again  as  they  leave  the 
front  part  of  the  udder,  into  a  large  blood-vessel  called 
the  "  milk  vein,"  which  follows  the  lower  part  of  the 


abdomen  forwards  till  it  almost  reaches  the  posterior 
part  of  the  breast  bone  where  the  veins  turn  inwards, 
thus  leading  the  blood  back  to  the  heart.  These  points 
of  turning  are  called  the  "  milk-wells." 

Theories  of  Milk  Secretion. — (a)  Up  to  1840,  milk 
was  considered  to  be  merely  filtered  blood,  the  milk 
glands  acting  simply  as  a  filter.  Blood  certainly 
resembles  milk  in  several  respects,  but  there  are 
important  chemical  differences  at  least,  which  make 
this  theory  untenable.  The  resemblances  and  differ- 
ences are  placed  in  apposition. 

Milk.  Blood. 

Consists  of  fat-globules  floating  Consists    of   blood    corpuscles 

in  a  serum  (separated  milk).  floating  in  "  blood  "  serum. 

Fat-globules  give  characteristic  Blood  corpuscles  give  charac- 

yellow  colour  to  milk.  teristic  red  colour  to  blood. 

Milk  is  1-032  times  as  heavy  as  Blood  is  1-055  times  as  heavy 

water.  as  water. 

Milk  left  exposed  to  air  gener-  Blood  left  exposed  to  air  clots 

ally  curdles  or  sours.  through  formation  of  fibrin. 

Soda  salts  predominate  in  ash  Potash    salts    predominate    in 

of  milk.  ash  of  blood. 

Fat   in   milk  is   comparatively  Fat  in  blood  consists  largely  of 

rich  in  volatile  fatty  acids.  non-volatile  fatty  acids. 

The  quantity  and  quality  of  milk  has  not  been 
affected  very  greatly  when  different  foods  have  been 
experimentally  fed,  so  long  as  the  ration  used  was 
sufficiently  rich  in  nutrients.  This  result  should 
naturally  have  been  brought  about  if  milk  were  only 
filtered  blood,  but  as  milk  constantly  exhibited  the 
last  two  chemical  differences  given  above,  another 
theory  had  to  be  formulated. 

(£)  The  modern  theory  is  that  milk  is  manufactured 
by  the  mammary  glands  from  the  blood.  The  way  in 



which  it  is  manufactured  will  now  be  discussed.  One 
fact  which  accelerated  this  idea  was  that  colostrum 
was  found  to  contain  certain  minute  bodies  called 
"colostrum  corpuscles."  Under  the  microscope,  these 
exhibited  traces  of  cell  structure  apparently  like  shed 
(epithelial)  cells  from  the  alveoli.  This  suggested  that 
milk  may  be  a  product  formed  by  the  decomposition 
of  the  cell  walls  of  the  alveoli. 

These  alveoli  have  very  thin  walls,  consisting 
of  a  single  layer  of  minute  living  cells,  which 
are  in  fact  the  secreting  cells  of  the  mammary 
gland.  If  a  section  were  cut  so  as  to  remove  the 
tops  of  the  lobules  of  an  alveolus,  it  would  have 
approximately  the  following  appearance  under  the 
microscope : — 

Capillary  blood-vessels. 
Epithelial  cells  of  alveolus. 

Epithelial    cells    breaking    up;    the  cell    itself 
apparently  disappears  in  normal  milk. 

Fat-globules  among  the  other  secretions  which 
constitute  milk. 

The  method  of  secretion  can  now  be  fairly  easily 
followed.  The  capillary  blood-vessels  which  form  a 
network  round  these  alveoli  supply  the  glands  of  the 
udder  (mammary  glands)  with  blood  which  is  con- 
stantly circulating  through  the  udder.  Part  of  this 
is  absorbed  by  the  thin  walls  (epithelial  cells)  of 
the  alveoli,  and  these  epithelial  cells  commence  to 
grow  towards  the  inside  of  the  alveolus,  but  as  fast  as 


they  grow  inwards  the  contents  of  these  cells  are 
apparently  deposited  inside  the  sac  or  alveolus.  It  is, 
however,  somewhat  difficult  to  trace  the  walls  of  these 
"  shed  "  cells  after,  say,  the  second  week  of  the  lactation 
period,  and  it  is  possible  that  they  are  dissolved  in  some 
way  or  other,  seeing  the  cell  walls  are  so  very  thin. 

It  is  probable  that  the  various  constituents  of  blood 
and  lymph,  as  well  as  the  substance  of  cell  glands,  are 
all  utilised  in  the  formation  of  milk  constituents.  The 
difference  in  composition  of  the  fat  of  milk  as  compared 
with  that  of  blood  may  be  accounted  for  by  the 
mammary  glands  first  of  all  splitting  up  the  fat  in  the 
blood  and  then  rebuilding  or  reconstructing  it  in  such 
a  way  as  to  give  it  the  peculiar  character  of  butter-fat 

(cp.  p.  35)- 

Colostrum. — The  milk  given  during  the  first  few 
days  after  calving  is  of  a  rich  yellow  colour,  glutinous, 
and  possesses  laxative  properties  which  nature  considers 
necessary  for  newly  born  animals.  Chemically  it  is 
very  rich  in  albuminoids  (16  to  18  per  cent.),  the  greater 
part  of  which  is  present  in  the  form  of  albumen  and 
not  casein,  as  is  the  case  in  normal  milk ;  hence  a  skin 
rapidly  forms  on  the  surface  of  colostrum  when  it  is 
heated.  At  the  same  time  it  is  poor  in  sugar  (2\  per 
cent).  It  gives  a  rich  yellow  colour  to  dairy  produce, 
but  should  not  be  used  for  butter  till  the  end  of  the 
first  week ;  and  at  least  another  week  should  transpire 
before  it  is  used  for  cheesemaking. 

It  is  not  a  good  practice  to  remove  the  whole  of  the 
milk  from  the  udder  during  the  first  day  after  calving, 
as  there  would  be  danger  of  the  udder  being  chilled 
by  this  sudden  removal  of  milk  which  has  been 
accumulating  for  some  days.  The  best  plan  is  to 
milk  the  cow  three  or  four  times  during  the  first  day, 

PLATE  XV111. 

A.  Typical  Jersey  Cow  in  the  Cathedral  Dairy  Company's  herd, 
at  Messrs  Loram  Bros.,  Rosamondford,  near  Exeter. 

[Photos  by  Messrs  Loram  Bros. 

B.  Devonshire  Clotted  Cream. — The  Cathedral  Dairy  Company's  Model 

Creamery  at  Rosamondford. 

[To  face  p.  177. 



and  only  take  about  half  of  the  milk  away  at  each 
time.  After  this,  the  whole  of  the  milk  may  be 
removed  at  each  time  of  milking. 

Normal  milk  from  Shorthorn  cows  contains  about 
3!  per  cent,  albuminoids,  consisting  chiefly  of  casein 
(curd),  the  albumen  present  only  amounting  to  some- 
thing like  -J  per  cent.  Fat  varies  from  3  to  4j  per  cent, 
as  in  Shorthorns,  Ayrshires,  etc. ;  and  4  to  6  per  cent, 
in  the  case  of  Jerseys,  Guernseys,  and  South  Devons. 

The  following  gives  the  average  composition  of 
colostrum  (biestings,  etc.)  and  normal  cow's  milk  of 
medium  quality,  e.g.  Shorthorn.  At  the  same  time  the 
average  composition  of  the  milk  of  other  farm  animals 
is  given  for  comparative  purposes ;  and  for  convenience, 
that  of  dairy  produce  as  well. 

Kind  of  Animal,  etc. 







per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

Cow  (colostrum)    . 
,,     (normal) 









Mare(           ) 






Ewe  (           ) 






Goat  (           ) 






Sow   (           )         . 






Ass    (           )         . 






Bitch  (          ) 





Cat    (           )         . 






Skim  milk     . 






Separated  milk 





Cream  (thin) 






„      (thick)        . 





Butter  . 





Cheese  . 





Butter-fat. — A  knowledge  of  the  chemical  composi- 



tion  of  butter-fat  is  of  some  importance,  if  the  feeding 
of  dairy  cows  is  to  be  properly  understood.  It  consists 
of  glycerine  combined  with  various  fatty  acids,  which 
may  be — 

(a)  Non-volatile    and    insoluble   in  water   (palmitic, 

stearic,  myristic,  and  oleic  acids).  Palmitic 
acid  combined  with  glycerine  gives  a  fat  called 
palmitin;  stearic  acid  and  glycerine,  stearin  ;  etc. 

(b)  Volatile  and   soluble    in   water   (butyric,  capric, 
caproic,  and  capryllic  acids). 

Volatile  means  that  the  acids  are  capable  of  being 
distilled  off. 

The  chief  point  to  bear  in  mind  here  is  that  the 
characteristic  feature  of  butter,  as  compared  with 
margarine,  etc.,  is  that  the  former  is  comparatively  rich 
in  volatile  fatty  acids,  while  the  latter  is  very  poor. 
These  volatile  acids  are  also  responsible  for  the  fine 
full  flavour  one  gets  in  good  samples  of  butter,  whereas 
ordinary  margarine  possesses  a  tallowy,  insipid  flavour. 

Margarine  consists  chiefly  of  non-volatile  fatty  acids 
which  are  insoluble  in  water.  These  are  also  common 
to  butter,  but  not  to  the  same  extent.  Generally 
speaking,  the  firmer  and  more  solid  the  fat  is  at 
ordinary  temperature,  the  larger  is  the  proportion 
of  palmitin  and  stearin  in  it ;  while  the  softer  and 
more  liquid  it  is,  the  larger  is  the  proportion  of 

The  following  very  simple,  household  method  of 
distinguishing  butter  from  oleo-margarine  has  been 
taken  from  Farmers'  Bulletin,  No.  131,  of  the  U.S. 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.C.  To  make 
this  test,  a  small  amount  of  butter  or  oleo-margarine, 
as  the  case  may  be,  approximately  the  same  size  as  a 


good  big  cherry,  is  taken  and  heated,  gently  at  first,  in 
a  tablespoon  held  over  a  spirit  lamp  or  gas  stove, 
stirring  the  fat  about  at  the  same  time  with  a  match 
stalk.  As  soon  as  the  fat  becomes  melted,  bring  the 
spoon  nearer  the  flame  so  as  to  boil  the  oily  substance 
as  briskly  as  possible.  Stir  the  contents  thoroughly 
during  boiling  two  or  three  times,  and  always  shortly 
before  boiling  ceases. 

Oleo-margarine  boils  noisily,  sputtering  more  or 
less,  and  produces  little  if  any  foam,  while  genuine  butter 
boils  usually  with  less  noise  and  produces  "  abundance 
of  foam." 

Circumstances  affecting  the  Quantity  and  Quality 
of  Milk. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  chief  circumstances 
affecting  the  quantity  and  quality  of  milk  : — 

i.  Soils  and  Manures. — Limestone  soils  give  a 
better  quality  of  milk.  It  is  sweeter,  keeps  better, 
requires  less  rennet  to  curdle  the  milk,  and  the  curd 
does  not  need  so  much  scalding  when  used  for  cheese- 

Milk  from  low-lying  marshy  pastures  is  apt  to 
deteriorate  quickly.  The  butter  and  cheese  made  from 
the  milk  of  cows  grazing  on  such  pastures  have  not 
the  desired  flavour  and  aroma.  Draining  should 
generally  precede  any  manurial  treatment  in  improving 
such  pastures. 

Fairly  heavy  dressings  of  nitrate  of  soda  applied 
in  spring,  force  the  grass  considerably,  and  are  not 
desirable,  seeing  they  are  likely  to  result  in  the  cows 
scouring  and  in  some  cases,  going  "  off  their  milk." 

Bone  meal  is  undoubtedly  an  excellent  manure  for 


pastures,  but  if  applied  in  spring,  on  cheesemaking 
farms,  it  taints  the  milk  so  much  that  the  cheeses 
will  taste  of  it  for  several  weeks  or  even  months.  At 
the  same  time  the  cheeses  will  "  heave "  a  good  deal 
during  ripening.  Bone  meal  should  therefore  be 
applied  in  the  winter  time,  in  order  to  give  time  for 
the  rain  to  wash  it  into  the  surface  soil  before  the  grass 
begins  to  spring. 

Many  pasture  soils  grow  grass  of  inferior  quality, 
and  all  kinds  of  objectionable  weeds,  simply  because 
the  land  is  too  poor  to  grow  good  pasture  plants.  The 
effect  of  a  dressing  of  slag  (6  cwts.)  and  kainit  (2  to  3 
cwts.  per  acre)  has  generally  a  marked  effect  on  the 
quality  of  the  herbage.  The  grass  becomes  sweeter, 
white  clover  grows  in  abundance,  stock  cling 
tenaciously  to  it,  and  the  land  carries  a  larger  number 
of  stock  per  acre. 

This  point  was  demonstrated  at  the  Midland 
Agricultural  College,  in  their  "manuring  for  milk" 
experiment,  where  8  acres  of  pasture-land  received  a 
dressing  of  10  cwts.  ground  lime;  half  of  this  area 
received  in  addition  4  cwts.  of  super  (35  per  cent.)  and 
ij  cwts.  sulphate  of  potash.  During  the  first  summer 
the  4-acre  plot,  which  received  the  phosphates  and 
potash,  carried  at  first  two,  but  later  three  cows, 
while  the  remaining  4  acres  only  carried  two.  At 
the  end  of  the  first  season  (1909),  the  cows  feeding  on 
the  manured  plot  produced  very  nearly  3489  Ibs. 
more  milk  than  those  fed  on  the  unmanured  plot. 
This  amounts  to  an  increased  milk  yield,  in  favour  of 
the  manure,  of  84  galls,  per  acre.  The  increased  yield 
of  the  cows  fed  on  the  manured  plot  has  been  more  than 
maintained  during  the  seasons  1910,  1911,  and  1912, 
the  average  increase  in  milk  yield  per  acre,  due  to  this 


manuring,  now  standing  at  an  average  of  93  galls. 
per  acre. 

2.  Breed. — Milk  from  Jersey  cows  contains  a  much 
higher  percentage  of  butter-fat  than  is  the  case  with  that 
from    Shorthorns   or    Ayrshires,  and  the  butter    made 
from  it  is  both  firmer  and  of  a  richer  yellow  colour.     The 
richer  colour  in  butter  from  Jersey  cows  is  largely  due 
to  its  containing  a  comparatively  large  proportion  of 
"volatile"    fatty   acids,   which    can    very    probably   be 
accounted  for  in  two  ways  : — 

(a)  Careful  selection  through  successive  generations. 
(b}  The  tethering  system. 

In  the  latter  case,  the  cows  have  been  accustomed 
to  handling  from  their  youth  up,  and  through  constantly 
being  tethered,  have  not  developed  such  a  wild  disposi- 
tion as,  say,  an  Ayrshire.  Excitability,  or  wildness  of 
any  kind,  on  the  part  of  the  cow  producing  the  milk 
appears  to  affect  the  colour  of  butter-fat  adversely. 

This  is  also  an  argument  against  using  the  dog 
too  freely  when  driving  milking  cows,  as  well  as  against 
any  rough  treatment  in  the  cowhouse. 

3.  Individual  Character  of  cows  of  the  same  breed. 
—This  is  sometimes  called  "  individuality,"  and  refers 

to  the  fact  that  both  the  quantity  and  quality  of 
the  milk  yielded  by  any  particular  breed  of  cows 
varies  very  considerably  with  individual  animals 
of  that  breed.  E.g.,  in  the  milk  record  tests  carried 
out  by  the  Lancashire  County  Council  with  Dairy 
Shorthorn  cows  during  the  lactation  period  of  1906, 
one  notices  that  one  of  the  worst  milkers  gave  404 
galls,  of  4-1  per  cent,  milk,  while  the  best  yielded 
as  much  as  928  galls,  of  3-4  per  cent,  milk  for  the 
year.  In  the  former  case,  the  cow  produced  about 



162  Ibs.  pure  butter-fat,  while  the  latter  gave  fully 
315  Ibs.  Wide  differences  are  to  be  found,  of  a  similar 
nature,  in  all  breeds,  due  to  their  individual 

4.  Period  of  Lactation.  —  This  point  may  be 
illustrated  from  the  Ayrshire  milk  records,  the  keeping 
of  which  were  supported  by  a  grant  from  the  High- 
land and  Agricultural  Society  of  Scotland.  Mr  John 
Spier  included  the  record  of  every  available  cow  at 
the  time,  and  obtained  the  following  interesting 
figures : — 

Weeks  since 

Average  Milk  Yield. 

Average  per  cent. 
Fat  in  Milk. 

Under  I  week 

26-3  Ibs.  per  day 


2  weeks 





















It  will  be  noticed  that  the  yield  of  milk  gradually 
increased  up  to  the  twelfth  week.  After  that,  it 
began  to  fall  off.  With  regard  to  the  quality,  the 
percentage  of  fat  decreased  till  the  end  of  the  fourth 
week ;  after  that  the  fat  gradually  increased  in  propor- 

5.  Age  of  Cow. — In  the  Highland  and  Agricultural 
Society's  Journal  for  1909,  Mr  Spier,  in  his  report  of 
the  Wigtonshire  Milk  Record  Society,  makes  a  tabular 
statement  of  the  average  quantity  and  quality  of  milk 
yielded  by  all  (available)  cows,  according  to  their  age, 
which  had  completed  their  lactation  periods.  The 



following     will     be     sufficient     to     demonstrate     the 
point: — 

Age  of  Cows 
in  years. 

Number  of 
Cows  on  which 
figures  based. 


Milk  Yield  in 

per  cent,  of 
Fat  in  Milk. 





























The  chief  points  to  notice  are  that  the  yield  gradually 
increases  with  the  age  of  the  cow,  and  the  percentage  of 
fat  was  highest  in  the  milk  of  young  cows  or  heifers,  but 
after  the  third  year  the  quality  gradually  declined. 

6.  First  and  Last  drawn  Milk. — The  first  quart  of 
Shorthorn  milk  may  not  contain  more  than  2  per  cent, 
of  fat,  and  sometimes  less,  while  the  last  quart  drawn  at 
the  same  milking  may  run  up  to  6,  7,  or  8  per  cent.  fat. 

Difference  in  Composition  between  First  and  Last  drawn  Milk. 





per  cent. 

per  cent. 

per  cent. 

First  drawn  milk 





Last  drawn  milk 





Stripping  . 





The  strippings  may  quite  easily  contain  10  per  cent, 
fat.  These  results  are  not  altogether  explained  by  the 
cream  being  lighter  and  partially  separating  in  the 
udder,  but  partly  by  the  greater  resistance  or  friction 



the  fat-globules  have  to  overcome  in  passing  down  the 
milk-ducts  into  the  milk-cistern  in  the  udder.  The 
thinner  part  (serum)  therefore  finds  its  way  into  the 
milk-cistern  with  less  difficulty. 

Dr  Babcock  (Wisconsin)  found,  from  several  trials, 
that  quick  milking  produced  2  to  13  per  cent,  more 
milk  which  was  a  tenth  richer  in  butter-fat  than  that 
produced  by  slow  milking.  This  superiority  was  con- 
tinued for  several  months,  until  the  milk-yield  of  the 
cow  naturally  began  to  decline. 

7.  Morning  and  Evening  Milk. — Generally  speaking, 
the  morning  milk  is  larger  in  quantity  and  poorer  in 
fat  than  evening  milk.  This  may  be  partly  due  to  the 
vitality  of  the  cow's  system  being  lower  during  the 
night  than  day  time,  more  especially  when  the  days 
are  short,  but  the  chief  cause  is  undoubtedly  the 
unequal  periods  between  the  times  of  milking.  This 
point  is  dealt  with  in  Dr  Lauder's  report  (Edinburgh 
and  East  of  Scotland  College  of  Agriculture),  Bulletin 
XL,  from  which  the  following  table  is  taken  :— 

Effect  of  Milking  at  Equal  and  Unequal  Intervals  on 
Composition  of  Milk. 

Morning  (6.30  A.M.). 

Evening  (4  P.M.). 

Fat  in  Milk. 

Total  Solids. 

Fat  in  Milk. 

Total  Solids. 

3-14  per  cent. 

12-01  per  cent. 

4-07  per  cent. 

12-89  per  cent. 

Morning  (5.30  A.M.). 

Evening  (5.30  P.M.). 

Fat  in  Milk. 

Total  Solids. 

Fat  iti  Milk. 

Total  Solids. 

3-67  per  cent. 

12-62  per  cent. 

3-70  per  cent. 

12-42  per  cent. 


Milking  the  cows  at  equal  intervals  has  reduced  the 
difference  in  fat  content  of  milk  from  -93  per  cent,  to 
•03  per  cent. 

8.  Time  of  Calving. — Trials  carried  out  by  the 
Department  of  Agriculture  for  Ireland  (1907-8)  indi- 
cate that  the  November  calvers  gave,  on  an  average, 
1 60  to  1 80  galls,  more  milk  in  a  year  than  the  April 
calvers  (see  p.  199). 

Effect  of  Pood. 

Pasture  is  the  natural  food  of  the  dairy  cow  during 
the  summer  months,  and  if  a  sufficient  supply  is  available 
of  "  good  quality,"  the  milk-yield  will  most  likely  be 
kept  up  to  the  maximum.  It  is  very  doubtful,  in  this 
case,  whether  the  feeding  of  concentrated  foods  in 
addition  to  pasture  would  have  any  permanent  effect  in 
improving  the  yield  of  milk,  or  the  percentage  of  fat 
in  it. 

If,  however,  the  pasture  is  only  poor  in  quality,  and 
the  cow  is  not  receiving  an  adequate  amount  of  nutrient 
material  in  the  form  of  forage  crops,  etc.,  the  most 
notable  effect  of  the  addition  of  suitable  concentrated 
food  to  the  ration  would  be  to  increase  the  milk-yield ; 
but  there  may  be,  at  the  same  time,  an  increase  in  the 
proportion  of  fat  in  the  milk,  z.£.,  the  milk  may  also 
be,  and  possibly  would  be  of  better  quality.  Liberal 
feeding  of  concentrates  would  therefore  push  the  yield 
of  milk  to  the  maximum ;  above  this  point  fattening 
would  most  likely  take  place.  The  cost  of  producing 
this  increased  flow  of  milk  has  also  to  be  kept  in  mind. 

During  the  winter  months,  however,  the  pasture 
grass,  if  available,  has  not  the  same  feeding  value,  and 
it  is  necessary  on  dairy  farms  generally,  to  lay  up  a 
store  of  hay,  straw,  roots,  and  either  home-grown  or 


purchased  concentrates ;  consequently,  in  order  to  pro- 
duce milk  one  has  to  try  and  compound  a  ration  which 
will  approximate  to  pasture  grass  in  its  efficiency  as  a 
milk  producer.  Before  one  can  do  this  it  is  necessary 
to  know  something  of  the  various  effects  of  con- 
centrates, fodder  crops,  and  roots  on  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  milk  produced  when  fed  to  dairy  cows. 

The  outstanding  features  of  milk  produced  by  cows 
feeding  on  good  pasture,  as  well  as  the  butter,  etc.,  made 
from  it,  are  : — 

(a)  The  milk  is,  comparatively  speaking,  abundant 
in  quantity,  and  of  good  quality. 

(£)  The  butter  made  from  it  has  a  rich  yellow  colour. 

(c)  The  butter-fat  is  generally  firm  at  normal 
temperatures,  but  not  hard  and  tallowy  like 
margarine.  If  well  made,  it  possesses  a  sweet, 
full,  nutty  flavour,  and  a  pleasant  aroma. 

These  are  standards  which  we  shall  need  to  keep  in 
mind,  and  as  fodder  crops  and  roots  form  the  basal 
part  of  the  ration,  we  will  consider  the  effect  of  these 
crops  on  dairy  produce  first. 

Fodder  Crops. — Green  forage  crops  have  a  similar 
effect  to  that  of  pasture  grass,  but  green  clover,  if  fed  in 
considerable  quantity,  is  apt  to  give  a  tallowy  butter. 

Straw  (usually  oat  straw)  gives  a  very  pale  and 
rather  hard  butter ;  while  meadow  hay  butter  is  not  so 
pale,  but  resembles  it  largely  in  the  latter  characteristic. 

Root  Crops  have  similar  laxative  properties  to  grass, 
but  the  butter  produced  from  such  milk  varies  in 
colour  according  to  the  kind  of  root  crop  fed ;  e.g., 
mangels  and  sugar  beet  give  a  pale-coloured  butter, 
while  carrots  give  a  nice  yellow  colour  to  it.  At  Wye 
College,  cows  which  were  giving  a  pale-coloured  butter 


from  mangels  had  28  Ibs.  carrots  per  day  substituted, 
and  it  was  found  that  the  improved  colour  of  the  butter 
was  evident  in  two  to  three  weeks. 

Cabbages  and  swedes  both  yield  a  fairly  good 
coloured  butter. 

The  feeding  of  an  excessive  quantity  of  turnips  per 
day  (112  Ibs.)  does  not  appear  from  Dr  Lauder's  report 
to  have  either  increased  the  proportion  of  water  in  milk, 
or  decreased  the  percentage  of  fat. 

Dr  Crowther  states  in  a  report  on  the  variation  of 
chemical  composition  of  butter  (1907),  that  "easily 
fermentable  foods  like  grass,  forage  crops,  and  roots, 
appear  to  increase  the  proportion  of  volatile  (fatty) 
acids,  which  give  butter  its  peculiar  flavour." 

Certain  root  crops,  viz.,  turnips,  swedes,  and  cabbages, 
when  fed  in  fairly  large  quantities,  impart  what  is 
called  a  "  turnipy  flavour"  to  the  milk,  butter,  etc.,  which 
is  certainly  not  desirable.  In  order  to  avoid  this  defect, 
it  is  usually  sufficient  if  the  following  precautions  are 
observed  : — 

(a)  Feed  all  such  foods  in  moderate  quantity  only. 
(&)  They  should  be  fed  immediately  after,  and  not 

before  the  cows  have  been  milked. 
(<:)  Decaying  cabbage  or  turnip  leaves,  etc.,  should 

be  removed  from  the  cowhouse  each  day. 

Concentrates. — The  general  effect  is  to  push  the 
milk  yield  to  the  maximum.  Dry  concentrates  tend 
to  improve  the  quality,  and  concentrates  fed  in  the 
sloppy  condition  (sometimes  called  crowdy)  tend  to 
improve  the  quantity ;  but  these  results  appear  to  be 
of  a  more  or  less  temporary  character,  and  are  much 
more  marked  in  the  early  than  in  the  later  part  of  the 
lactation  periods. 



Concentrated  Foods  conveniently  arranged  for  Compounding 



(a)  Rich  in  Oil— 

Earth-nut  cake 

Decorticated  cotton-seed  cake 

Soya-rbean  cake  (L) 

Linseed  cake  (L) 

(b)  Poor  in  Oil,  but  fairly  rick  in  Carbohydrates — 

Gluten  meal 

Gluten  feed 


Beans  (B) 



(a)  Rich  in  Oil— 

Cocoa-nut  cake  ...... 

Palm-nut  cake 

Dried  grains 

(b)  Poor  in  Oil— 

Egyptian  cotton-seed  cake  (B) 
Malt  coombs  or  cummins  (L) 
Bombay  cotton-seed  cake  (B) 


HYDRATES  (50  TO    70   PER   CENT.)   AND 


(a)  Fairly  rich  in  OU — 


Maize    ........ 

Rice  meal 


(b)  Low  in  Oil— 

Coarse  wheat  middlings  (thirds  or  sharps)    . 

Bran  (wheat) 

Fine  wheat  middlings  (seconds)  (B)     . 





Locust  beans 

Treacle  (L) 



























:  B  "  =  Binding  in  effect;  "  L  "  =  Laxative  in  effect. 


When  the  amount  of  concentrated  food  has  reached 
a  certain  point,  any  increase  in  this  amount  does  not 
give  a  corresponding  increase  in  the  yield  of  milk. 
In  fact,  in  the  Offerton  Hall  (Durham)  experiments 
it  appears  that  when  the  concentrated  food  was  in- 
creased from  8  to  12  Ibs.  per  1000  Ibs.  live  weight  per 
day,  the  milk-yield  was  only  increased  by  2  pints  per 
day,  which  must  be  considered  a  very  small  increased 
yield  for  an  increase  of  4  Ibs.  of  concent-rated  food  per 
head  per  day. 

The  relative  proportion  of  the  nutrients  in  the  con- 
centrated mixture  appears  to  have  some  effect  on  the 
composition  and  quality  of  milk  and  butter.  E.g.,  in 
experiments  carried  out  by  the  Midland  Dairy  Institute 
in  1896,  with  a  basal  ration  of  50  Ibs.  roots,  10  Ibs.  chaff, 
and  6  Ibs.  hay  per  day,  when  the  ratio  of  digestible  fat 
(from  linseed  cake)  to  albuminoids  in  the  ration  was 
as  1:3,  it  appeared  to  increase  the  proportion  of 
fat  in  milk,  but  the  butter  made  from  it  was  soft 
and  inferior  compared  with  that  obtained  when  the 
proportion  of  fat  to  albuminoids  in  ration  was  as 

Dr  Crowther  states  in  his  1906  report  that  "heavy 
feeding  of  cakes  rich  in  oil — say  upwards  of  4  Ibs.  per 
day — tends  to  lower  the  proportion  of  volatile  (fatty) 
acids,  or  in  other  words  to  increase  the  amount  of 
margarine-like  ingredients  of  the  butter-fat."  This 
supports  the  results  obtained  at  the  Midland  Dairy 
When  "decorticated  cotton  cake  or  meal"  is  in- 
cluded to  a  greater  extent  than,  say,  one-third  of  the 
concentrated  food  given,  it  tends  to  give  a  hard,  pale- 
coloured  butter  with  a  tallowy  sort  of  flavour.  "  Linseed 
cake,"  on  the  other  hand,  if  rich  in  oil,  gives  a  softer 


butter  of  fairly  good  colour,  but  it  does  not  keep  at 
all  well. 

"  Brewers'  grains,"  according  to  the  Offerton  Hall 
experiments  (1907),  when  fed  as  part  of  the  concen- 
trated food  in  the  ration  (i.e.  20  Ibs.  per  day)  in  summer, 
have  the  effect  of  increasing  the  daily  milk-yield,  more 
especially  in  the  later  period  of  lactation.  There  were, 
however,  slight  indications  that  they  affected  the  per- 
centage of  fat  in  the  milk  adversely  in  the  early 
lactation  period,  but  this  was  not  so  appreciable  towards 
the  end  of  the  lactation  period.  The  effect  in  winter  is 
similar,  but  the  fat  content  of  milk  on  the  average  is 
not  appreciably  affected. 

Bean  meal,  pea  meal,  soya  cake,  fresh  cocoa-nut  cake, 
palm-nut  cake,  gluten  meal,  gluten  feed,  maize,  ground 
oats,  bran,  etc.,  give  a  fairly  good  coloured  and  good 
flavoured  butter. 

The  feeding  stuffs  which  make  butter  a  little  harder 
than  normal,  or  a  little  softer  than  normal,  if  they  are 
fed  in  considerable  quantity,  are  as  follows  : — 

(a)  Harder  than   normal. — Cotton   cakes,  palm-nut 

cake,    pea    meal,    bean     meal,    green    clover, 
vetches,  and  dry  fodder  crops,  e.g.  oat  straw. 

(b)  Softer  than  normal. — Linseed  cake,  maize  meal, 

rice  meal,  bran,  and  oatmeal. 

Bitter  Milk  may  be  caused  in  the  following 
ways :— 

(a)  Feeding  inferior  cotton  cakes. 

(b)  Feeding  brewers'  grains   in  too  large  quantity : 

the  bitter  taste  is  more  evident  in  the  cream. 

(c)  The   cow's    udder   being    out   of  order.      Bitter 


tastes    caused   by   foods  do    not    increase    on 
standing,  while  those  from  udder  complaints  do. 

(d)  Cows   eating   orchard    tree   leaves   carrying   on 

their   surface  bacteria   and  yeasts  which  bring 
about  this  taint. 

(e)  Lack  of  cleanliness  with  dairy  utensils  :  but  this 

is  produced  after  the  milk  leaves  the  cow,  and 
has  nothing  to  do  with  feeding. 

"  Ropy  milk,"  may  be  produced  when  cows  eat 
certain  plants,  such  as  butterwort  (Pinguicula)  and  dog's 

Strong  objectionable  flavours  may  be  due  to  cows 
eating  garlic,  meadow  saffron,  sun  spurge,  buttercups, 
pine  leaves,  and  shoots  of  trees,  etc.  Garlic  is  said  to 
colour  the  milk  yellow,  while  fenugreek  and  madder 
give  it  a  red  colour.  Salt  may  become  tainted  by 
exposure  to  insanitary  conditions,  and  impart  a  bad 
flavour  to  butter. 


In  compounding  rations  for  dairy  cows,  it  is 
necessary  to  keep  in  mind  that  fodder  crops  (hay, 
straw,  etc.)  and  root  crops  will  generally  form  the  basal 
part  of  ration.  These  are  bulky  and  poor  in  albumin- 
oids. The  fodder  crops  are  very  high  in  fibre,  hence 
the  concentrated  mixture  used  should  be  : — 

1.  Rich  in  albuminoids  ; 

2.  Fairly  rich  in  oil ; 

3.  Low  in  fibre  ; 

4.  Attractive   in   flavour,   and    of  a    fairly   laxative 



The  foods  selected  should  have  no  injurious  effect 
either  on  the  quantity  or  quality  of  milk  yielded,  or  the 
butter,  etc.,  made  therefrom.  Another  practical  point 
is,  when  very  rich  concentrated  foods  are  used,  they 
should  generally  be  "  opened  up  "  by  adding  a  "  bulky 
concentrate"  such  as  bran  or  brewers'  grains,  so  as 
to  enable  the  digestive  juices  to  act  more  effectively 
on  the  nutrients  in  the  ration. 

The  following  "  standard "  should  be  adhered  to  in 
making  up  the  concentrated  part  of  ration,  although 
one  would  come  fairly  near  by  taking  one-quarter 
from  Section  I.  (p.  188),  one-quarter  from  II.  (a),  and 
one-half  by  weight  from  III. ;  or  one-third  from  I.  and 
two-thirds  from  III. 

Feeding  Standard  for  Dairy  Cows. — The  following 
standard  for  the  concentrated  part  of  ration  will  be 
found  very  suitable  for  cows  receiving  hay  or  straw 
along  with  roots : — 

Albuminoids,  15  to  20  per  cent. ;  oil,  4  to  6  per  cent. ; 
fibre,  not  exceeding  10  per  cent. 

When  cows  are  receiving  straw  or  inferior  hay  for 
the  bulky  fodder,  up  to,  say,  21  Ibs.  per  day,  the  com- 
position of  the  concentrated  food  should  approximate 
to  the  maximum  :  i.e.,  albuminoids,  20  per  cent. ;  and  oil, 
6  per  cent,  (see  rations  4,  6,  7,  and  8).  Locust-bean  meal 
may  be  used  to  sweeten  a  ration,  and  thus  make  it  more 

With  regard  to  roots,  cabbages,  etc.,  these  may  be 
given  up  to  40  Ibs.  per  head  per  day,  or  possibly  more. 
If  these  are  not  available,  their  place  may  be  taken 
with  20  to  35  Ibs.  wet  brewers'  grains,  or  in  some  cases 
treacle.  In  fact,  the  latter  is  very  useful  as  a  combined 
sweetener  of  foods  and  a  laxative  when  the  ration 
requires  it. 


[Photo  by  Mr  F.  Preece,  Hereford. 
A.  Hand  Milking. 

Miss  Nancy  Jones,  Staunton-on-Wye,  Hereford,  has  won  many  prizes  in 
milking  at  the  leading  shows  in  girls'  class  (p.  195). 

[Photo  by  Messrs  R.  A.  Lister  &  Son,  Dursley,  England. 
B.  "  Lister  "  Milking  Machine. 

The  "  Lister  "  is  the  very  latest  British  milking  machine  on  the  market,  and  is 
giving  great  satisfaction  to  the  many  farmers  who  are  using  it  (p.  196). 

[To  face  p.  192. 



The  amount  of  concentrated  food  may  be  calculated 
for  each  cow  by  allowing 

(a)  J  Ib.  for  every  100  Ibs.  live  weight  of  cow; 
(£)  2  to  2j  Ibs.  for  every  gallon  of  milk  produced 
per  day,  i.e.  \  Ib.  for  every  quart. 

With  a  cow  of  800  Ibs.  live  weight,  and  yielding 
3  galls,  milk  per  day,  the  amount  required  would  be 
(a)  8  x  i  =  2,  (&)  3  X  2  =  6  ;  i.e.  8  Ibs.  in  all  per  day. 

The  following  mixtures  of  concentrates x  for  winter 
milk  production  are  arranged  for  a  cow  of  800  Ibs.  which 
is  giving  3  galls,  milk  per  day.  A15iO4F7  means  that  its 
composition  works  out  to  be  :  albuminoids,  15 \  per  cent. ; 
oil,  4  per  cent. ;  and  fibre,  7  per  cent. 

5.    2  Ibs.  bean  meal. 

1.  2  Ibs.  bean  or  pea  meal. 
2  Ibs.  bran  (wheat). 

2  Ibs.  crushed  oats. 
2  Ibs.  maize  meal. 

2.  2  Ibs.  linseed  cake. 
4  Ibs.  barley  meal. 

2  Ibs.  bran. 


3.  i^  Ibs.  decorticated  cotton 


1  \  Ibs.  bran. 

3  Ibs.  ground  oats. 

2  Ibs.  maize  meal. 


4.  i  Ib.  soya-bean  cake. 

3  Ibs.  dried  brewers'  grains. 
2       Ibs.       sharps       (coarse 

2  Ibs.  barley  meal. 

3  Ibs.  dried  grains. 
3  Ibs.  maize  meal. 

6.    3  Ibs.  gluten  feed. 
2  Ibs.  malt  coombs. 
2  Ibs.  rice  meal. 
i  Ib.  maize  meal. 

2  Ibs.  soya-bean  cake. 
2  Ibs.  palm-nut  cake. 
2  Ibs.  barley  meal. 
2  Ibs.  maize  meal. 

2  Ibs.  gluten  meal. 

1  Ib.  cocoa-nut  cake. 

2  Ibs.  bran. 

3  Ibs.  ground  oats. 

1  Farmers  who  wish  to  make  similar  concentrated  mixtures  up 
should  refer  to  special  table  of  analyses  on  p.  188. 



Rations  I,  3,  6,  7,  and  8  would  be  very  suitable  for 
butter  production  as  well  as  for  cheese,  while  rations  2,  4, 
and  5  may  be  used  for  cows  when  the  new  milk  is  sold. 
Rations  I,  2,  4,  and  5  would  go  well  with  hay  as  the 
fodder  crop,  and  rations  3,  6,  7,  and  8  with  straw. 

If  concentrated  food  is  required  in  the  summer 
months  when  the  cow  is  out  at  pasture  the  same 
standard  may  be  taken,  but  the  amount  required  per 
head  would  only  be  one-quarter  to  one-half  of  the 
above  rations.  When  pasture  grass  is  sufficiently 
abundant  and  of  fairly  good  quality,  it  is  doubtful 
whether  it  is  remunerative  to  give  cows  any  concen- 
trated food,  as  they  stand  about  the  gate  when  they 
should  be  grazing.  In  the  Offerton  Hall  experiments 
Professor  Brynner  Jones  reports  (1907)  that  "cows 
receiving  nothing  but  grass  gave  relatively  a  much 
more  profitable  return  than  those  supplied  with  con- 
centrated food  ;  in  fact,  the  milk  cost  double  to  produce 
in  the  latter  case  as  compared  with  the  former." 

In  town  dairies  in  summer  the  cows  receive  forage 
crops  such  as  rye  grass,  oats  and  vetches  (green),  etc., 
along  with  cake,  bean  meal,  bran  and  wet  brewers' 
grains.  The  latter  appear  to  have  considerable  influence 
in  keeping  up  the  supply  of  milk  as  the  lactation  period 

If  the  pasture  grass  in  early  spring  tends  to  scour 
animals,  it  would  be  wise  to  give  a  little  Bombay 
cotton  cake,  which  has  a  considerable  "  binding  "  effect. 


It  is  a  good  plan  to  tie  the  hind  legs  of  a  heifer 
together  with  a  strap  each  time  she  is  milked  for  the 
first  few  weeks  after  calving,  as  it  trains  her  to  stand 


with  her  feet  together,  with  the  result  that  she  is*  much 
better  to  milk. 

Milking  the  cows  with  dry  hands  is  much  to  be 
preferred  to  milking  with  wet  hands,  as  the  latter 
method  is  apt  to  get  dirt  into  the  milk  pail. 

Milking  should  be  carried  out  quietly,  quickly,  and 
thoroughly.  If  the  whole  of  the  milk  is  not  removed 
from  the  udder  each  milking  time,  the  yield  will  very  soon 
go  down,  and  the  richest  milk  be  left  in  the  udder. 
In  the  Hegelund  system  of  milking,  most  of  the  milk 
is  removed  by  hand  in  the  ordinary  way ;  the  milker 
then  commences  to  massage  the  udder,  so  as  to  force 
the  milk  gently  into  the  milk  cistern  in  the  udder. 
After  this  is  done,  the  remaining  part  of  the  milk  is 
removed  from  the  udder.  The  milk-yield  can  certainly 
be  increased  a  little  by  this  method,  but  it  is  doubtful 
if  the  increased  yield  will  pay  for  the  extra  trouble. 

The  usual  system  of  milking  cows  is  to  commence 
on  the  two  fore  quarters,  and  when  most  of  the  milk 
is  removed  from  them,  to  milk  the  two  hind  quarters. 
It  is  quite  natural  to  commence  on  the  fore  quarters,  as 
it  is  the  easiest  way,  but  the  tendency  of  constantly 
adopting  this  method  of  milking  is  to  make  the  hind 
quarters  larger  and  more  capacious  than  the  fore 

The  explanation  is,  that  shortly  after  one  commences 
milking,  the  cow  begins  to  let  her  milk  come ;  this 
gorges  the  hind  quarters  and  expands  them  day  after 
day,  with  the  result  that  this  continual  internal  pressure 
gradually  enlarges  the  hind  quarters.  In  the  fore 
quarters  the  milk  does  not  get  much  chance  to  enlarge 
them,  as  it  is  being  removed  all  the  time  the  cow  is 
letting  it  down,  hence  they  do  not  develop  in  many 
cases  to  the  same  extent  as  the  hind  quarters.  The 


way  to  remodel  such  an  udder  is  now  obvious,  for  what 
is  necessary  in  such  cases  is  to  commence  milking  on 
the  larger  quarters  each  time,  so  as  to  give  the  milk 
a  chance,  after  the  cow  lets  her  milk  down,  of 
expanding  the  smaller  quarters. 

Machine  Milking. — Shortage  of  labour  has  forced 
the  attention  of  many  farmers  to  milking  machines, 
who  are  impressed  by  the  state  of  perfection  attained 
by  the  modern  machine.  By  the  aid  of  suction, 
pulsators,  etc.,  the  natural  method  of  milking  is  very 
closely  imitated,  hence  cows  and  heifers  take  kindly  to  it. 

Generally  speaking,  machines  collect  the  milk  in 
cans,  which  receive  the  milk  from  one  cow  (single-can 
system)  or  two  cows  (double-can  system).  Cans  may, 
however,  be  dispensed  with  by  installing  the  "Auto- 
matic Receiver  System,"  which  leads  the  milk  through 
tin-lined  pipes  direct  to  the  dairy.  The  engine  driving 
the  machine  may  further  be  used  for  the  supply  of 
electric  light  in  the  cowhouse,  etc. 


Dr  Crowther  shows  in  his  second  report  (1913)  the 
average  cost  of  producing  milk  throughout  the  year, 
when  the  food  only  is  taken  into  account.  This  varied 
very  considerably ;  in  fact,  some  of  the  cows  produced 
milk  at  half  the  cost  of  others  under  observation. 

In  the  following  summary  the  hay  is  taken  at  553. 
per  ton  ;  oat  straw,  305. ;  barley  straw,  253. ;  swedes,  los. ; 
mangels,  los.  6d. ;  and  turnips,  8s.  per  ton  ;  grass,  33.  6d. 
per  week ;  concentrated  foods  at  cost  price. 

Out  of  204  cows  included  in  the  report,  the  average 



cost  of  food  to  produce  a  gallon  of  milk  is  seen  to  vary 
greatly,  for — 


Estimated  cost 

per  gall.         Cows. 

21  produced  milk  at  rod.  or  over 

7         „  „         9d.  to  lod. 

15        „  „         8d.    „    9d. 

Estimated  cost 
per  gall. 

36  produced  milk  at  yd.   to  8d. 
42         „  „         6d.    „    7d. 

83         „  „        less  than  6d. 

The  cost  of  producing  milk  per  gallon  is  naturally 
much  less  in  the  summer  than  in  the  winter  months. 
If  the  cows  are  getting  nothing  more  than  pasture 
grass,  the  cost  may  be  reduced  to  about  one-half  that 
in  the  winter  months.  If  concentrated  foods  are 
required  in  addition  to  grass,  the  cost  will  be  increased 
to  two-thirds  or  even  three-quarters  that  of  winter  milk. 

The  above  figures  show  the  necessity  of  selection  in 
the  dairy  herd,  if  milk  is  to  be  produced  economically. 

Cost  of  Keeping  Dairy  Cows. 

This  varies  according  to  the  time  of  year  the  cows 
calve.     E.g. : — 
Approximate  Cost  per  Annum  of  Keeping  a  Cow. 

March  Calver. 

Twenty-two    weeks'    grazing    in    summer,    May    to 

October — i^  acres,  at  ^i,  55. 
Bombay  cake  fed  while  on  grass — 2  Ibs.  per  day  =  3  cwts 

at  ^4,  155.  per  ton  .... 
Cake  and  meals  during  usual  milking  period — 6|  cwts 

at  £,7  per  ton  .... 

Oat  straw  (part  long,  part  chopped),  i  ton,  at  £i,  55 

produced  on  the  farm  (consuming  value)  . 
Hay,  i  ton,  at  £2  per  ton  (consuming  value)  . 
Roots,  5  tons,  at  gs.  per  ton  (consuming  value) 

Attendance,  at  aver,  of  gd.  per  week     . 
Vet.,  say  55.         ..... 

£12  12     3 

Risk  may  be  put  at  ^i  to  £it   ios.,  and  depreciation  would 
have  to  be  considered  in  some  cases. 























October  Calver. 

October  till  May  (thirty  weeks),  following  ration  :  — 

Swedes,  56  Ibs.  per  day  =  5^  tons,  at  95.  .  -^273 

Hay,  14         „          „       =26  cwts.,  at  £2          .  .        2  12     o 

Straw,  7        „          „       =  13  cwts.,  at  £i,  55.   .  .        o  16     3 

Decorticated  cotton  cake,  2  Ibs.^j 

Bran,  2  Ibs.          .  .  \&  Ibs.  per  day=  15  cwts., 

Maize  meal,  3  Ibs.  .  j     at  £7  per  ton  .         5     5     o 

Pea  meal,  i  Ib.     . 

June  to  September  (twenty-two  weeks)  :  — 

Grazing  =  i^  ac.,  at  £i,  55.  per  acre     .  .  .1176 

Bombay  cake,  2  Ibs.  per  day  at  grass   .  .  .        0143 

TOTAL  COST  OF  FOOD         .  .  .  ^13  12    3 

Attendance,  at  is.  per  week       .  .  .  .2120 

Vet.,  say  55.  .  •  .  .  .050 

9     3 

Risk  may  be  put  at  £1  to  £i,  ios.,  and  depreciation  would 
have  to  be  considered  with  some  cows. 

Returns  from  Milk  Selling  per  Cow  per  Year. 

March  Calver. 

500  galls,  milk,  at  8d.  per  gall,  (summer)        .    ^16  13     4 
1 50  galls.         „       lod.       „         (winter)          .         650 

£22  18     4 
Less  carriage  on  rail,  at  |d.    . 

per  gall.    .  .   ^i     5     o 

Less    cost    of   food,   etc.,   as 

above        .  .  .     12  12     3 

13  i?     3 

Balance  in  favour  of  March  Calver     .^911 


October  Calver. 

500  galls,  milk,  at  lod.  per  gall,  (winter)        .   ^20  16     8 
1 50  galls.         „       8d.         „          (summer)      .         500 

^25  16     8 
Less  carriage  on  rail,  at  ^d.    . 

per  gall.    .  .  .^150 

Less  cost    of   food,   etc.,   as 

above        .  .  .     16     9     3 

I7  I4     3 

Balance  in  favour  of  October  Calver  .,£825 

These  estimated  results  appear  to  show  that  the 
balances  to  be  obtained  by  winter  milk  production  as 
compared  with  milk  produced  mostly  during  the 
summer  months  of  the  year,  are  approximately  the 
same.  In  arriving  at  these  results,  it  has  been  assumed 
that  a  spring  calver  gives  the  same  amount  of  milk  as 
an  autumn  calver,  but  is  this  so  ?  The  following  results 
will  shed  light  on  this  point. 

In  some  trials  carried  out  by  the  Irish  Department  of 
Agriculture,  Mr  Adams  gives  the  following  interesting 
comparisons  of  November  and  April  calvers.  There 
were  five  cows  in  each  lot,  records  being  kept  in  the 
case  of  the  November  calver  for  the  twelve  months, 
Nov.  1907  to  Nov.  1908.  In  the  same  way  the  records 
of  April  calvers  were  kept  from  April  1908  to  April 
1909.  A  few  results  selected  from  the  report  are  as 
follows : — 

November  Calver.  April  Calver. 

Average  yield  of  milk  for  year,  Average    yield    for    year,    678 

836  galls.  galls. 

Average  cost  of  food  for  year,  Average  cost  of  food  for  year, 

£12.  £10,  35.  od. 

Total  cost  of  keeping  cows  for  Total  cost,  ^17,  43.  3d. 

year  averaged  ^21,  175.  2d, 



November  Calver. 

Yielding  i|  galls,  of  milk  on 
an  average  at  the  end  of 
tenth  month. 

Gave  20  galls,  milk  or  more 
each  per  week  for  twenty  - 
seven  weeks. 

When  turned  out  to  grass  in 
spring,  milk-yield  showed  an 

Highest  yield  in  Dec.,  Jan., 
Feb.,  and  March,  when  milk 
is  dear. 

Balance,  after  allowing  for  rent, 
taxes,  insurance,  deprecia- 
tion, milking,  and  delivering 
milk,  etc.,  was  £4,  6s.  2d. 

April  Calver. 

Only  giving  this  average  up  to 
end  of  eighth  month. 

Gave  20  galls,    milk  each  per 
week  for  thirteen  weeks  only. 

Not  much  effect. 

Highest  yield  in  summer  when 
milk  is  cheap. 

Balance  left  was  only  £  i ,  1 6s.  i  d. 

It  appears  from  the  above  results  that  winter  milk 
is  quite  as  profitable  as  that  produced  in  summer, 
provided  the  cows  produce  at  least  650  galls,  milk  per 
year,  and  sufficient  home-grown  foods  are  raised  to 
provide  the  bulk  of  the  ration  for  winter  feeding. 

The  November  calvers  yielded  on  an  average 
158  galls,  of  milk  more  than  the  April  calvers,  which 
is  a  very  striking  point  in  these  trials. 

Comparing  the  Different  Systems  of  Dairying. 

Suppose  cow   commenced   milking   in    the   spring- 
time : — 

i.  Milk  Selling— 

Summer  months — 500  galls,  milk,  at  8d.  per  gall.   £16  13 
Winter  months — 150  galls,  milk,  at  lod.  per  gall.         6     5 

£22  18     4 







[Between  pp.  ZOO,  201 


2.  Buttermaking  (i\  galls.  Milk  to  i  Ib.  Butter)  — 

260  Ibs.  of  butter,  at  is.  2d.  per  Ib.  .  .    ^15     3     4 

285  galls,  separated  milk,  at  id.     .  .  .         289 

39  galls,  buttermilk,  at  id.  .  .  .036 

£i7  15     7 

3.  Cheesemaking  (i  gall.  Milk  to  I  Ib.  Cheese)  — 

(Say  550  galls,  made  into  Cheese,  and  100  galls,  made 

into  Butter.) 
550  Ibs.  cheese,  at  6^d.  per  Ib.        .  .  .,£12180 

468  galls,  of  whey  (85  per  cent,  of  milk  taken), 

at  |d.  per  gall.  .  .  .  .  .0180 

4if  Ibs.  butter,  at  is.  2d.  per  Ib.  .  .286 

90  galls,  separated  milk,  at  id.  per  gall.     .  .076 

6  galls,  buttermilk,  at  id.  per  gall.  .  .         006 

12     6 

Score  Card  for  Dairy  Shorthorn  Cow. 

The  score  card  on  p.  202  has  been  drawn  up  by 
the  writer  for  use  by  the  students  in  connection  with 
the  Winter  School  of  Agriculture  at  Hereford. 


The  fattening  of  beef  cattle  plays  a  very  important 
part  on  arable  farms,  seeing  that  it  is,  after  all,  one  of 
the  most  convenient  ways  of  dealing  with  the  bulky 
produce  (straw  and  roots  chiefly)  grown  on  the  farm. 
A  further  consideration  is  the  production  of  large 
quantities  of  manure,  which  is  so  valuable  for  maintain- 
ing the  fertility  of  arable  land.  In  fact,  big  crops  and 
heavy  cattle-feeding  usually  go  together  on  farms 
in  this  country. 

Generally    speaking,    the    eastern    half    of    Great 


General  Appearance,  22  points — 

1.  FORM — Wedge-shaped  when  viewed  from  top  as  well  as 

from  side.  Underline  inclining  downwards  from  fore- 
end  to  flank 

2.  TEMPERAMENT— Active,  but  quiet  to  handle  . 

3.  QUALITY — Skin   yellowish   in   colour,  soft,  moderately 

thin,  very  flexible,  and  elastic 

Head  and  Neck,  10  points — 

4.  HEAD — Feminine.     Horns    free     from    coarseness   and 

slightly  yellow  at  base  ;  face  moderately  long  ;  eyes 
bright,  prominent,  and  wide  apart ;  nose  broad  between 

5.  NECK — Fairly  long,    fine    at   junction    with  head,  and 

sloping  gradually  on  to  shoulders         .... 
Fore  Quarters,  8  points — 

6.  SHOULDERS — Not    prominent,    fairly   light,    sharp   on 


Body,  1 6  points — 

7.  CHEST — Fairly  deep,  giving  sufficient  room   for   heart 

and  lungs.     Well  filled  up  behind  shoulder. 

8.  BACK  AND  LOIN— Back  moderately  long  and  straight. 

Loin  broad,  strong,  and  level 

9.  RIBS — Moderately  well  sprung  and  long,  giving  deep 

body     .  

Hind  Quarters,  14  points — 

JO.  QUARTERS — As  long  and  as  wide  as  possible  ;  hook- 
bones  wide  apart,  but  not  too  prominent  ;  pin-bones 
fairly  high,  and  wide  apart 

11.  TAIL— Long,  fine,  set  on  level  with  back 

12.  THIGHS— Sinewy,  long,  thin,  and  well  bent    . 
Udder,  25  points — 

13.  CAPACITY— Should  extend  well  forward  and  backward, 

be  capacious  and  symmetrical 

14.  QUALITY — Skin  flexible,  elastic,  and  free   from   fleshi- 

ness.    Hair  on  udder  silky 

15.  TEATS— Medium  size,  uniform,  and   placed  fairly  well 

apart.     Milk  easy  to  draw 

16.  MiLK  VEINS  —  Large,  prominent,  well  branched,  with 

well-defined  milk- wells 

17.  ESCUTCHEON — Spreading  wide  over  thighs,  extending 

high  and  wide,  with  large  ovals  or  tufts  on  thighs 
,  5  points— 

1 8.  Not  too  long  ;  bone  free  from  coarseness 

ESTIMATED  WEIGHT  .  .  .  cwts. 

AGE  BY  TEETH  OR  HORNS   .          .          .  yrs. 


Britain  is  largely  devoted  to  arable  farming  and  stock 
fattening,  while  the  western  half  is  more  noted  for  its 
grass-land  and  dairy  farming ;  consequently  it  is  in 
the  eastern  half  of  England  and  Scotland  that  one 
expects  to  see  the  house-fattening  of  cattle  carried  on 
to  the  highest  pitch  of  perfection,  and  in  the  western 
half  to  find  the  best  examples  of  grass-fattening  of 
cattle,  as  in  Herefordshire  and  similar  counties. 

Type  of  Animal  required. — It  is  essential  to  know 
what  are  the  outstanding  points  of  a  typical  animal 
for  beef  production,  so  as  to  enable  one  to  breed  or  buy 
store,  a  type  that  will  give  a  good  account  of  itself. 

The  chief  points  are  as  follows  : — 

Head. — Neat,  and  not   too   large.     Forehead  broad 

between  eyes,  and  nostrils  wide  apart. 
Neck. — Clean  cut  at   throat,   and   sloping  gradually 

on  to  shoulders. 
Shoulders. — Not   prominent    along  shoulder-blades, 

well  covered  with  flesh,  and  sloping  gradually 

on  to  barrel. 
Body. — Well  filled  up  behind  shoulders.     Ribs  well 

sprung     and    long,    giving    deep    sides.     The 

underline  should   be   straight,    and    the    flank 

come  well  down. 

Back. — Straight  and  broad,  with  a  strong  loin. 
Hind    quarters. — Should      be     as      long     and      as 

square  as  possible.     Hook-bones  should  not  be 

prominent,  and  the  line  from  the  hooks   to  the 

shoulders   along   the   arch   of  the   ribs   should 

make  a  very  gentle  curve. 
Thighs. — As  well  developed  as  possible,  well  fleshed 

down  to  the  hock,  giving  a  good  second  thigh 

and  twist. 


Legs. — The  bones  of  legs  should  be  free  from 

Breed  and  Quality. — It  is  further  important  that 
animals  for  fattening  purposes  should  be  of  a  breed 
or  cross  which  is  noted  for  its  capacity  to  fatten,  as 
experience  shows  that  a  well-bred  animal  will  generally 
pay  to  feed,  while  inferior  bred  ones  often  prove 
disappointing.  The  skin  should  be  fairly  thick  but 
flexible,  and  the  whole  body  in  fat  animals  covered  as 
uniformly  as  possible  with  flesh.  When  fat,  patchiness 
is  very  undesirable. 

Early  maturity  is  very  important,  and  beasts  should 
as  a  rule  be  selected  which  will  grow  and  thrive  at 
the  same  time. 

Available  Breeds.1  —  The  most  generally  known 
breeds  in  this  country  are : — 

Polled  Breeds.— Aberdeen-Angus,  Red  Polls,  Gal- 
loways, etc. 

Horned  Breeds.  —  Herefords,  Shorthorns,  North 
Devons,  West  Highland,  W7elsh  cattle,  etc. 

The  outstanding  features  of  these  breeds  are  as 
follows : — 

Aberdeen- Angus. — Found  chiefly  in  the  east  of 
Scotland  ;  large  black  cattle — mature  early ; 
short  legs,  carrying  an  enormous  shapely  body 
which  is  generally  evenly  covered  with  flesh ; 
meat  of  excellent  quality.  Require  heavy  hand- 
feeding,  hence  only  suited  to  the  better  classes 
of  land  in  this  country. 

1  For  full  description  of  the  various  breeds  of  cattle,  see  Prof. 
Wallace's  Farm  Live  Stock  of  Great  Britain. 


Red  Polls. — Located   chiefly    in    the   south-eastern 
counties  of  England.     Have  much  in  common 
with  Aberdeen-Angus,  but  are  red   instead  of 
black  in  colour. 

Galloway. — Common  in  the  south-west  of  Scotland. 
Polled  black  cattle,  not  so  large  as  Aberdeen- 
Angus.  The  coat  is  generally  fairly  long 
and  shaggy,  often  with  brownish  tinge  on 
tips  of  hair.  Differs  from  Aberdeen-Angus 
in  having  a  flatter  poll  (A.A.  peaked) ;  ears 
larger,  placed  farther  back  on  head,  and  usually 
carrying  a  long  fringe  of  hairs  on  edge  of 
ear.  Its  bones  are  not  quite  so  fine,  or  its  skin 
so  thin.  Does  not  mature  so  early,  but  can 
thrive  on  second-rate  land.  Produces  an  ex- 
cellent quality  of  beef. 

Herefords. — Confined  largely  to  Herefordshire  and 
adjoining  counties  in  England.  Have  character- 
istic white  faces  and  red-coloured  bodies  with 
patches  of  white  along  the  underline.  These 
are  big,  hardy  cattle,  which  mature  early,  and 
thrive  on  grass-land  where  an  Aberdeen- 
Angus  or  Shorthorn  would  probably  starve. 
They  are  typical  grazier's  beasts,  and  are  splendid 
"hustlers."  Quiet,  docile,  and  fatten  readily, 
giving  a  carcass  of  first  quality  meat.  They 
are  said  to  require  much  less  water  to  drink 
than,  say,  a  Shorthorn. 

Shorthorn. — Widely  distributed  over  the  British 
Islands.  Vary  in  colour  from  reds,  roans,  to 
whites.  Large,  horned  cattle,  and  mature  early. 
The  beef  (Booth)  type  fatten  readily.  As  a  rule, 
more,  prominent  on  hook-bones  than  above- 
mentioned  breeds.  Require  fairly  heavy  hand- 


feeding,  and   then   yield    a   very   fine   class   of 

North  Devons. — Mostly  found  in  the  south  and  south- 
west of  England ;  reared  chiefly  in  Devon  and 
Somersetshire.  Medium  sized,  red  in  colour,  and 
horned  cattle  with  short  legs  and  compact  bodies. 
Their  symmetry  is  perfect.  Graze  well  on  the 
second-rate  pastures  of  their  native  hills,  and  turn 
their  food  to  good  account.  The  quality  of  their 
flesh  is  such  that  it  commands  a  very  high,  if  not 
the  highest  price,  in  the  London  market. 

West.  Highland. — The  name  indicates  the  part  of 
Scotland  where  they  are  most  commonly  found. 
They  are  horned  cattle  with  long,  shaggy 
coats.  The  colour  of  their  coat  varies  from 
light  dun,  tawny  yellow,  to  black.  Very  hardy  ; 
thrive  on  very  scant  herbage.  Slow  maturers, 
but  when  fat  yield  meat  of  the  finest  quality. 

Welsh  Cattle. — Found  mostly  in  North  Wales. 
They  are  black,  horned  cattle  which  thrive 
very  well  on  hilly  pastures.  Mature  early,  and 
give  a  good  quality  meat. 

Although  the  pure  breeds  do  splendidly  for  beef 
production,  feeders  are  generally  well  satisfied  if  they 
can  get  a  suitable  first  cross  of  the  above-mentioned 
breeds ;  in  fact,  for  commercial  beef  cattle,  the  first 
crosses  are  exceedingly  popular. 

The  following  are  popular  crosses :  — - 

Aberdeen-Angus  x  Shorthorn. — Generally  black,  and 
polled.  Responds  to  heavy  feeding.  Favourite 
cross  at  Smithfield  Show. 

Hereford  x  Shorthorn. — Mostly  white  faced.  A 
splendid  cross.  Fattens  readily. 


Shorthorn  (White]  x  Galloway,  called  Blue-Greys— 
Blue-grey  colour,  and  polled.  Favourite  cross  in 
north  England  and  south  Scotland. 

Hereford  x  Galloway. — These  are  generally  white 
faced,  and  polled.  Hardy  cross,  and  ready 

Aberdeen  -  Angus  x  West  Highland.  —  Generally 
black,  and  polled. 

Shorthorn  x  West  Highland.  —  Horned,  and 
generally  Highland  type. 

Dairy  farmers  are  not  slow  to  meet  the  demand 
of  the  "feeders"  for  young  calves,  hence  they  cross 
their  Shorthorn  dairy  cows  with  an  Aberdeen-Angus 
or  a  Hereford  bull.  In  like  manner  the  Ayrshire  dairy 
cows  are  crossed  with  Aberdeen-Angus  or  Galloway 
bulls.  The  result  is  that  the  bullocks  of  these  crosses 
fatten  fairly  well,  while  the  heifer  calves  later  on  make 
splendid  mothers,  as  their  milking  qualities  have  been 
improved  by  the  cross.  If  crossed  again  with,  say,  a 
Shorthorn  or  other  breed  of  the  beef  type,  they  give  a 
second  cross  which  is  an  excellent  class  for  early  beef 

How  the  Feeder  secures  his  Animals. — There  are, 
generally  speaking,  three  ways  adopted  by  feeders  in 
securing  the  necessary  animals  for  fattening  purposes. 

1.  Breed    them.      This    is    a    capital     way    when 

"early  beef"  is  required. 

2.  Buy  calves  a  week  or  two  old  :  This  is  a  common 

method  on  highly  rented  land  where  a  cow  has 
to  rear  several  calves. 

3.  Buy   store    cattle   at   about    fifteen   to   eighteen 

months  old,  as  practised  on  arable  farms. 



(a)  Baby  Beef  Production. 

"Baby  beef "  refers  to  cattle  which  are  sold  fat  at 
an  age  of  fourteen  to  twenty-two  months,  and  a  live 
weight  of  approximately  7  to  9  cwts.,  56  to  60  per  cent, 
of  which  would  be  carcass.  Literally  speaking,  the 
carcass  is  the  "baby  beef,"  and  it  is  noted  for  being 
very  juicy,  tender,  and  of  excellent  flavour.  The 
proportion  of  lean  meat  to  fat  is  also  comparatively 
high,  and,  on  account  of  its  juicy  qualities,  is  more 
acceptable  to  the  public  palate,  consequently  a  higher 
price  can  be  realised  for  it,  and,  what  is  of  further 
importance  from  the  business  point  of  view,  the  increase 
can  be  produced  at  a  lower  cost  than  with  animals  two 
years  old  or  upwards.  In  other  words,  I  cwt  of 
increase  in  live  weight  can  be  obtained  with  less  food 
in  the  former  case  than  in  the  latter. 

For  baby  beef  the  calf  is  liberally  fed  from  birth 
onwards,  concentrated  foods  being  used  as  far  as  is 
necessary  in  addition  to  milk  while  the  cow  is  suckling 
the  calf.  After  weaning,  the  cake  is  gradually  increased 
with  the  age  of  the  calf  until  it  is  fat. 

The  calves  may  be  either  bred  or  bought  for  this 
purpose,  and  reared  on  one  of  the  following  systems : — 

i.  First  cross  heifers. — Hereford  x  Dairy  Short- 
horn, Red  Poll  x  Dairy  Shorthorn,  Aberdeen-Angus 
X  Dairy  Shorthorn,  Aberdeen-Angus  x  Ayrshire,  or 
Galloway  x  Ayrshire  may  be  purchased  and  mated 
with,  say,  a  Shorthorn  of  the  beef  type.  The  calf 
obtained  has  very  much  in  common  with  a  first  cross 
from  two  beef  breeds,  and  in  addition  has  the  advantage 
of  being  suckled  by  a  cow  which  is  a  good  milker, 


A.  West  Highland  Cattle  at  Mr  Bone's,  Monktonhill,  Ayrshire, 
Scotland  (p.  206). 

[Photos  by  Author. 

B.  Mr  Peter  Coate's  Champion  Heifer  at  the  Royal  Agricultural 
Show,  Liverpool. 

A  splendid  example  of  a  beef  type. 

[To  face  p.  2C91. 

BABY  BEEF  209 

on  account  of  having   been   crossed   with    a    milking 

The  cow  suckles  her  own  calf  only,  and  does  it 
wonderfully  well.  In  the  spring,  cow  and  calf  are  out 
at  grass,  and  if  the  grass  is  not  abundant,  the  cow  will 
require  some  concentrated  food  and  possibly  hay.  The 
calves  will  soon  learn  to  eat  concentrated  food  with 
their  mothers,  and  should  have  any  deficiencies  in  the 
quantity  of  milk  from  the  cow  made  up  with  cake,  at  the 
rate  of,  say,  I  Ib.  for  every  100  Ibs.  live  weight,  so  as  to 
keep  them  growing  and  thriving  as  rapidly  as  possible 
up  to  the  time  they  are  sold  fat  during  the  following 
year.  The  animal  at  eighteen  months  old  may  then 
realise  445.  per  live  cwt,  or,  say,  £18,  which  is  a  good 
price  for  a  fat  animal  at  this  age. 

2.  The  following  system  is  adopted  on  rich  pasture- 
land  where  the  cow  and  calf  are  fattened  off  together, 
more  especially  when  the  cow  is  not  intended  to  breed 
again.     Hereford  cows,  N.  Devons,  or  crosses  between 
these  and  other  beef  breeds,  are  timed  to  calve  about 
March.     The  cows  may  or   may  not  be  good  milkers, 
but  help  the  calf  on  very  considerably  for  a  time.     The 
cow  receives,  say,  4  Ibs.   decorticated  cotton  cake  per 
day,  with  the  result  that  she   fattens  rapidly  and  may 
be  sold  off*  prime  fat  about  July,  when  the  calf  is  about 
four  months  old.     The  cow  is  then  sold,  and  the  calf  is 
liberally  fed  with  concentrated  food  during  the  autumn, 
winter,  and  following  spring  months.     It  is  summered  a 
second  season,  and  then  sold  off  at  sixteen  to  eighteen 
months  old,  at  a  live  weight  of  about  8  cwts. 

3.  A   third  system  is  sometimes  adopted  on  good 
land,   of  buying    heifers    due   to   calve    about    March. 
Allow  them  to   suckle   own   calf  for,  say,  five   weeks, 
when  calf  is  sold  off  for  veal  at  probably  £4.     In  May 



give  heifer  a  couple  of  calves  to  rear,  tied  together  with 
neck  straps  and  a  chain  about  a  yard  long,  and  allow 
her,  if  necessary,  up  to  4  Ibs.  cotton  cake  per  day. 
Calves  are  then  weaned  about  end  of  January  or  in 
February.  Feed  calves  liberally  with  cake,  and  sell  off 
fat  in  May  at  fourteen  or  fifteen  months  old. 

(6)  Fattening  Cattle  in  Summer  at  Grass. 

This  is  a  very  good  and  easy  way  of  producing 
beef,  and  may  be  adopted  more  especially  on 
moderately  rented  land.  Two  very  good  systems  are 
as  follows  : — 

1.  Bullocks  may  be  reared  as  cheaply  as  possible  up 
to  two  years  old  on  grass  in  summer,  with  straw  and 
turnips  in  winter.     The  following  summer  they  would 
in  many  cases  receive  some  cake  to  hasten  the  fattening 
process,  so  that  they  may  be  sold  fat  from  the  grass- 

2.  Store  cattle  may  be  bought  at  twelve  to  eighteen 
months  old   in  the   autumn    or   spring.     These   would 
be  wintered  cheaply  on  straw  and  roots,  then  fed  off 
during    the    following    summer    on    grass    and    cake. 
If  a  bullock  increases  in    value   at  grass   at   the   rate 
of  IDS.    or    more    per   week,  it  is  giving  a  very  good 
account  of  itself. 

An  interesting  experiment  was  carried  out  at 
Cockle  Park,  in  fattening  bullocks  at  grass  in  summer. 
Yearling  bullocks  were  purchased  for  this  purpose  at 
305.  per  live  cwt.  At  the  beginning  of  the  experiment 
(May)  they  weighed  on  an  average  5j  cwts.  These 
were  fed  for  twenty  weeks  at  grass  with  2  to  3  Ibs.  of 
cake  per  head  per  day,  made  up  of  three  parts  decorticated 
cotton  cake  and  one  part  linseed  cake.  The  cake, 
attendance  (3d.  per  head  per  week),  and  interest  (5  per 


cent.)  on  capital  outlay,  amounted  to  353.  for  the  twenty 
weeks,  or  an  average  of  73.  per  month. 

The  bullocks  sold  out  at  345.  per  live  cwt.,  and 
when  manurial  residue  was  taken  into  account,  left  a 
margin  of  £6  per  head  over  their  value  at  beginning 
of  experiment.  Subtracting  the  cost  of  cake,  attend- 
ance, etc.,  mentioned  above,  viz.  353.,  the  balance  for 
grazing  per  bullock  during  the  twenty  weeks  amounts 
to  £4,  53.,  which  gives  an  average  of  48.  3d.  per  head 
per  week  for  grazing  these  bullocks. 

To  put  this  result  another  way :  the  bullocks  in- 
creased in  value  243.  per  month,  and  with  grass  valued 
at  43.  per  week,  they  cost  233.  per  month  for  grass, 
cake,  attendance,  and  interest. 

(c)  House  Fattening  of  Cattle. 

The  first  thing  of  importance  is  to  secure  suitable 
cattle  for  house  fattening,  and  very  often  it  will  be 
necessary  to  buy  stores.  In  purchasing  these  stores 
one  should  keep  in  mind  the  following  points : — 

1.  The  cattle  should  have  been  reared  on  a  poorer 

farm  than  that  to  which  they  are  going. 

2.  They  should  be  well  bred  (first  crosses  preferably), 

of  the  right  type,  and  with  good  constitutions. 

3.  If  possible,  the  purchase  price  should  be  at  least 

5s.  less  per  live  cwt.  than  one  expects  to  get 
when  they  are  fat,  otherwise  the  transaction 
is  not  likely  to  be  a  commercial  success. 

The  last  point  involves  the  use  of  the  weighbridge, 
and  this  deserves  greater  encouragement.  The  average 
farmer  has  very  little  to  gain  by  not  using  it,  and  has 
a  great  deal  to  lose.  Few  farmers  would  agree  to  sell 


hay,  beans,  or  cereal  grains,  potatoes,  etc.,  without  first 
weighing  them ;  but  it  is  quite  as  easy  to  estimate  the 
weight  of  oats  or  potatoes  as  that  of  a  fat  bullock. 
The  fairest  way  is  always  the  best  way  in  the  long  run. 
Good  feeding  should  be  encouraged  and  poor  feeding  dis- 
couraged, and  selling  by  weight  certainly  has  the  desired 
effect.  Several  other  countries  have  already  adopted  it, 
and  much  prefer  it.  Further,  the  frequent  use  of  the 
weighbridge  for  bullocks,  prior  to  and  during  fattening, 
shows  up  many  important  points  which  enable  the 
feeder  to  ascertain  which  system  of  feeding  is  the  most 

If  one  keeps  in  mind  that  a  7-cwt.  store  bullock  at 
305.  per  cwt.  comes  to  £10,  IDS.,  and  an  8-cwt.  bullock 
at  305.  comes  to  £12,  it  is  not  difficult  and  very 
important  to  know,  fairly  approximately,  what  price  is 
being  paid  per  hundredweight  for  the  store  animal. 

In  Scotland  and  the  north  of  England  polled 
animals  are  generally  preferred  for  "  court  or  yard " 
fattening,  and  command  a  higher  price,  more  especially 
because  they  do  not  injure  one  another  with  their 
horns  in  the  courts  or  yards,  and  a  greater  number 
can  be  placed  in  a  railway  truck  when  they  are  bought 
or  sold. 

Systems  of  Housing. — The  three  chief  systems  of 
housing  are — (a)  In  stalls,  tied  up  by  neck ;  (b)  in  loose 
boxes,  with  any  number  up  to  four  together ;  (c)  in 
courts  or  yards,  with  sometimes  as  many  as  twenty 
together.  The  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  each 
of  these  systems  of  housing  are  as  follows  : — 

Stall  Fattening. — Economises  space.  Each  animal 
gets  its  share  of  food,  and  its  progress  can 
be  more  carefully  watched.  One  can  also 


vary  the  food  to  suit  the  particular  case ;  e.g., 
one  animal  may  need  a  more  "  laxative "  or  a 
more  "  binding  "  diet  than  another.  It  is  very 
suitable  for  horned  cattle,  which  might  damage 
one  another  in  yards,  and  is  more  economical  of 

Loose-box  Fattening. — For  single  animals  the  box 
would  be  about  10  feet  square,  and  correspond- 
ingly bigger  for  a  larger  number  of  animals.  It 
is  therefore  easy  to  see  that  a  larger  surface 
area,  of  buildings  will  be  required.  The 
animals  receive  more  or  less  individualattention, 
and  the  manure  is  well  preserved.  The  bullocks 
would  require  about  14  to  21  Ibs.  litter 
per  day.  Such  boxes  are  especially  useful 
on  farms  where  the  court  system  of 
housing  is  practised,  as  individual  animals 
can  be  drawn  out  from  time  to  time  for 
special  fattening.  In  some  cases  there  may 
be  a  small  shed  of  about  150  sq.  feet  of  floor 
space  opening  into  a  yard  of  similar  size.  This 
is  sometimes  called  a  "  hammel." 

Court  Fattening — These  are  called  yards  in 
England,  and  in  some  parts  of  Scotland  the 
term  "  reed "  may  be  used  instead  of  court. 
The  cost  of  labour  in  feeding  a  number  of 
animals  together  is  less  than  in  the  two  previous 
cases,  and  although  the  larger  courts,  holding, 
say,  twenty  bullocks  are  more  convenient  in  the 
very  early  stages  of  fattening,  it  is  a  distinct 
advantage  to  be  able  to  draw  the  more  forward 
animals  out  and  place  them  in  smaller  courts, 
holding,  say,  four  or  ten,  for  special  feeding 
later  on. 


The  courts  or  yards  may  be  covered  in  entirely 
with  a  roof;  or  may  be  open,  with  covered  feeding- 
sheds  along  one  or  more  sides,  under  which  the 
animals  can  go  at  will  for  food  or  shelter. 

The  covered  courts  are  generally  much  warmer ; 
in  fact,  sometimes  too  warm  if  arrangements  have 
not  been  made  for  sufficient  ventilation.  Cattle  can 
be  fattened  in  them  to  go  out  at  Christmas,  or  any 
time  during  the  spring.  The  manure  is  very  much 
better  preserved,  and  further,  it  can  be  carted  on  the 
arable  land  and  ploughed  in  immediately. 

In  the  case  of  open  yards,  the  chief  advantages 
are  that  they  are  much  less  costly  to  construct,  and 
give  the  animals  plenty  of  fresh  air.  For  breeding  stock 
this  is  a  great  advantage,  especially  when  one  re- 
members that  in  Herefordshire,  where  this  system  is 
universally  practised,  their  breed  of  cattle  is  almost  free 
from  cases  of  tuberculosis.  It  is  a  great  advantage  to 
have  the  sheds  facing  south.  For  fattening  cattle,  how- 
ever, they  are  generally  colder,  and  it  is  difficult  to  fatten 
cattle  in  them  to  sell  off  fat  before  spring.  Much 
more  litter  is  required  to  keep  the  yards  clean,  and 
the  manure  gets  sadly  depleted  of  its  valuable 
constituents  except  in  dry  frosty  weather.  The  manure 
has  absorbed  considerable  quantities  of  water,  and 
requires  much  more  carting  out.  It  is  further 
necessary  to  cart  the  manure  into  a  large  heap, 
so  as  to  allow  it  to  ferment  somewhat  before  plough- 
ing it  into  the  land.  The  farmyard  is  always  very 
difficult  to  keep  clean  and  tidy  where  there  arc  open 

The  advantages  of  covered  courts  over  open  yards 
for  fattening  bullocks  during  the  five  or  six  months 
they  are  kept  in  them  in  winter,  have  been  estimated 


at    approximately    503.    per   bullock.      This    figure    is 
arrived  at  as  follows : — 

Loss  per  Bullock. 

Extra  carting  of  manure  and  loss  by  washing  .      ^0180 

Extra  litter  required  (i  ton  for  winter  months)         .         i     o    o 
Extra   food   required   to  give  same  increase  as  in 

covered  courts,  6d.  per  head  per  week,  say        .        o  12    o 

£2  10    o 

It  is  important,  when  covered  cattle  courts  are 
being  built,  to  see  that  the  ventilation  is  adequate,  and 
that,  as  far  as  possible,  advantage  is  taken  of  the  sun 
to  light  up  and  warm  the  courts.  Many  open  yards 
lend  themselves  to  having  a  cheap  roof  put  over,  and 
on  a  long  lease  may  even  warrant  the  farmer  doing  it 
himself  if  the  landlord  is  not  prepared  to  go  to  the 
expense.  In  this  way  one  gets  the  advantages  of  the 
two  systems,  and  brings  the  disadvantages  to  a 

Store  bullocks  would  probably  be  bought  in  the 
autumn  and  put  on  the  grass  fields.  They  would 
then  be  given  a  few  roots  in  order  to  accustom  them 
to  hand-feeding,  and  thus  prepare  them  for  the  court 
fattening.  Later  on  they  would  be  brought  into  the 
courts  at  night  and  given  a  little  cake.  Towards 
the  end  of  October,  or  during  November,  they  would 
be  confined  more  or  less  to  the  courts  or  yards, 
according  to  the  district,  and  fattened  off  as  quickly 
as  possible. 



Fodder  Crops. — Oat  straw,  barley  straw,  and  hay 
are  the  chief  fodder  crops  on  which  the  feeder  has  to 
rely  in  winter.  These  are  bulky  fodders  which  are 
produced  on  the  farm,  and  this  is  one  of  the  most 
convenient  modes  of  utilising  them. 

In  Scotland,  more  especially  Aberdeenshire  and 
Forfarshire,  oat  straw  is  the  chief  fodder  crop  used, 
and  along  with  roots  and  cake  gives  excellent  results 
with  fattening  bullocks,  while  in  south  Scotland  and 
north  of  England  a  little  hay  is  often  given  with  the 
straw  in  the  later  stages  of  fattening.  In  the  south  of 
England  the  straw  is  very  dry  and  woody,  on  account 
of  the  climate  being  warmer,  hence  hay  has  to  be  fed 
much  more  freely  to  fattening  bullocks. 

When  the  fodder  crops  are  hard  and  of  inferior 
quality,  or  are  short  in  quantity,  it  will  probably  be 
found  necessary  to  chaff  it  and  feed  along  with  roots 
and  meals.  In  the  former  case  the  roots  will  soften 
the  hay  or  straw,  and  in  the  latter  it  will  enable  one 
to  make  a  given  quantity  of  fodder  crops  keep  the 
stock  for  a  longer  period. 

The  amount  of  fodder  crops  that  a  bullock  will  eat 
varies  with  the  quantity  of  roots  which  it  is  receiving 
and  the  amount  of  concentrates  fed.  E.g.,  in  the 
Edinburgh  College  experiments  in  1906,  the  bullocks 
receiving  90  Ibs.  roots  per  head  per  day,  and  straw 
ad  lib.  (lot  i),  consumed  on  an  average  15  Ibs.  straw, 
while  those  receiving  no  to  135  Ibs.  roots  per  head 
per  day  (lot  2)  consumed  only  ro  Ibs.  straw  per  head 
per  day.  In  the  same  experiment,  where  a  limited 
quantity  of  roots  was  fed  (90  Ibs.),  it  appears  that  those 
bullocks  receiving  a  very  heavy  feed  of  concentrates 



A.  A  typical  Forfarshire  Farm  Steading,  showing  covered  Cattle  Courts, 
at  Mr  David  Arnott's,  Pitforthie,  Brechin,  Forfarshire. 

[Photos  by  Author, 

B.  A  Northamptonshire  Cattle-yard,  with  a  typical  Blue-grey  (Shorthorn- 
Galloway)  in  store  condition,  at  Mr  Brassey's  Home  Farm,  Apethorpe 
Hall,  Northants. 

[Between  pp.  216,  21< 


consumed  a  third  less  straw  than  those  receiving  a 
fairly  heavy  feed  of  concentrates  (S  to  9  Ibs.  per  head 
per  day). 

Experiments  at  Cockle  Park  in  1910  indicate  that 
for  fattening  bullocks  7  Ibs.  hay  were  equal  to  12  Ibs. 
oat  straw. 

Root  Crops. — These  are  exceedingly  useful,  on 
account  of  their  juicy,  cooling,  and  laxative  properties. 
The  order  in  which  they  are  fed  depends  largely  on 
the  time  of  maturity  as  well  as  on  their  keeping 
properties,  hence  turnips  are  fed  in  the  autumn.  These 
are  followed  by  yellows,  and  the  yellows  by  swedes. 
In  England,  mangels  may  be  substituted  for  swedes 
to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  as  the  case  may  be.  When 
the  leaves  or  "  tops  "  are  fed,  they  have  a  tendency  to 
scour  the  cattle. 

Opinion  differs  as  to  which  is  the  best  way  to  feed 
roots  ;  but  it  is  generally  agreed  that  for  young  bullocks 
which  are  changing  their  teeth,  the  roots  should  be 
given  in  slices,  as  they  are  more  easily  eaten.  On  the 
other  hand,  butchers  in  the  north-east  of  Scotland 
maintain  that  cattle  fed  on  whole  roots  (break  their 
own  neeps)  come  out  much  fresher  after  a  long  and 
fatiguing  journey  to  Smithfield  (London)  than  those 
fed  on  pulped  roots. 

Pulping  is  generally  adopted  when  the  hay  or 
straw  is  chaffed  and  mixed  with  pulped  roots  and 
meals.  Very  often  a  little  locust-bean  meal  or  some 
treacle  is  put  into  the  mixture  to  sweeten  it,  and 
after  being  allowed  to  ferment  from  twelve  to 
twenty-four  hours,  the  mixture  is  fed  to  stock. 
By  so  doing  one  may  expect  to  save  about  is. 
per  head  per  week  on  the  food  bill,  through  chaffing 
and  pulping. 


The  above  experiments  appear  to  show  that  where 
roots  are  sufficiently  plentiful,  that  a  daily  allowance 
of  J  to  J  cwt.  for  a  two-year-old  bullock  is  a  satisfactory 

The  kind  of  root-crop  fed  also  deserves  considera- 
tion ;  e.g.,  feeding  trials  at  the  Harper  Adams 
Agricultural  College  showed  that  44-1  Ibs.  mangels 
were  approximately  equal  for  fattening  purposes  to 
27  Ibs.  sugar  beets.  Generally  speaking,  one  may 
assume  the  relative  values  of  roots  to  be  in  proportion 
to  the  dry  matter  they  contain 

When  roots  are  scarce,  it  is  necessary  to  substitute 
for  them  concentrated  foods,  treacle,  etc.,  but  experi- 
ments have  not  shown  that  an  adequate  substitute 
can  be  found  for  roots  ;  e.g.,  Professor  Seton  reported 
in  1904  (Yorkshire  College),  in  connection  with 
bullock  -  feeding  trials,  that  "  treacle  cannot  satis- 
factorily take  the  place  of  roots  in  a  fattening  ration.'* 
Professor  Middleton  also  found  (Cockle  Park,  1903) 
that,  with  bullocks  receiving  56  Ibs.  roots  (swedes 
chiefly),  this  could  not  be  effectively  replaced  by  28 
Ibs.  roots,  2j  Ibs.  seeds  hay,  \  Ib.  maize  meal,  and 
£  Ib.  treacle,  seeing  that  live  weight  increase  in  the 
former  case  cost  443.  6d.  per  cwt.,  and  in  the  latter  513. 
per  cwt. 

Concentrates. — The  basal  part  of  the  ration  for 
a  fattening  bullock  consists  of  fodder  crops  (chiefly 
oat-  straw)  and  roots,  both  of  which  are  poor  in 
nutrient  constituents ;  and  as  the  animal  consuming 
these  foods  can  only  lay  on  flesh  from  the  digested 
nutrients  which  are  in  excess  of  maintenance  require- 
ments, it  follows  that  concentrated  foods  must  be 
employed  to  raise  the  character  of  the  ration,  and  that 
such  concentrated  foods  should  be  used  as  will  make 


up  any  deficiencies  in  the  fodder  crops  and  roots 
forming  the  basal  part  of  ration. 

The  general  scheme  adopted  is  to  give  each  bullock 
a  small  quantity  (say  2  Ibs.)  of  cake  per  day  at  the 
beginning  of  the  fattening  period,  and  to  increase 
this  amount  in  both  quantity  and  quality  as  fattening 
proceeds.  At  the  same  time  the  whole  ration  should 
be  slightly  laxative,  and  the  selection  of  concentrates 
should  be  such  as  to  bring  about  this  desired  result. 
When  fattening  begins  in  earnest,  I  Ib.  of  concentrated 
food  may  be  allowed  for  every  100  Ibs.  live  weight 
of  animal  being  fed. 

Feeding  Standards.  —  The  composition  of  the 
concentrated  food  given  to  two-year-old  bullocks 
receiving  up  to  f  cwt.  roots  per  head  per  day  along 
with  fodder  crops,  should  conform  to  the  following 
standards ;  although  with  a  more  liberal  allow- 
ance of  roots,  the  percentage  of  fibre  in  concen- 
trates may  be  increased  by  one-half,  provided  the 
concentrates  approximate  to  the  higher  percentage  in 
albuminoids : — 

(a)  Early  stages    of  Fattening.  —  Albuminoids,    15 

to    20   per  cent. ;   oil,  4  to   6   per  cent. ;    fibre, 
not  exceeding  1 5  per  cent. 

(b)  Later  stages  of  Fattening. — Albuminoids,  20  to 

25  per  cent.;   oil,  6  to  8  per  cent.;    fibre,  not 
exceeding  10  per  cent. 

Rations  supplying  a  higher  percentage  of  albuminoids 
than  above  are  apt  to  be  expensive,  and  in  some  cases 
disappointing  in  the  results ;  e.g.,  Dr  Paterson  (Glasgow 
and  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College)  had  one 
lot  of  cattle  fed  with  decorticated  cotton  cake  alone, 


with  a  composition  of  A43%O10^%F6%,  and  a  second  lot 
fed  with  decorticated  cotton  cake  and  maize  meal,  the 
mixture  giving  a  composition  of  A26.8%O7.42%F4.13%.  The 
latter  ration  gave  a  larger  increase  in  live  weight  by 
one-twelfth,  and  cost  one-seventh  less  than  was  the  case 
with  the  former. 

It  is  well  known  that  immature  roots  in  the 
autumn  tend  to  scour  bullocks  if  fed  in  large  quantities 
without  suitable  concentrates.  Bombay  cotton  cake 
is  known  to  have  a  very  "  binding "  effect,  and  on 
this  account  has  a  special  value.  Mr  Bruce,  Edinburgh 
and  East  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College,  demon- 
strated this  point  very  effectively  in  the  bullock-feeding 
experiment  of  1904-5. 

One  lot  of  cattle  received  i  to  ij  cwts.  roots  per 
head  per  day,  with  straw,  and  in  addition  8  to  10  Ibs. 
of  concentrated  food.  The  increase  in  live  weight 
during  the  first  three  months  was  as  follows : — 

Aver.  Monthly 

Concentrated  Food.  Increase  in 

Live  Weight. 

1st  month — 8  Ibs.  Bombay  cotton  cake        .  .  70-7  Ibs. 

2nd    „          8   „    Bombay  cotton  cake         .  .  12-6    „ 

,  f8    „    Bombay  cotton  cake) 

"        \2    „    linseed  cake  .  / 

The  splendid  return  during  the  first  month  was  no 
doubt  due  to  the  roots  being  immature,  and  the 
Bombay  cotton  cake  counteracting  the  laxative  effect 
of  the  roots ;  but  during  the  second  month  the  roots 
had  ripened  and  had  not  such  a  laxative  effect,  hence 
the  Bombay  cotton  cake  was  too  binding.  The  addition 
of  a  laxative  food  like  linseed  cake  to  the  ration 
improved  matters  considerably,  and  accounts  for  the 
enormous  increase  during  the  third  month.  The 


concentrated  part  of  ration  in  the  third  month  is  very 
high  in  fibre  (19-6  per  cent),  and  would,  no  doubt, 
have  given  much  worse  results  if  the  roots  had  not  been 
fed  so  liberally. 

There  does  not  appear  to  be  any  advantage  in 
using  highly  concentrated  foods  during  the  whole  of 
the  fattening  period,  for  in  Mr  Bruce's  report  (1903-4) 
the  bullocks  receiving  "  decorticated "  cotton  cake 
cost  35.  more  per  cwt.  of  live  weight  increase  to  produce 
than  was  the  case  with  those  receiving  Bombay  cotton 
cake  at  first.  In  each  case  the  ration  was  partly  sub- 
stituted later  on  with  linseed  cake.  Further,  the  bullocks 
fed  on  the  very  rich  concentrates  (decorticated  cotton 
cake  and  linseed  cake)  gave  an  increase  of  62  Ibs.  live 
weight  on  the  average  per  head  during  the  last  two 
months  of  fattening ;  while  those  receiving  Bombay 
cotton  cake  with  some  linseed  cake  later  on,  gave  1 10 
Ibs.  live  weight  increase  in  the  same  time,  thus 
illustrating  the  principle  that  the  concentrated  part  of 
the  ration  should  gradually  improve  in  quality  as  the 
fattening  period  advances. 

The  Edinburgh  College  experiments  (Mr  Bruce's 
reports,  1906)  also  shed  light  on  the  effect  of  feeding 
moderate  as  well  as  liberal  amounts  of  concentrated  foods. 
E.g.,  when  the  bullocks  were  given  an  average  daily  allow- 
ance of  90  Ibs.  roots,  with  straw  ad  lib.,  the  average 
daily  gain  in  live  weight  with  those  receiving  on  an 
average  6  Ibs.  Bombay  cotton  cake  per  day,  was  1-78 
Ibs. ;  while  with  those  bullocks  getting  8  Ibs.  Bombay 
cotton  cake  per  day,  the  daily  increase  in  live  weight 
averaged  2-02  Ibs.  per  head  per  day.  The  bullocks 
receiving  the  heavier  ration  of  cake  (8  Ibs.  per  day) 
were  fat  a  fortnight  earlier  than  those  receiving  the 
moderate  ration  (6  Ibs.  per  day).  The  final  returns 


with  a  composition  of  A43%O10^%F6%,  and  a  second  lot 
fed  with  decorticated  cotton  cake  and  maize  meal,  the 
mixture  giving  a  composition  of  A26.8%O7.42%F4.13%.  The 
latter  ration  gave  a  larger  increase  in  live  weight  by 
one-twelfth,  and  cost  one-seventh  less  than  was  the  case 
with  the  former. 

It  is  well  known  that  immature  roots  in  the 
autumn  tend  to  scour  bullocks  if  fed  in  large  quantities 
without  suitable  concentrates.  Bombay  cotton  cake 
is  known  to  have  a  very  "  binding "  effect,  and  on 
this  account  has  a  special  value.  Mr  Bruce,  Edinburgh 
and  East  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College,  demon- 
strated this  point  very  effectively  in  the  bullock-feeding 
experiment  of  1904-5. 

One  lot  of  cattle  received  I  to  ij  cwts.  roots  per 
head  per  day,  with  straw,  and  in  addition  8  to  10  Ibs. 
of  concentrated  food.  The  increase  in  live  weight 
during  the  first  three  months  was  as  follows : — 

Aver.  Monthly 

Concentrated  Food.  Increase  in 

Live  Weight. 

ist  month — 8  Ibs.  Bombay  cotton  cake         .  .  707  Ibs. 

2nd     „          8   „    Bombay  cotton  cake         .  .  12-6    „ 

,  /8    „    Bombay  cotton  cake) 

"       la    „    linseed  cake  .  J 

The  splendid  return  during  the  first  month  was  no 
doubt  due  to  the  roots  being  immature,  and  the 
Bombay  cotton  cake  counteracting  the  laxative  effect 
of  the  roots ;  but  during  the  second  month  the  roots 
had  ripened  and  had  not  such  a  laxative  effect,  hence 
the  Bombay  cotton  cake  was  too  binding.  The  addition 
of  a  laxative  food  like  linseed  cake  to  the  ration 
improved  matters  considerably,  and  accounts  for  the 
enormous  increase  during  the  third  month.  The 


concentrated  part  of  ration  in  the  third  month  is  very 
high  in  fibre  (19-6  per  cent),  and  would,  no  doubt, 
have  given  much  worse  results  if  the  roots  had  not  been 
fed  so  liberally. 

There  does  not  appear  to  be  any  advantage  in 
using  highly  concentrated  foods  during  the  whole  of 
the  fattening  period,  for  in  Mr  Bruce's  report  (1903-4) 
the  bullocks  receiving  "  decorticated "  cotton  cake 
cost  33.  more  per  cwt.  of  live  weight  increase  to  produce 
than  was  the  case  with  those  receiving  Bombay  cotton 
cake  at  first.  In  each  case  the  ration  was  partly  sub- 
stituted later  on  with  linseed  cake.  Further,  the  bullocks 
fed  on  the  very  rich  concentrates  (decorticated  cotton 
cake  and  linseed  cake)  gave  an  increase  of  62  Ibs.  live 
weight  on  the  average  per  head  during  the  last  two 
months  of  fattening ;  while  those  receiving  Bombay 
cotton  cake  with  some  linseed  cake  later  on,  gave  1 10 
Ibs.  live  weight  increase  in  the  same  time,  thus 
illustrating  the  principle  that  the  concentrated  part  of 
the  ration  should  gradually  improve  in  quality  as  the 
fattening  period  advances. 

The  Edinburgh  College  experiments  (Mr  Bruce's 
reports,  1906)  also  shed  light  on  the  effect  of  feeding 
moderate  as  well  as  liberal  amounts  of  concentrated  foods. 
E.g.,  when  the  bullocks  were  given  an  average  daily  allow- 
ance of  90  Ibs.  roots,  with  straw  ad  lib.,  the  average 
daily  gain  in  live  weight  with  those  receiving  on  an 
average  6  Ibs.  Bombay  cotton  cake  per  day,  was  1-78 
Ibs. ;  while  with  those  bullocks  getting  8  Ibs.  Bombay 
cotton  cake  per  day,  the  daily  increase  in  live  weight 
averaged  2-02  Ibs.  per  head  per  day.  The  bullocks 
receiving  the  heavier  ration  of  cake  (8  Ibs.  per  day) 
were  fat  a  fortnight  earlier  than  those  receiving  the 
moderate  ration  (6  Ibs.  per  day).  The  final  returns 


for  feeding  were  approximately  the  same  in  each  case 
but,  with  the  heavier  feeding,  the  returns  had  to  be 
accepted  largely  in  the  form  of  manurial  residue,  while 
with  the  lighter  feeding  (6  Ibs.  per  day)  there  was  a 
larger  cash  return. 

Professor  Winter  of  Bangor  fed  equal  quantities 
of  maize  meal  and  decorticated  cotton  cake  to  both 
Welsh  and  Shorthorn  bullocks,  along  with  pulped 
swedes,  hay  and  straw  chaff  ad  lib.,  and  5  Ibs.  hay 
each  night.  The  results  show  that  two-year-old 
bullocks  receiving  6  Ibs.  of  concentrates  per  day 
gave  an  average  daily  increase  in  live  weight  of 
1-92  Ibs.,  while  those  getting  10  Ibs.  concentrates  per 
day  only  gave  an  average  increase  of  1-65  Ibs.  per 

It  is  interesting  to  note  the  results  of  a  concentrated 
ration  which  is  high  in  fibre.  Professor  Brynner  Jones 
carried  out  an  experiment  (1907-8,  Aberystwyth) 
with  the  fattening  of  bullocks.  The  bulky  part  of 
ration  consisted  of  straw  chop,  hay,  and  roots,  while 
the  concentrates  were  one  part  Bombay  cotton 
cake,  one  part  Egyptian  and  two  parts  barley  meal, 
giving  a  composition  of  A15^O3^F13.  One  lot  received 
6  Ibs.  per  head  per  day  of  concentrates,  and  the  other 
had  10  Ibs.  per  day.  The  average  daily  increase  in  the 
former  case  was  1-37  Ibs.  per  head,  and  in  the  latter 
1-32  Ibs.  per  head. 

The  heavy  feeding  of  concentrates  proved  to  be  a 
dead  loss,  and  the  moderate  feeding  was  not  very 
satisfactory,  due  partly  to  the  concentrated  mixture 
being  suitable  only  for  the  early  stages  of  fattening, 
and  at  the  same  time  rather  low  in  oil. 

This  difficulty  can  be  overcome  to  a  large  extent 
by  making  the  ration  sufficiently  laxative  ;  e.g.t  in  the 


{Photo  by  G.  H.  Parsons. 
A.  Aberdeen-Angus  Shorthorn  Cross  Heifer,  "  Elita." 

(Shenstone  Home  Farm.) 

First  prize  in  class  and  Reserve  Champion  Heifer  in  the  show  at  both 
Birmingham  and  ymithfleld  (p.  206). 

B.   Relative  Prices  of  different  cuts  of  Fat  Cattle. 

\To  facet).  224. 


[To  face  p.  2-J». 


1911-12  experiments  of  the  Edinburgh  College,  Mr 
Bruce's  report  shows  that  when  Bombay  cotton  cake 
(4  Ibs.  per  head  per  day)  was  fed  along  with  the  same 
weight  of  linseed  cake,  or  4f  Ibs.  wheat  bran  per  head 
per  day,  in  addition  to  90  Ibs.  swedes  and  12  Ibs.  oat 
straw,  satisfactory  results  were  obtained  in  both  cases. 
The  "  linseed-cake  mixture"  of  concentrates  gave  a  com- 
position of  A24O7iF15>  and  an  average  increase  in  live 
weight  of  2-27  Ibs.  per  head  per  day;  while  the  "bran 
mixture "  had  a  composition  of  A17O4F15,  and  yielded 
an  average  increase  of  2-02  Ibs.  per  head  per  day. 

The  "  bran  mixture "  actually  left  more  profit,  but 
the  great  point  to  remember  when  using  concentrates 
high  in  fibre  for  fattening  animals,  is  that  the  ration 
should  be  made  more  laxative  in  one  or  more  of  the 
following  ways : — 

(a)  Substituting  hay  for  straw  (more  especially  in 


(b)  Increasing  the  allowance  of  roots. 

(<:)  Including   concentrates   which   have   a   laxative 

The  success  of  both  the  above  rations  was  due  in 
one  case  to  including  linseed  cake,  and  in  the  other 
bran,  both  of  which  have  laxative  properties.  Anyhow, 
cocoa-nut  cake  and  Bombay  cotton  cake  were  fed  in 
the  same  experiment,  and  the  mixture  gave  a  composi- 
tion of  A20O7iF163;  but  the  daily  live  weight  increase 
obtained  was  not  so  high  (1-91  Ibs.),  very  probably  due 
to  the  mixture  being  richer  in  fibre  and  of  a  slightly 
more  "  binding  nature." 

The  general  rule  in  fattening  cattle  is  that  the 



allowance  of  concentrated  food  per  day  increases 
as  fattening  advances,  but  the  average  increase  in 
live  weight  per  day  gradually  diminishes  as  fattening 
advances.  The  latter  point  is  very  well  seen  if  we 
take  the  Edinburgh  Agricultural  College  experiments 
during  1904-5  and  1906.  The  average  increases  in 
live  weight  per  month  during  fattening  of  forty-eight 
bullocks  were  as  follows  : — 

First  month  .  .  .  74'33  Ibs. 

Second    „  ...  63-51    „ 

Third       „  ...  64-05  „ 

Fourth    „  ...  40-00  „ 

Fifth        „  ...  43-87  „ 

Although  not  quite  mathematical,  the  general  tendency 
is  apparent,  and  shows  that  the  cost  of  producing 
increase  in  later  stages  of  fattening  is  much  greater 
than  in  the  early  period. 


The  following  daily  rations  are  'for  bullocks  of 
approximately  800  Ibs.  live  weight  (two-year-old), 
which  are  receiving  oat  straw  or  hay  along  with,  say, 
J  cwt.  roots  per  day.  The  amount  of  cake  allowed  is 
at  the  rate  of  I  Ib.  concentrated  food  for  every  100  Ibs. 
live  weight.  Rations  i,  2,  and  3  are  not  high  in  fibre, 
and  would  go  well  with  straw ;  while  4  and  5  are  fairly 
high  in  fibre,  and  may  be  fed  with  hay.  Ration  10 
should  also  be  fed  with  hay,  and  the  remainder  would 
do  quite  well  with  either  oat  straw  or  hay. 

In  making  up  bulk  quantities,  the  constituent  foods 
in  the  ration  should  be  taken  in  the  same  proportions  as 
those  given  ;  e.g.,  in  ration  I,  if  equal  weights  of  each  con- 



stituent  were  taken  —  whether  pounds,  hundredweights, 
or  tons  —  the  composition  of  the  mixture1  would  remain 
the  same. 

Early  periods  of  Fattening. 

1.  2  Ibs.  bean  meal  or  gram. 

2  Ibs.  dried  grains  (brewers'). 
2  Ibs.  crushed  oats. 
2  Ibs.  sharps. 

A     OF 
**tt|v'  trir 

2.  2  Ibs.  linseed  cake. 

2  Ibs.  Bombay  cotton  cake. 
2  Ibs.  bran  (wheat). 
2  Ibs.  maize  meal. 

1  Ib.     decorticated    cotton 

2  Ibs.  Egyptian  cotton  cake. 
2  Ibs.  barley  meal. 

2  Ibs.  rice  meal. 

i  Ib.  locust  bean  meal. 

Later  stages  of  Fattening. 
6.    3   Ibs.  decorticated  cotton 

5  Ibs.  maize  meal. 

7.    2  Ibs.  linseed  cake. 

1  Ibs.  bean  meal  or  gram. 

2  Ibs.  wheat  bran. 
2  Ibs.  rice  meal. 

8.    2 

Ibs.  decorticated   cotton 


Ib.  linseed  cake. 

Ib.  bean  meal  or  gram. 

Ib.  maize  meal. 

Ib.  rice  meal. 

Ib.  bran. 

Ib.  locust  beans. 

4  Ibs.  Egyptian  cotton  cake. 

3  Ibs.  crushed  oats. 

i  Ib.  locust  beans  (kibbled). 

2  Ibs.  earth-nut  cake. 

2  Ibs.      Egyptian      cotton 

3  Ibs.  maize  meal. 
i  Ib.  locust  beans. 

2  Ibs.  Egyptian  cotton  cake. 

2  Ibs.  dried  grains. 

3  Ibs.  sharps. 

i  Ib.  locust  beans. 

10.    2  Ibs.  soya-bean  cake. 
2  Ibs.  dried  grains. 
2  Ibs.  rice  meal. 
2  Ibs.  ground  oats. 

Condiments    may   be  added  in  small  quantity   to  any 
ration  that  the  stock  do  not  eat  with  avidity. 

1  Farmers  wishing  to  make  up  similar  concentrated  mixtures 
should  refer  to  the  table  of  analyses  on  p.  188. 


Economy  in  Feeding. 

(a)  It   is   wise  economy   to   give  a    bunch  of  bullocks 

in  autumn  a  small  allowance  of  cake  (2  Ibs.  per 
day  each).  Some  of  the  bullocks  will  soon  show 
a  tendency  to  fatten,  and  these  should  then  be 
drawn  out  and  given  a  fattening  ration. 

(b)  The  bullocks  should  not  be  given  more  each  time 

than  they  are  able  to  clean  up  reasonably  soon. 

(c)  The  ration   should   not   be   too   "  binding,"   or   too 

laxative,  otherwise  the  increases  in  live  weight 
obtained  may  be  far  from  satisfactory. 

(d)  The   bullocks  should  all   have  their    teeth  seen  to 

at  the  beginning  of  the  fattening  period : 
chewing  or  mastication  is  well-nigh  impossible 
in  some  cases  until  the  offending  tooth  is 

(e)  The  times  of  feeding  should  be  arranged  so  as  to 

give  bullocks  plenty  of  time  in  the  morning  and 
afternoon  to  chew  their  cud  in  quietness. 
Continual  disturbance  of  bullocks  does  not 
tend  to  encourage  rapid  fattening. 

(f)  Where   the   concentrated    food   comes   up   to   the 

above  feeding  standard  (p.  218),  and  is  sufficiently 
palatable  and  laxative,  experiments  do  not 
appear  to  show  any  great  advantage  of  one 
mixture  of  concentrates  over  another ;  hence  the 
market  value  of  concentrated  foods  should  be 
very  carefully  watched,  so  as  to  secure  a  ration 
of  high  quality  and  of  the  desired  composition 
at  the  minimum  cost  (p.  122). 


Relation  of  Concentrated  Pood  consumed  to 
Beef  produced. 

With  an  average  daily  ration  for  a  two-year-old 
bullock  of  8  Ibs.  cake,  17  Ibs.  straw,  and  J  cwt.  roots  per 
day,  the  average  increase  in  live  weight  should  be  about 
J  cwt.  per  month,  or  2  Ibs.  per  day.  In  Mr  Bruce's 
report  (1906)  the  average  increase  per  month  was 
56-6  Ibs.  per  bullock. 

At  this  rate  : — 

4^  cwts.  cake  give  i  cwt.  increase  in  live  weight. 
100  Ibs.      „        „     14  Ibs.  beef  (60  per  cent,  carcass). 
57  Ibs.       „        „     8  Ibs.       „  „  „ 

Every  J  cwt.  of  cake  fed  to  fattening  bullocks  should 
therefore  give  approximately  a  Smithfield  stone  of  beef 
(8  Ibs.) 

Cost  of  producing  Increase  in  fattening  Bullocks. 

With  liberal  feeding  for  two-year-old  bullocks  of 
8  Ibs.  cake  per  head  per  day  along  with  straw  and  roots, 
the  cost  of  producing  increase  would  be  approximately 
as  follows : — 

Costs  ^2,  55.  to  £2,  153.  in  cake,  straw,  and  roots,  to  give  i  cwt. 
live  weight  increase. 

Costs  about  £2  in  cake,  straw,  and  roots,  to  give  i  cwt.  live  weight 
increase  when  manurial  residue  is  taken  into  account. 

Costs  about  ;£i,  IDS.  in  cake,  etc.,  to  give  i  cwt.  live  weight 
increase  when  both  manurial  residue  and  enhancement  in 
value  of  store  weight  of  animal  (say,  55.  per  live  cwt.)  is 
taken  into  account,  which  must  be  credited  to  the  food. 

Bullocks   should   increase    in    value    from    £i,   55.   to 
£i,  IDS.  per  month,  if  they  are  to  leave  a  profit. 


The  returns  per  acre  (20  tons)  of  roots  with  bullock 
feeding  comes  to  about  ;£S,  without  taking  into  account 
"  manurial  residue."  With  manurial  residue  accounted 
for,  the  returns  would  be  about  £10,  los. 

Weight  of  Pat  Cattle  by  Measurement. 

It  is  not  always  possible  to  place  an  animal  on  the 
scales,  consequently  one  has  to  resort  to  other  methods 
of  determining  the  live  weight.  A  fairly  easy  method 
is  to  take  the  average  girth  in  feet,  and  the  length  of 
the  animal  from  a  point  just  behind  the  shoulder  to  the 
root  of  the  tail,  also  measured  in  feet ;  then  by  squaring 
the  girth,  and  multiplying  this  number  by  the  length  in 
feet,  a  quarter  of  the  result  so  obtained  will  then  give  the 
weight  of  the  animal  in  imperial  stones.  E.g.^  an  animal 
with  6-foot  girth,  and  body  6J  long,  would  be — 

Girth  squared  x  length  ~-  4  =  weight  in  imperial  stones. 
6  x  6  x  6^  -r  4  =  »  » 

36  x  6£  -f  4  =  „  „ 

234  -r  4  =  58^  imperial  stones. 

The  above  would  be  approximate  for  a  very  fat 
animal.  If  it  is  only  moderately  fat,  at  least  one- 
twentieth  would  have  to  be  subtracted  from  the  result, 
and  the  amount  deducted  must  be  left  to  the  judgment 
of  the  person  estimating  the  weight  of  the  animal. 

Score-carding  Cattle. 

The  score  card  on  p.  231  is  used  by  the  students  in 
the  Winter  School  of  Agriculture  carried  on  by  the 
Herefordshire  County  Council. 


Hereford  Bull. 



General  Appearance,  26  points — 

CARRIAGE  of  animal  when  walking    . 
SIZE  AND  WEIGHT,  according  to  age 


HAIR  AND   SKIN — Skin  thick  and  mellow  to  the  touch, 

with  thick  soft  hair 

FLESH — Body  well  covered  with  flesh,  which  is  firm  and 

mellow  to  the  touch,  and  free  from  patchiness . 
Plead  and  Neck ,  10  points — 

MASCULINE    HEAD,  horns  slightly  drooping,   short    face, 

prominent  eyes,  and  flesh-coloured  nose  .... 

NECK — Good    crest,    clean     throat ;    the    whole    sloping 

gradually  on  to  shoulders 

Fore  Quarters.  8  points — 

SHOULDERS  not  prominent ;  shoulder-blades  well  open  on 

top,  and  well  covered  with  flesh 

Body,  24 points — 

CHEST  wide  and  deep,  well   filled    in    behind  shoulders  ; 

large  heart  girth 

RIBS  long,  and  well  arched 

BACK  AND  LOIN  strong  and  broad,  level  with  upperline    . 
FLANK— Full  and  well  down,  straight  underline 
Hind  Quarters,  27  points — 

HIND  QUARTERS  as  long  and  as  wide  as  possible,  well 
filled  in  from  hip-bones  to  root  of  tail.     Hip-bones  not 

prominent.     Tail  well  set  on 

UPPER  THIGH  full  and  well  developed 

LOWER  THIGH  prominent,  and  well  fleshed  down  to  hock  . 
Legs,  5  points — 

LEGS — Should  be  short,  set  on  well  apart,  strong  clean  bone 






The  Hereford  Herd  Book  Society  has  drawn  up  the 
following  standard  of  merit  for  Hereford  Cattle : — 

Hereford  Cattle. 

The  Bull  should  have  a  moderately  short  head  ;  broad  fore- 
head. Horns  waxlike,  springing  straight  out  from  side  of  forehead 
and  slightly  drooping  ;  those  with  black  tips  or  turning  upwards 
are  not  favoured, 


Eyes  should  be  full  and  prominent. 

Nose  broad  and  clear.     A  black  or  blue  nose  is  objectionable. 

Body  should  be  massive  and  cylindrical  on  short  legs.  The 
upper-  and  underline  should  be  straight.  The  neck  should  be 
thick,  with  well-developed  crest. 

Shoulders  sloping,  but  lying  well  open  at  top  between 

Chest  full  and  deep.     Ribs  well  sprung.     Flank  deep. 

Buttocks  broad,  with  lower  thigh  well  developed,  coming  well 
down  to  hocks. 

Tail  neatly  set  and  evenly  filled  between  setting-on  of  tail  and 
hip-bones  (hooks).  The  hip-bones  should  not  be  prominent. 

Whole  carcass  should  be  covered  with  firm  flesh. 

Skin  should  be  thick  and  mellow  to  the  touch,  and  generally 
covered  with  thick  soft  hair  of  a  rich  red  colour.  The  hair, 
however,  of  face,  top  of  neck,  and  under  parts  of  body  should 
be  white. 

Hereford  Cow  should  be  more  feminine  in  appearance. 
Head  and  neck  less  massive,  and  the  eyes  should  show  a  quiet, 
docile  disposition. 


The  following  tables  have  been  calculated  from 
the  Smithfield  results  of  1913,  and  have  been 
specially  arranged  to  show  the  possible  live  weights 
attainable  by  various  breeds  at  different  ages.  The 
table  includes  the  daily  increase  in  live  weight  from 
birth  of  the  three  prize-winners  in  each  class  where 
available,  as  well  as  the  average  daily  increase  from 
birth  of  the  whole  class. 

The  table  on  p.  240  gives  the  live  and  carcass 
weights  of  those  cattle  entered  in  the  carcass  competi- 
tions as  well  as  the  percentage  of  carcass  to  live  weight, 
weights  of  internal  organs,  etc.,  and  comparative  prices 
per  8-lb.  stone  of  the  various  carcasses. 


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*;  * 

[Photo  by  Author- 

A.  Ewes  eating  Roots  off  at  Askkirk,  near  Hawick,  N.B.,  in] 
snowy  weather. 


[Photo  by  Mr  J.  Craw,  West  Foulden,  Berwick. 
B.  The  Annual  Sheep-shearing  is  an  interesting  time. 


[Photo  by  Mr  Craw,  West  Foulden,  Berwick. 
A.  Border-Leicester,  or  possibly  a  Scotch  Half-bred  Ewe,  with  Lambs, 

at  Mr  Craw's,  Chirnside,  Berwickshire. 
These  lambs  would  probably  be  fed  for  early  mutton. 

[Photo  l>y  Author* 

B.  Oxford  or  Oxford  Cross  Ewes  in  the  Lambing-pen  at 
Mr  John  Clay's,  Sunlaws,  Roxburgh. 

These  lambs  would  probably  be  fed  for  early  mutton. 

[To  face  p.  241. 



The  provision  of  food  for  sheep  is  a  matter  of  very 
great  importance,  but  the  kind  of  food  required  on 
different  farms  varies  considerably.  On  the  mountain 
and  hill  land  the  flocks  may  have  to  rely  on  grass 
almost  entirely  for  their  living  except  in  very  severe 
weather  in  winter,  when  they  will,  in  all  probability, 
be  given  a  little  hay.  On  such  farms  there  is  no 
attempt  made  to  fatten  sheep  off,  consequently  they 
are  disposed  of,  in  store  condition,  to  lowland  farmers, 
who  fatten  them  off  at  the  age  of  two  and  a  half  to 
three  years. 

The  breeding  ewes  are  generally  sold  after  they 
are  five  years  old  to  lowland  farmers,  where  they  may 
be  fattened  off,  or  crossed  with  a  good  fattening  breed 
of  sheep.  In  the  latter  case,  both  ewes  and  lambs 
would  be  fattened  off  the  following  year. 

The  all-important  point  for  these  farmers  is  how 
to  get  an  abundant  supply  of  grass  throughout  the 
greater  part  of  the  year,  either  by  improving  the  old 
grass-land,  or,  when  land  is  laid  down  to  grass,  by 
seeding  it  down  with  a  good  pasture  mixture  (see 
p.  89).  A  good  supply  of  hay  should  be  preserved 
for  the  snowy  weather  in  winter. 

On  some  lowland  farms  where  grass  is  abundant 
in  autumn,  these  hill  or  mountain  sheep  may  be 
purchased  in  late  August  or  early  September,  and 
simply  allowed  to  fatten  themselves  off  on  the  pasture 
grass,  foggage,  or  young  grass  and  clover  seeds,  which 
give  them  a  much  more  sappy  and  nutritive  feed 
than  that  on  which  they  have  been  reared.  In  about 
two  to  three  months  time  they  will  probably  be 
sufficiently  fat  to  sell,  leaving  6d.  to  gd.  and,  in 



some   cases,    is.   per    head    per    week   for    the    grass 

It  is  on  the  mixed  lowland  farms,  where  sheep  are 
both  bred  and  fattened,  that  one  gets  the  widest 
experience  with  sheep,  and  it  is  on  such  farms  that 
the  following  remarks  are  chiefly  intended  to  apply. 
The  class  of  sheep  bred  on  lowland  farms  are  much 
larger  than  the  hill  and  mountain  sheep,  largely  due 
to  the  fact  that  they  have  been  bred  and  selected  for 
the  production  of  mutton  at  a  much  earlier  age  than 
is  the  case  on  hill  farms. 

Feeding  the  Ram. 

Previous  to  being  placed  with  the  ewes,  the  ram 
should  be  specially  fed  for  a  few  weeks  so  as  to  put  him 
into  proper  condition.  If  too  fat,  he  should  have  plenty 
of  exercise  and  shorter  rations.  The  concentrated  food 
should  be  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids,  and  may  well  consist 
of  equal  parts  of  bran  and  oats,  allowing  about  I  Ib.  per 
head  per  day.  Many  of  the  best  breeders  give  each  ram 
a  couple  of  doses  of  Epsom  salts  before  placing  him 
with  the  ewes.  The  time  of  year  when  the  ram  would 
be  placed  with  the  ewes  would  depend  on  the  breed 
as  well  as  the  purpose  for  which  the  lambs  were 
required  ;  e.g.y  Dorset  breeders  place  the  rams  with  the 
ewes  from  beginning  of  September  to  middle  of  October. 
The  same  applies  to  other  districts  where  early  lambs 
are  fattened  off;  while  in  hill  districts,  where  the 
lambs  are  reared  and  sold  out  later  on  in  store 
condition,  it  is  not  usual  to  have  the  lambs  coming 
before  April. 


Breeding  Ewes. 

It  is  a  very  good  thing  to  "  flush  "  the  ewes  for  a  few 
weeks  before  they  are  put  with  the  ram.  This  simply 
means  allowing  the  ewes  to  have  a  little  better  feeding 
so  as  to  improve  their  condition,  but  not  sufficient  to 
make  them  fat.  This  has  the  dual  effect  of  getting  the 
ewes  mated  a  little  earlier  and  of  increasing  the  number 
of  twins  or  doubles. 

During  pregnancy  the  ewes  should  be  fairly  liberally 
fed  by  hand  if  grass  is  not  sufficiently  plentiful,  so  as  to 
keep  them  in  a  thriving  condition.  A  moderate  allow- 
ance of  roots  may  be  given  (i  I  Ibs.  per  head  per  day,  or, 
say,  a  cart-load  to  100) ;  but  frozen  roots  should  always 
be  fed  with  caution.  A  little  cake  (J  Ib.  per  head  per 
day)  may  also  be  found  necessary.  The  ewe  will  then 
be  in  fairly  good  condition  at  lambing  time,  produce 
stronger  lambs,  and  nurse  them  better. 

At  lambing  time  a  sufficient  supply  of  hay,  straw, 
and  roots  near  the  lambing  pen  is  very  necessary. 
The  ewes  will  be  taken  into  it  for  a  day  or  two  before 
lambing,  more  especially  at  night.  After  lambing,  hay 
and  i  to  2  Ibs.  of  concentrated  food,  made  up  of  the 
same  ingredients  and  in  the  same  proportions  as  those 
for  dairy  cows  (see  p.  193),  should  be  given,  along  with 
some  nice,  succulent  roots  (14  to  21  Ibs.  per  head  per 
day)  or  grass. 

Fattening  Early  Lambs. 

The  fattening  of  lambs  for  the  early  market  is  becom- 
ing more  and  more  popular,  for  several  reasons  :  (a)  the 
lambs  yield  quick  returns ;  (b)  the  price,  generally 
speaking,  is  comparatively  high  ;  (c)  they  are  fattened  off 


before  parasites  become  troublesome  ;  and,  (</)  they  give 
the  farmer  an  opportunity  of  relieving  the  pastures  in  the 
summer  months,  especially  when  he  can  purchase  sheep 
or  lambs  in  the  early  autumn  for  feeding  off  the 
roots.  This  also  means  that  the  number  of  sheep 
kept  on  the  farm  during  the  year  is  increased,  and  the 
profit  from  them  greater. 

Hill  sheep  are  comparatively  slow  fatteners,  and 
possess  a  roaming  disposition ;  but  they  are  good 
milkers,  make  admirable  mothers,  and  when  fat,  produce 
a  sweet,  fine-grained  mutton  which  contains  a  high 
proportion  of  lean  meat,  hence  they  are  mated  with 
a  larger  breed  to  get  the  first  cross  ewes ;  then,  in 
order  to  get  lambs  which  will  grow  and  fatten  rapidly, 
it  is  necessary  to  cross  these  ewes  with  rams  of 
some  of  the  larger  breeds  which  are  noted  for  their 
mutton-producing  capacities,  such  as  the  Oxford,  Hamp- 
shire, etc.  It  is  further  important  that  these  cross-bred 
lambs  should  have  an  aptitude  to  both  grow  and 
fatten  during  the  first  few  months  of  their  lives. 
Principal  Lawrence  found  in  his  experiments  that 
while  the  lambs  produced  by  the  Oxford  ram  crossed 
with  Border  Leicester  Scotch  Black-faced  ewes  could 
be  fattened  off  in  three  months,  it  took  an  extra  month 
to  fatten  the  lambs  produced  when  a  Wensleydale 
ram  was  used  with  similarly  bred  ewes.  The  Oxford 
Down  and  Hampshire  Down  are  certainly  very 
popular  for  crossing  with  the  local  ewes,  although 
Border  Leicesters  and  Suffolks  have  given  very  good 
results.  With  fairly  large  ewes  like  Romney  Marsh  or 
Kent  sheep,  the  South  Down  makes  a  very  fine  cross. 

In  East  Lothian  the  three-crop  ewes  are  sometimes 
weaned  from  their  lambs  towards  the  end  of  July,  so  as 
to  get  them  lambing  early  (January  or  early  February) 


with  the  fourth  crop  of  lambs.  The  ewes  and  their 
lambs  are  then  fattened  off  together.  Some  of  the  single 
lambs  will  be  sufficiently  fat  in  about  ten  weeks,  and 
probably  weigh  56  to  60  Ibs.  live  weight,  and  if  of  good 
quality  will  command  a  high  price ;  in  fact,  those  which 
are  sold  later  and  at  probably  a  month  older,  may  not 
make  such  a  high  price  per  head. 

The  ewes  are  given  a  liberal  amount  of  concentrated 
food  (i  to  2  Ibs.),  made  up  in  the  same  proportions  as 
the  rations  for  dairy  cows  (see  p.  193^,  along  with  hay 
and  up  to  20  Ibs.  roots.  In  about  three  weeks  the 
lambs  will  begin  to  eat  cake,  etc.,  out  of  the  troughs. 
This  is  encouraged,  and  the  lambs  are  fattened  as 
rapidly  as  possible.  At  the  same  time  the  "top" 
lambs  will  be  placed  on  the  best  grass  or  young 
wheat  and  given  every  advantage,  so  as  to  get 
them  fat  in  time  to  catch  the  early  market,  say,  from 
mid-April  up  to  the  end  of  May.  A  large  number 
are  sold  off  in  June  and  early  July,  and  may  weigh 
anywhere  from  60  up  to  100  Ibs. 

Mr  Wyllie,  writing  in  the  Transactions  of  the 
Highland  and  Agricultural  Society  of  Scotland  for 
1907,  mentions  a  novel  way  he  has  of  giving  the  lambs 
the  best  of  the  cake.  The  ewes  are  fed  with  "  rough  " 
(undecorticated)  coarsely  broken  cotton  cake,  and  as 
soon  as  the  lambs  show  an  inclination  to  eat  cake, 
linseed  cake  broken  down  to  the  size  of  beans  is 
added  ;  with  the  result  that  the  lambs,  being  unable 
to  deal  with  the  larger  pieces  of  cotton  cake,  feed 
chiefly  on  the  linseed  cake,  while  curiously  enough, 
Mr  Wyllie  points  out,  the  ewes  seem  to  prefer  the 
cotton  cake  after  they  have  become  so  accustomed 
to  it. 

In   some  cases  the  lambs  may  receive   special  and 


probably  more  expensive  feed  than  the  ewes  by 
training  them  to  eat  in  a  little  enclosure.  A  very  useful 
lamb  food  for  this  purpose  may  be  made  by  mixing — 

2  parts  linseed  cake. 

1  „      soya-bean  cake. 

2  „     cracked  maize. 
2     „      crushed  oats. 

i      „     locust  beans  (kibbled). 
Composition  of  mixture,  AlgaO6F6i. 

They  may  be  allowed  I  Ib.  of  above  mixture  to 
every  six  or  eight  lambs  at  about  a  month  old.  At 
two  months  they  will  eat  very  nearly  J  Ib.  each  per 
day ;  at  three  months,  f  Ib. ;  and  if  kept  till  four 
months  old,  may  consume  very  nearly  f  Ib.  per  head 
per  day. 

It  is  a  very  common  sight  in  East  Lothian  to  see 
shelters  put  up  at  different  parts  of  the  field  for 
the  ewes  and  young  lambs  to  shelter  behind.  These 
shelters  are  made  of  hurdles,  with  bunches  of  straw 
attached,  and  held  in  the  vertical  position.  Although 
these  shelters  are  not  costly  they  are  very  effective, 
so  far  as  the  purpose  for  which  they  are  intended  is 

The  ewes  would  be  sold  off  during  June  or  July, 
and  where  they  have  been  bought  on,  say,  in  the 
previous  September,  it  is  usual  to  expect  that  the 
selling  price  of  ewes  when  sold  will  be  approximately 
equal  to  the  purchase  price,  the  fleece  being  left  over  to 
go  in  part  payment  of  the  food  consumed  during  the 
winter.  If  the  ewes  and  lambs  do  well,  one  may 
realise  a  balance  after  making  allowance  for  grass, 
roots,  hay,  and  concentrated  food,  etc.,  of  £1  to  £2 
for  each  ewe,  including  her  lambs. 


Wintering  Lambs. 

On  a  large  number  of  farms  the  ewes  do  not  begin  to 
lamb  until  April,  when  grass  is  beginning  to  grow.  Very 
little  if  any  concentrated  food  is  given.  About  the  end 
of  August  or  beginning  of  September  the  lambs  are 
weaned.  With  hill  and  mountain  sheep,  the  lambs  which 
are  retained  by  the  farmer  are  usually  sent  in  the  autumn 
to  the  lowland  farms  for  the  first  winter,  i.e.  from  ist 
November  to  ist  April,  when  the  owner  will  take  turnips 
either  per  head  of  sheep  (say,  5d.  to  6d.  per  head  per 
week),  the  owner  supplying  J  Ib.  cake  per  head  per  day;  or 
per  acre  of  roots,  depending  on  the  size  of  the  crop.  E.g., 
at  West  Linton,  Peebleshire,  they  are  sometimes  let  at 
£6,  I os.  per  acre  ;  the  farmer  supplies  the  hay,  and  carts 
the  cake  for  the  owner.  For  wintering  lambs  the  price 
is  about  £5  to  £6  per  score,  or  even  more.  These  lambs 
would  return  to  the  hills  and  mountains  the  following 
spring,  where  they  would  remain  over  the  second 
winter,  and  in  the  following  autumn  (two  and  a  half 
years  old)  those  which  were  not  required  for  stock 
purposes  would  be  sold  at  the  great  "  store "  sales  to 
the  arable  farmers,  and  in  some  cases  dairy  farmers, 
to  be  fattened  off  for  mutton  during  the  late  autumn, 
winter,  or  spring  months  as  the  case  may  be.  Some 
of  the  lambs  sent  down  from  the  hills  and  mountains 
to  lowland  farms  may  be  fattened  off  during  the  first 
winter,  say  at  nine  months  old,  in  the  same  way  as 
those  bred  on  the  lowland  farms. 

Mutton  Production. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  autumn,  the  hill  and 
mountain  sheep  which  pass  through  the  auction  marts 
in  thousands  supply  the  lowland  farmer  with  store 


sheep,  which  he  can  fatten  off  on  his  root-land.  The 
particular  name  given  to  sheep  which  are  being 
fattened  off  on  roots  with  hay  and  cake  varies  in 
different  parts  of  the  kingdom  ;  e.g.,  in  Scotland  a  very 
common  term  is  "hoggets"  for  weaned  lambs  up  to 
first  shear,  and  "hoggs"  after  that.  In  the  Midlands 
and  south  of  England  the  term  "  teg "  is  often  used 
instead  of  "  hoggs."  The  chief  difficulty  about  the  term 
"hogg"  is  that  one  may  very  easily  confuse  it  with 
another  kind  of  farm  animal  spelt  with  one  "  g  "  instead 
of  two. 

These  sheep  would  first  of  all  be  kept  on  the  grass- 
land for  a  few  weeks  before  being  taken  on  to  the 
turnip-land.  The  arable  farmer  who  goes  in  for 
mutton  production  has  reduced  to  a  fine  art  the 
method  of  growing  root  or  forage  crops,  so  as  to  have 
a  succession  of  succulent  food  for  the  sheep  during  the 
winter  months.  E.g.,  with  root  crops,  white-fleshed 
turnips  generally  come  first.  These  are  followed  by 
the  "yellows,"  or  yellow-fleshed  turnips,  and  are 
themselves  succeeded  by  swedes.  In  the  Midlands 
and  south  of  England,  mangels  may  be  fed  to  a  larger 
extent  than  swedes.  Mangels  must  be  put  into  heaps 
or  "  tumps,"  and  protected  during  the  winter  frosts,  but 
it  is  more  or  less  optional  in  the  case  of  the  turnips, 
yellows  and  swedes.  Generally  speaking,  they  are 
not  carted  off  the  land,  although  in  some  cases,  say, 
six  drills  may  be  alternately  carted  off  and  six  left ;  the 
idea  being  more  to  get  the  sheep  to  manure  the  field 
uniformly  and  well.  In  some  cases  the  treading  of 
the  sheep  would  be  an  advantage,  in  others  not. 

The  three  common  methods  of  feeding  the  roots  off 
are — (a)  open  grazing;  (b}  folding, and  eating  the  roots 
whole ;  (c)  eating  the  roots  whole  through  feeding- 



[Photo  by  Author. 
A.   Fattening  Hoggs  at  Mr  Herbertson's,  Fans,  Earlston,  Berwickshire. 

The  cutter-cart  cuts  the  roots  as  the  horse  moves  on,  which  saves  much 
hand  labour. 

B.   Relative  Prices  of  different  cuts  of  a  Fat  Sheep. 

[Between  pp.  248,  249. 


hurdles ;    (d)  folding   the   sheep,   and   feeding   on   cut 

Open  Grazing. — The  sheep  are  turned  into  a  root- 
field,  and  allowed  to  roam  at  large.  This  saves  netting 
or  hurdles,  but  a  large  amount  of  food  is  wasted 
partly  through  the  sheep  having  too  much  freedom,  and 
partly  through  some  of  the  roots  becoming  tainted.  A 
further  consideration  on  sandy  soils,  is  that  sand  gets 
washed  or  carried  by  the  feet  of  the  sheep  on  to  the 
roots,  with  the  result  that  a  considerable  amount  of 
sand  may  find  its  way  into  the  stomachs  of  the  sheep, 
and  possibly  cause  death.  With  regard  to  the  manure, 
this  is  not  scattered  uniformly  over  the  field,  which  is  a 
great  disadvantage. 

Folding  Sheep. — In  this  method  the  sheep  are 
confined  by  nets,  wire-netting,  or  hurdles  to  a  com- 
paratively small  area  of  roots,  depending  partly  on  the 
number  being  fed,  length  of  nets,  etc.  In  East  Lothian 
about  50  yards  by  50  yards  is  the  area  enclosed.  The 
sheep  are  consequently  confined  to  this  area  till  the 
roots  are  practically  all  eaten  up,  before  another  break 
is  given  to  them.  The  nets,  etc.,  are  kept  fairly  close 
up  behind  them,  so  as  to  keep  the  sheep  from  manuring 
one  patch  more  than  another.  The  advantages  here  are 
that  the  roots  go  very  much  further,  and  the  field  is 
uniformly  manured.  The  sheep  are  more  settled, 
and  fatten  faster.  When  a  change  is  being  made 
from  turnips  to  swedes,  the  net  or  hurdle  should  be 
fixed  so  as  to  include  a  few  rows  of  swedes,  etc.  In 
this  way  the  sheep  gradually  become  accustomed  to  the 

In  fine,  dry  weather  it  is  often  advisable  to  fold  the 
sheep  on  the  wettest  and  most  exposed  part  of  the 
field,  and  vice  versa.  Changes  to  a  fresh  break  should 


generally  be  made  in  the  late  morning,  or  early  after- 
noon, when  the  leaves  or  tops  are  comparatively  dry, 
in  order  to  prevent  the  food  from  scouring  the  sheep. 
Roughly  speaking,  an  acre  (2O-ton  crop)  of  swedes 
would  keep  about  300  sheep  for  a  week,  allowing 
21  Ibs.  per  head  per  day.  An  acre  (i  5 -ton  crop) 
would  keep  300  sheep  for  a  week  if  only  16  Ibs.  roots 
were  allowed  per  head  per  day. 

Some  farmers  sow  a  little  salt  on  the  tops  of  the  first 
break  of  turnips,  to  prevent  the  sheep  from  becoming 
"  hoven  "  or  "  blown." 

Feeding-hurdle  System. — This  is  intended  to  apply 
to  the  system  of  using  feeding-hurdles  against  the  part 
which  has  to  be  fed  off.  It  differs  from  the  folding 
system,  inasmuch  as  the  hurdles  are  daily  shifted 
forward  against  the  roots.  The  sheep  are  not  allowed 
to  get  their  feet  on  or  taint  the  roots,  but  may  put  their 
heads  between  the  bars  of  these  feeding-hurdles  and 
eat  the  roots  at  leisure.  This  is  a  very  economical 
way,  although  the  expense  of  getting  these  hurdles  is 
greater  than  that  of  the  ordinary  hurdles,  and  much 
more  -than  that  of  getting  nets  or  wire-netting.  There 
is  also  more  trouble  in  moving  the  hurdles  forward  each 

This  method  is  very  conveniently  applied  in  feeding 
off  rape,  vetches,  and  other  forage  crops. 

Feeding  Cut  Roots. — The  roots,  which  have  been 
topped,  tailed,  and  put  into  small  heaps  or  "  tumps," 
are  covered  over  with  "  tops,"  rough  grass,  straw,  or  soil, 
to  protect  them  from  the  frost.  These  heaps  are  made 
of  a  convenient  size,  and  placed  at  such  a  distance 
apart  as  to  expedite  feeding.  The  sheep  would  then 
be  divided  up  into  lots  not  exceeding  100  each,  and 
drafted  so  as  to  have  the  forward  ones  together  for 


special  feeding.  It  is  usual  to  have  a  separate  cutter 
(which  cuts  the  roots  into  long  chips  or  fingers)  for 
every  one  or  two  lots  of  sheep,  and  as  fast  as  one  heap 
becomes  used  up,  the  hurdles  are  pushed  forward 
against  the  next.  At  the  same  time  the  land  gets 
uniformly  manured. 

The  sheep  are  thus  relieved  of  the  trouble  of 
breaking  their  own  roots,  and  as  soon  as  November 
comes  in  they  may  be  handicapped  by  teething  changes 
taking  place.  They  can  still  get  their  full  quantity  of 
roots  with  a  minimum  amount  of  trouble,  thus  giving 
them  longer  periods  of  rest.  It  is  not  advisable  to  fill 
the  troughs  full  of  cut  roots,  say,  morning  and  after- 
noon, because  so  many  get  pulled  over  the  side  of  the 
trough  and  wasted.  Further,  in  frosty  weather  any  roots 
which  are  not  cleaned  up  immediately,  become  frozen, 
and  on  this  account  are  much  less  suitable  for  fattening 
purposes.  It  is  much  better  to  feed  the  cut  roots  three 
to  four  times  a  day,  and  give  them  no  more  than  they 
can  clean  up  immediately. 

The  feeding  of  cut  roots  for  sheep  which  are  being 
fattened  off  for  mutton  is  very  general,  at  any  rate  after 
the  supply  of  soft  turnips  has  become  exhausted.  The 
quantity  allowed  with  hay  and  cake  is  anywhere  from 
14  to  21  Ibs.  per  head  per  day,  depending  on  the  size 
of  sheep,  etc.  Sheep  have  been  fattened  off  on  hay  and 
roots,  but  the  mortality  is  apt  to  be  high,  and  the  cost 
of  producing  live-weight  increase  considerably  in- 
creased. Feeding  the  roots  cut  reduces  the  mortality, 
as  the  sheep  get  very  little  sand  with  their  roots 
compared  with  the  practice  of  feeding  the  roots  off 
whole  on  the  ground. 

Principal  Lawrence  found  that  sheep  receiving 
cake,  hay,  and  turnips  increased  in  live  weight  at  the 


average  rate  of  2f  Ibs.  per  head  per  week  during  a 
period  of  twelve  weeks,  while  those  receiving  cake, 
hay,  and  grass  only  increased  at  the  average  rate  of 
\  Ib.  per  head  per  day. 

In  the  same  series  of  experiments  it  appears  that 
the  sheep  being  fed  on  turnip-land,  with  a  given 
ration  increased  in  live  weight  on  an  average  during 
twelve  weeks  of  2f  Ibs.  per  head  per  day,  while  a 
similar  lot,  similarly  fed  on  grass-land,  only  increased 
at  the  rate  of  if  Ibs.  per  head  per  day. 

With  cut  swedes  one  penny  per  head  per  week  may 
be  charged  for  each  hogg  to  cover  cost  of  pulling  and 
heaping  swedes,  and  another  Jd.  per  head  per  week  for 
cleaning  and  cutting  them  for  feeding. 

One  man  can  cut  roots  for,  and  look  after  a  flock  of 
200  to  300  sheep.  If,  however,  the  roots  are  fed  whole, 
he  will  manage  to  look  after  400  sheep  which  are  being 
folded  on  roots. 

Forage  and  Fodder  Crops  for  Sheep. 

Forage  Crops. — Forage  crops  are  often  used  in  the 
Midland  counties  and  south  of  England  to  supply  the 
succulent  food  for  sheep.  The  chief  crops  used  for  this 
purpose  would  be  lucerne,  vetches,  trifolium,  rape, 
mustard,  broadcast  turnips,  rye,  oats,  and  vetches,  etc. 
(see  p.  93).  Turnip  tops  and  broadcast  turnips  are 
very  useful  remedies  for  lambs  which  are  suffering  from 
husk  or  hoose.  Of  course  it  is  always  advisable  to  treat 
lambs  suffering  from  such  complaints  in  the  early 

Hay. —  Hay  is  a  bulky,  and  comparatively  speaking 
a  dry  food,  which  is  fairly  high  in  fibre.  This  dryness 
and  binding  (fibrous)  nature  of  hay  makes  it  extremely 


useful  for  feeding  to  "  hoggs  "  which  are  receiving  roots. 
The  roots  are  cooling  and  laxative,  and  the  hay  tends 
to  counteract  the  latter  effect.  It  is  very  interesting  to 
find  that  the  hoggs  regulate  their  diet  instinctively. 
E.g.,  in  the  1904-5  experiments  of  the  Edinburgh. 
Agricultural  College,  where  approximately  \2\  Ibs. 
roots  per  head  per  day  were  allowed  to  each  lot,  with 
hay  ad  lib.,  it  was  found  that  those  lots  receiving  "  roots 
and  hay  alone,"  and  "  roots,  hay,  and  linseed  cake,"  both 
of  which  are  fairly  laxative  rations,  consumed  approxi- 
mately double  the  amount  of  hay  of  those  receiving 
concentrates  high  in  fibre  (Bombay  cotton  cake  or 
Bombay  cotton  cake  and  dried  grains),  with  the  same 
allowance  of  roots.  This  is  an  important  practical 
point  to  keep  in  mind  when  compounding  rations  for 

Oat  straw  may  be  used  to  economise  the  hay,  but 
it  is  more  usual  to  feed  it  chaffed  and  mixed  with 

The  allowance  of  hay  per  head  per  day  varies  from 
\  Ib.  to  i-J  Ibs.  A  good  average  would  be  I  lb.,  and 
in  reserving  hay  for  hoggs  on  roots,  it  is  generally 
sufficient  to  allow  I  ton  for  every  acre  of  roots  to  be 
fed  off.  If  hay  is  scarce,  it  may  all  be  chaffed  and 
fed  in  troughs.  The  hay  chaff  and  cake  need  not  be 
mixed  together  at  all,  as  the  former  can  be  fed  in 
special  troughs  with  backs  on,  and  the  latter  in  the 
usual  kind  of  trough. 

Concentrated  Poods. 

The  primary  object  in  feeding  concentrates  to  sheep 
is  to  supply  sufficient  nutrient  material  to  provide  for 
an  adequate  surplus  over  what  is  required  for  mainten- 


ance,  and  thus  encourage  rapid  fattening.  In  the 
autumn,  turnips  fed  before  they  are  properly  ripe  tend 
to  scour  the  sheep.  This  tendency  can  be  largely 
counteracted  by  feeding  liberal  amounts  of  Bombay 
cotton  cake  as  long  as  this  tendency  lasts  ;  but  as  the 
turnips  mature,  or  a  change  is  made  on  to  swedes, 
it  will  generally  be  found  necessary  to  give  concen- 
trates of  a  more  laxative  tendency  than  Bombay  cotton 
cake.  If  Egyptian  is  rather  too  binding,  one  cannot  do 
better  than  include  some  linseed  cake,  which  has  a 
laxative  tendency,  and  generally  gives  good  results 
when  given  to  fattening  sheep. 

Many  of  the  rations  for  fattening  cattle  (see  p.  227), 
would  do  very  well  for  sheep,  but  it  is  important  to 
keep  in  mind  that  sheep  have  their  concentrated  foods 
put  into  troughs  in  the  dry  state,  and  in  the  open  field, 
where  finely  ground  meals  would  generally  be  inadvis- 
able, as  the  wind  would  blow  much  away.  It  is  there- 
fore best  to  feed  maize,  beans,  oats,  gram,  soy  beans, 
etc.,  cracked  or  coarsely  bruised,  so  as  to  overcome 
this  difficulty.  Rations  2  and  4  would  be  very  suitable 
for  the  first  two  months  of  fattening.  A  capital  mixture 
could  also  be  made  by  taking  :  — 

1  part  soya-bean  cake. 

2  parts  Egyptian  cotton  cake. 
2      „     dried  brewers'  grains. 
2      „     cracked  maize. 

i  part  locust  beans  (kibbled). 

In  the  later  stages  of  fattening,  rations  6,  8, 
and  9  would  give  very  good  results,  but  the  food 
should  be  fed  in  a  much  coarser  condition  than  the 


meal  form.     Another  very  good  concentrated  mixture 
for  the  later  stages  of  fattening  would  be  :  — 

2  parts  linseed  cake. 

i  part  Egyptian  cotton  cake. 
i     „     crushed  beans. 
i     ,,     crushed  oats. 

3  parts  cracked  maize. 

Little  molassine  or  other  condimental  food. 

The  amount  of  concentrated  food  to  allow  for  sheep 
fattening  on  roots  would  be  at  the  rate  of  about  i  Ib. 
per  100  Ibs.  live  weight.  It  takes  three  to  four  months 
to  fatten  average  sheep  off,  and  during  this  time  they 
should  give  a  weekly  increase  in  live  weight  of  2  to 
3  Ibs.  per  head  per  week. 

In  the  Newton  Rigg  experiments,  the  hoggs 
fattened  with  turnips  and  hay  alone  gave  an  average 
live  weight  increase  of  i^  Ibs.  per  week,  while  those 
receiving  about  \  Ib.  of  cake  and  corn  per  head  per  day 
gave  an  increase  of  2j  Ibs.  per  head  per  week.  The 
extra  cake  and  corn  very  nearly  doubled  the  rate  of 

Useful  Data  from  Feeding  Trials. 

The  following  particulars  have  been  calculated 
from  Mr  Bruce's  reports  on  the  three  years'  (1903-6) 
experiments  carried  out  by  the  Edinburgh  and  East 
of  Scotland  College  of  Agriculture.  These  results  are 
important,  seeing  that  a  large  number  of  sheep  were 
experimented  with  each  year,  and  the  experiments 
were  carried  out  in  accordance  with  ordinary  farm 
practice.  Their  value  is  therefore  considerably 



In  order  to  get  average  figures,  the  writer  selected 
the  four  best  lots  in  each  year,  and  as  the  number 
of  sheep  varied  from  year  to  year,  the  results  have 
been  calculated  per  100  sheep  each  year.  The  figures 
for  the  three  years  have  been  added  together,  and 
thus  apply  to  a  flock  of  300  sheep.  Roots  have  been 
charged  at  IDS.  per  ton  ;  hay,  £3  to  £3,  ics. ;  the  cake 
and  meals  at  market  prices  during  the  three  years. 

Average  Figures  for  Fattening  a  Flock  of  300  Sheep  on  Roots. 

For  300  Sheep. 

If  extended  "  at  same  rate  "  to 
slightly  longer  periods,  would  be 
for  300  Sheep. 

Duration   of  fattening 


9*  days 

IO5  days 

112  days 

Cake   and    meal    con- 


20,417  Ibs. 

22,806  Ibs. 

24,326  Ibs. 

Roots  consumed 

180  tons 

201  tons 

214  tons 

Cost  of  hay,  cake,  and 


^69,  45.  3d. 

/77,  6s.  2d. 

/82,  95..  3d. 

Cost     of     hay,     cake, 

meal,  and  roots 

^159,  45.  3d. 

^178,  os.  od. 

^189,  143.  3d. 

Live  weight  increase    . 

10,215  Ibs. 

11,411  Ibs. 

12,171  Ibs. 

Mutton  produced,  tak- 

ing 68  per  cent.*  in- 

crease to  be  carcass  . 

6,946  Ibs. 

7,759  Ibs. 

8,276  Ibs. 

Increase  in  "value"  of 


^170,  95.  od. 

^190,  8s.  od. 

/203,  os.  od. 

*  Lawes  and  Gilbert's  figure. 

The  following  average  deductions  can   therefore  be 
made : — 

Hoggs  can  be  fattened  off  on  roots  with  cake  and  hay  in 
thirteen  and  a  half  weeks  ;  2  Ibs.  concentrated  food  have 
given  i  Ib.  of  live  weight  increase.  Each  sheep  has 
consumed  12  cwts.  roots  during  the  average  fattening 
period  of  ninety-four  days,  or  14^  Ibs.  per  head  per  day. 
With  a  20-ton  crop,  this  is  equal  to  100  sheep  for  every 
3  acres  of  roots. 


[To  face  p.  256. 


Cost  of  hay,  cake,  and  meal  for  ninety-four  days  was  45.  7jd. 

per  sheep.     With  manurial   residue   taken    into  account, 

the  cost  would  be  35.  3d.  ;  *.*.,  70  per  cent,  gross  cost. 
Cost  of  hay,  cake,  meal  and  roots  for  ninety-four  days,  los.  7^d. 

per  sheep  (9^d.  per  head  per  week)  ;  with  manurial  residue 

taken  into  account,  75.  5jd.  (6^d.  per  week). 
Each  sheep  has  increased  in  live  weight  at  the  rate  of  2-53  Ibs. 

per  week  during  fattening. 
Cost  of  producing    14  Ibs.  live  weight  increase  was  52-376. 

„  „         100     „  „  „  315.  2d. 

„  „          112     „  „  „  343.  i  id. 

With  manurial  residue  taken  into  account,  these  figures  would 

be  35.  3^d.,  2 is.  9|d.,  and  245.  5jd.  respectively. 
Each  i  Ib.  of  mutton  has  cost  5^d.  to  produce. 
8  Ibs.       „  „         35.  8d.       „ 

14   „          „  „        6s.  5d.       „ 

The  sheep  increased  in  value  at  the  rate  of  lojd. 
per  head  per  week  during  the  time  they  were  being 
experimentally  fed,  but  one  must  bear  in  mind  they 
were  revalued  at  the  beginning  of  the  experimental 
period.  These  experiments  also  show  that  one  can 
purchase  store  sheep  at  approximately  the  same  price 
per  pound  as  one  expects  to  get  for  them  live  weight 
when  fattened.  The  store  price  has  varied  from  4d. 
to  4|d.  per  Ib.  live  weight,  and  the  sale  price  has 
come  out  exactly  the  same  in  1903-4,  and  less  than 
Jd.  per  Ib.  difference  in  the  other  two  years.  The  sheep 
weighed  9  to  10  stones  live  weight  when  fat. 

The  return  for  an  acre  (20  tons)  of  roots  consumed, 
after  paying  for  hay,  cake,  and  meal  at  market  price, 
comes  out,  on  an  average  of  the  three  years'  experi- 
ments1 with  the  four  best  lots,  at  £11,  is.  gross;  or 
with  the  manurial  value  of  the  cake  and  hay  taken 
into  account,  £12,  iSs.  4d.  per  acre. 

Some  farmers  consider  that  the  cost  of  shepherding 
1  Edinburgh  Agricultural  College. 





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for  the  winter  month  as  well  as  the  average  loss  are 
balanced  by  the  manurial  residue,  while  others  allow 
id.  to  2d.  per  head  per  week  for  the  shepherd's  wages, 
including  removal  of  hurdles,  troughs,  carting  hay,  etc. 
For  losses  by  deaths,  etc.,  fd.  to  id.  per  head  per  week 
is  charged.  These  figures  place  the  value  of  the 
manurial  residue  at  from  2d.  to  3d.  per  sheep  per  week, 
which  is  approximately  30  per  cent,  of  the  total  value 
put  on  the  food. 


The  preceding  table  (pp.  258-9)  gives  the  result  of 
the  carcass  competitions  at  Smithfield  Show  in  1913. 
As  column  I  was  given  in  hundredweights,  quarters, 
and  pounds,  and  column  2  in  Smithfield  stones,  it  was 
considered  advisable  to  calculate  them  both  to  pounds, 
so  that  the  relation  between  live  weight  and  dead 
weight  may  be  all  the  more  easily  followed.  Column  3 
was  then  calculated  to  show  the  proportion  of  carcass  to 
live  weight. 

The  breed  of  each  sheep  is  given,  but,  unfortunately, 
the  exact  age  is  not  available.  There  are,  no  doubt, 
practical  difficulties  in  recording  the  individual  ages 
of  sheep  which  are  kept  in  large  flocks,  especially  when 
they  are  intended  to  be  fed  off  as  early  as  possible 
for  mutton. 


The  pig  ought  to  occupy  a  more  prominent  position 
on  many  farms  than  it  does  at  present.  No  other  farm 
animal  will  give  so  large  a  return  for  the  food  consumed 
as  the  pig,  hence  it  has  been  called  the  "  most  economical 


meat-making  machine  at  the  farmer's  disposal."  It  is 
a  somewhat  despised  animal,  because  it  readily  accepts 
scraps  of  meat  from  the  house,  or,  in  some  cases,  the 
leavings  of  the  well-fed  bullock  ;  but  when  properly 
fed  and  housed  the  pig  supplies  the  finest  bacon,  which 
is  so  indispensable  on  the  English  breakfast  table. 

On  many  farms  there  are  so-called  "  bare  periods," 
when  there  is  little  to  sell.  If,  however,  pigs  are  kept, 
it  is  possible  to  arrange  matters  so  as  to  have  a  number 
of  porkers  or  bacon  pigs  to  sell  at  such  times,  which 
will  largely  overcome  this  difficulty. 

Pigs  also  come  in  very  handy  for  consuming  and 
turning  to  profitable  account  the  by-products  of  the 
dairy — skim  milk,  buttermilk,  whey,  house  wash,  etc. — as 
well  as  "  brown "  and  small  potatoes  from  the  farm 
which  have  little  commercial  value.  Tail  oats,  wheat, 
or  barley  can  also  be  very  profitably  utilised  for  pig- 

The  first  essential  for  winter  pig-feeding  is  a 
comfortable  house.  The  so-called  "  pig  cot "  is 
generally  cold,  wet,  and  dirty ;  in  fact,  a  most  unsatis- 
factory house  for  a  pig.  The  best  house  is  a  small 
horse-box,  which  is  warmer  and  much  cleaner  than  the 
pig  cot;  pigs  thrive  better  in  it,  and  the  box  when 
empty  can  be  utilised  for  all  classes  of  stock. 

The  economy  of  keeping  pigs  in  warm,  comfortable 
boxes  in  winter  is  well  emphasised  by  experiments 
conducted  by  Grisdale  at  the  Ottawa  Experiment  Station, 
with  pigs  weighing  on  an  average  about  70  Ibs.  live 
weight.  One  lot  was  kept  for  sixty  days  during  winter 
housed  in  ordinary  wooden  cabins,  while  the  other  lot 
was  kept  in  the  much  warmer  and  more  comfortable 
piggery  at  the  Experiment  Station.  Both  lots  of  pigs 
made  approximately  the  same  live  weight  increase,  but 


those  kept  in  the  wooden  cabins  required  526  Ibs.  of 
meals  to  produce  100  Ibs.  live  weight  increase,  while  those 
in  the  warmer  station  piggeries  required  only  366  Ibs. 
meals  to  produce  the  same  increase,  thus  effecting  a 
saving  of  44  per  cent,  on  the  food  consumed. 

With  brood  sows,  Grisdale  found  in  a  similar 
experiment  that  those  kept  in  the  wooden  cabins  during 
winter  required  25  per  cent,  more  food.  In  England 
the  same  thing  holds  good,  although  the  difference  may 
not  be  quite  so  great  as  in  Canada,  where  the  winter 
is  very  severe. 

Feeding  the  Brood  Sow. 

Sows  kept  for  breeding  purposes  should  be 
descended  from  a  strain  which  is  noted  for  being  good 
mothers  of  quiet  disposition,  and  for  having  litters  of  eight 
to  fourteen  piglings  of  uniform  size. 

The  sow  should  be  of  a  good  type,  which  means  that 
the  bones  of  legs  should  be  fine,  head  and  shoulders 
neat,  with  broad  back,  long  deep  sides,  and  heavy  hind 
quarters.  Care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  any  sows 
which  have  been  fed  largely  on  flesh  meat,  as  they  are 
apt  to  worry  their  piglings  at  farrowing  time. 

There  is  generally  a  good  demand  for  six-  to  ten- 
week-old  pigs  on  dairy  farms  about  May,  to  consume 
the  dairy  by-products,  and  on  arable  farms  there  is  a 
similar  demand  in  autumn  to  consume  "  brown "  and 
small  potatoes,  etc.  ;  hence  sows  should  if  possible  be 
timed  to  farrow  about  February  for  spring  demand,  and 
late  August  or  early  September  for  autumn  demand. 

For  two  or  three  weeks  after  the  sow  has  been 
weaned  from  her  litter,  continue  the  feeding  in  order 
to  allow  her  to  recover  from  the  severe  strain  of  nursing 
before  mating  her  again.  This  treatment  is  considered 


to  have  the  effect  of  increasing  the  size  and  evenness 
of  the  litter. 

During  pregnancy,  it  is  a  good  plan  to  give  the  sow  a 
run  where  she  can  get  plenty  of  fresh  air  and  exercise. 
An  open  shed  in  which  she  can  feed,  sleep,  and  find 
shelter  is  a  great  convenience.  The  food  would  vary 
somewhat  with  the  time  of  year,  but  during  first  half 
of  pregnancy  period  may  consist  of  house  wash  or  whey 
with  some  tail  oats  or  barley  meal  in  it.  If  necessary, 
some  roots  or  other  succulent  food  may  be  given. 

For  a  couple  of  months  before  farrowing,  the  sow 
should  receive  a  richer  diet,  in  order  to  secure  proper 
development  of  the  young,  and  for  this  purpose  some 
barley  meal,  ground  oats,  bran,  etc.,  may  be  added  to 
the  diet. 

About  a  week  before  farrowing,  "  guards "  should 
be  placed  round  the  usual  bed  of  the  sow,  about  7 
inches  high  and  7  inches  from  wall,  to  prevent  the  sow 
squeezing  her  piglings  to  death  against  the  wall.  The 
box  would  be  much  better  with  the  walls  lime-washed, 
and  the  floor  thoroughly  disinfected. 

Her  diet  should  be  somewhat  restricted,  and  bran 
mashes  given  according  to  the  necessities  of  the  case. 
The  bran  mashes  should  be  continued  for  a  day  or  two 
after  farrowing ;  after  that  they  should  be  gradually 
fortified  with  scalded  meals  (sharps,  maize,  or  barley 
meal,  etc.)  made  into  a  thin  slop  with  separated  milk, 
house  wash,  etc.,  and  fed  warm. 

Professor  Henry  states  that  a  sow  in  full  milk 
yields  about  3  quarts  milk  per  day,  and  during  the  whole 
suckling  period  something  like  50  galls.  Professor 
Davies  (Wisconsin)  estimates  that  one-third  of  the  food 
goes  to  support  the  body  of  a  milking  sow  and  two-thirds 
for  milk-production, 


The  sow  should  be  turned  into  the  field  or  other 
enclosure  periodically  to  get  fresh  air  and  exercise, 
eat  grass  or  other  succulent  foods,  and  any  earthy 
matter  which  nature  demands. 

After  nursing  the  piglings  for  six  weeks,  she 
should  be  taken  away  from  them  for  gradually 
increasing  periods  each  day,  and  weaned  from  them 
altogether  at  the  end  of  eight  weeks.  The  cost  of 
keeping  a  breeding  sow  for  a  year  varies  considerably, 
but  £6  may  be  taken  as  an  average  figure. 

Feeding  the  Piglings. 

Newly  born  piglings  average  about  2  Ibs.  live 
weight,  and  require  no  feeding  beyond  their  mother's 
milk  during  the  first  three  weeks.  If  the  piglings  have 
abnormally  long  teeth  at  birth  which  cut  the  sow's  teats, 
they  should  have  them  nipped  off  short  with  a  pair  of 
sharp  wire-cutters ;  otherwise  there  will  probably  be 
difficulty  in  rearing  them. 

At  three  to  four  weeks  of  age,  the  piglings  show  an 
inclination  to  eat,  and  should  then  receive  in  a  small 
trough  when  the  sow  is  out,  a  nice  thin  gruel  made  of 
scalded  sharps,  to  which  is  added,  after  cooling,  some 
new  cow's  milk,  and  fed  four  times  a  day.  The  amount 
of  gruel  given  should  be  gradually  increased  as  the 
piglings  grow  in  size.  A  little  bran  should  then  be 
added  to  the  sharps,  and  the  whole  cow's  milk 
gradually  substituted  with  skim  or  separated  milk. 
The  quantity  fed  each  time  should  never  exceed  what 
they  are  able  to  clean  up  immediately. 

In  summer  the  piglings  should  be  turned  out  into 
an  enclosure  to  exercise  their  muscles,  develop  their 
limbs,  and  pick  up  grass  as  well  as  earthy  matter,  which 
appears  to  be  necessary  to  keep  the  piglings  in  good 


health.  In  winter,  small  coals,  cinders,  or  a  grass  turf 
should  be  given  to  them  in  the  pig-box.  Precipitated 
chalk  to  the  extent  of  J  to  J  oz.  per  head  per  day, 
may  also  be  added  to  their  daily  food. 

The  piglings  grow  rapidly,  and  give  a  splendid 
return  for  food  consumed,  seeing  that  3  Ibs.  of  meal 
will  easily  give  i  Ib.  live  weight  increase.  Professor 
Davies  (Wisconsin)  found  by  weighing  piglings  at  6.30 
A.M.  and  6.30  P.M.,  that  71  per  cent,  of  the  increase  in 
live  weight  was  made  in  the  night,  and  only  29  per  cent, 
in  daytime. 

Although  good  breeding  is  important  with  pigs 
intended  for  fattening,  it  has  been  said  that  "  half  the 
breed  of  a  pig  goes  in  at  the  mouth,"  which  emphasises 
the  importance  of  the  care  required  in  fattening  pigs  off 
rapidly  and  economically. 

After  weaning,  the  meal  ration  should  be  gradually 
increased  both  in  quantity  and  variety,  but  maize  meal 
should  not  be  fed  too  freely  to  young  growing  pigs. 
Professor  Fuller  (Wisconsin)  proved  that  maize  alone 
was  not  a  suitable  food  by  itself  for  young  growing  pigs, 
on  account  of  its  lack  of  bone-forming  material.  He 
reared  two  lots,  one  with  maize  alone,  and  another 
with  a  mixture  of  maize  meal,  wheat  middlings,  and 
skim  milk.  The  pigs  fed  on  maize  alone  weighed  at 
end  of  this  experiment  84  to  103  Ibs.,  and  in  the  latter 
case  130  to  190  Ibs.  Further,  the  thigh  bones  of  the 
mixed  meal  and  skim  milk  lot  were  50  per  cent, 
stronger  than  those  fed  on  maize  alone. 

If  fed  at  all,  maize  meal  should  be  fed  in  conjunction 
with  foods  which  are  both  rich  in  albuminoids  and 
mineral  constituents,  such  as  pea  and  bean  meal. 

The  piglings  may  either  be  fed  off  at  once  for  pork, 
or  run  on  cheaply  for  a  time  and  fed  off  later  for  bacon. 


Store  Pigs. 

The  system  of  allowing  newly  weaned  pigs  to  "  run 
on "  is  still  practised  to  a  large  extent.  The  idea  is, 
very  largely,  to  feed  them  as  cheaply  as  possible  on  a 
ration  that  will  allow  them  to  develop  their  muscles 
and  grow  bigger  frames  without  fattening,  so  that  at 
three,  four,  or  five  months  old  they  may  be  either 
housed  and  fed  off  quickly  for  bacon  by  the  breeder, 
or  sold  to  farmers,  managers  of  creameries,  cheese 
factories,  etc.,  who  have  dairy  by-products  at  their 
disposal  which  can  be  utilised  for  this  purpose. 

The  foods  which  are  generally  available  for  these 
stores  in  summer  are  grass,  cabbages,  clover,  lucerne, 
and  other  green  foods.  In  autumn  they  will  pick  up 
acorns,  apples,  etc. ;  but  some  meal,  along  with  house 
wash,  whey,  etc.,  should  also  be  given  daily.  This 
system  of  feeding  stores  allows  the  pigs  considerable 
freedom,  and  it  is  good  policy  to  give  most  of  the 
meal  stirred  into  house  wash,  etc.,  at  the  end  of  the 
day,  so  as  to  train  them  to  come  home  at  night.  The 
meals  should  simply  be  stirred  into  the  liquid  and  given 
without  any  previous  scalding  at  all. 

In  the  winter  there  is  generally  on  arable  and 
mixed  farms  a  plentiful  supply  of  roots,  e.g.,  mangels, 
swedes,  kohl  rabi,  potatoes,  and  tail  corn,  etc.  The 
roots  are  best  pulped,  and  the  grain  bruised.  In  cold 
weather,  at  any  rate,  the  slop  is  best  fed  warm,  otherwise 
some  of  the  food  is  wasted  in  raising  the  temperature 
of  the  food  up  to  body  temperature.  This  may  be 
done  either  by  mashing  the  newly  boiled  potatoes  up 
with  the  meals  and  feeding  at  once,  or  by  adding  water 
which  is  sufficiently  warm  to  bring  the  mixture  to  body 



Where  accommodation  permits,  it  is  a  good  plan  to 
breed  own  pigs  so  as  to  obtain  them  at  cost  price. 
Piglings  should  not  be  allowed  to  lose  their  pigling 
flesh,  but  fattened  off  as  quickly  as  possible. 

During  recent  years  the  demand  for  heavy  scaling 
pigs  has  largely  declined,  and,  generally  speaking,  only 
those  pigs  which  do  not  exceed  150  Ibs.  dressed  weight 
are  keenly  sought  after.  Above  this  weight  the  price 
per  stone  diminishes  in  proportion  to  the  amount  by 
which  the  above  weight  is  exceeded. 

Early  Maturity. — The  smaller  carcasses  generally 
contain  a  larger  proportion  of  lean  meat,  which  is  at 
the  same  time  more  juicy,  and  commands  the  top  price 
when  sold.  Further,  the  increase  obtained  from  a 
given  weight  of  food  is  greater  in  the  earlier  stages  of 
a  pig's  life  than  is  the  case  when  it  is  mature.  The 
advantages  consequently  lie  on  the  side  of  early 

The  following  table  gives  the  results  obtained  in 
Denmark  (Copenhagen)  from  pigs  which  were  fattened 
off  at  different  ages  : — 

Size  of  Pig. 
Live  Weight. 

Up    to    35  Ibs. 

35    „     75    „ 
75    »   ri5    » 
115    »   155    » 

*  Meal  Equivalent 
to  give  1  Ib. 

.     3       Ibs. 

.   376  „ 

•     4-35   » 
•     4-45   » 

Size  of  Pig. 

Live  Weight. 
155  to  195  Ibs. 
195  „  235    „ 
235  „  275    „ 
275  „  315    „ 

*  Meal  Equivalent, 
to  give  1  Ib. 

.     4-66  Ibs. 
•     5-40    „ 
.     6-14    „ 
•     6-39    „ 

*  The  "meal  equivalent"  is  obtained  by  taking  6  Ibs.  separated  milk,  12  Ibs. 
whey,  or  4  Ibs.  boiled  potatoes  as  being  equal  to  1  Ib.  meal. 

These    figures   show   that   pigs  over   200   Ibs.    live 

weight  required  double  the  amount  of  food  to  give  the 

same  unit  increase  in    live  weight  as  those  which  are 
under  35  Ibs.  live  weight. 



Pork  Production. 

Here  it  is  important  to  get  thick,  well-made  pigs 
with  large,  well-developed  hind  quarters.  The  selected 
breed  should  also  be  one  that  will  grow  and  fatten  at 
the  same  time,  e.g.,  Middle  White  Yorkshire,  or  crosses 
between  Middle  White  and  Berkshire  or  Large  White 
Yorkshire  and  Berkshire.  The  white  boar  used  should 
be  well  bred,  so  as  to  impress  his  white  colour  on  the 
offspring  as  far  as  possible. 

The  weaned  pigs  should  be  fed  three  or  four  times 
a  day  on  bran  and  sharps  mixed  with  skim  milk.  At 
about  three  months  old  one  of  the  rations  on  p.  284 
may  be  given  at  the  rate  of  I  to  2  Ibs.  meal  per  100 
Ibs.  live  weight.  The  food  should  be  made  into  a  thin 
slop  during  the  early  stages  of  fattening,  but  the 
amount  of -added  liquid  should  be  gradually  diminished 
as  fattening  proceeds  (see  table  below). 

Professor  Henry  holds  that  if  more  than  I  gall,  of 
separated  milk  is  given  to  every  3^  Ibs.  meal,  the  results 
become  much  less  satisfactory  as  the  proportion  of  the 
liquid  is  increased. 

In  Denmark  the  fattening  period  is  divided  into  four 
stages  according  to  live  weight,  and  the  ration  for  each  of 
these  stages  is  stated  in  its  meal  equivalent ;  i.e.,  6  Ibs.  of 
separated  milk  is  equal  to  I  Ib.  meal,  and  so  on.  E.g. — 



Boots  or 
Green  Food. 

I.  Up    to    40    Ibs.    live 

weight.     Ration 
II.  40    to    60     Ibs.     live 

30  per  cent. 

70  per  cent. 


weight.     Ration 

25       ,, 

70       „ 

5  per  cent. 

III.  60    to     120    Ibs.    live 

weight.     Ration 

15       » 


10       » 

IV.  120    to   200    Ibs.  live 

weight.     Ration 


83       „ 

5      „ 


This  means,  so  far  as  the  separated  milk  and  meals 
are  concerned,  that — 

Up  to  ten  weeks  old,  the  meal  is  mixed  at  the  rate  of  4  Ibs.  to 

i  gall,  skim  milk. 
Ten  to  sixteen  weeks  old,  the  meal  is  mixed  at  the  rate  of  5  Ibs.  to 

i  gall,  skim  milk. 
Sixteen  to  twenty-four  weeks  old,  the  meal  is  mixed  at  the  rate  of 

8  Ibs.  to  i  gall,  skim  milk. 
Twenty-four  to  thirty-six   weeks   old,  the  meal  is  mixed  at   the 

rate  of  6  Ibs.  to  |  gall,  skim  milk. 

In  this  case  the  food  is  prepared  a  day  ahead,  and  the 
meal  consists  of  barley,  maize,  ground  oats,  and  sharps. 
Pigs  up  to  60  Ibs.  live  weight  get  charcoal,  and  when 
necessary  for  the  bowels,  a  little  cod-liver  oil.  The 
various  green  crops,  including  roots,  should  be  fed  to 
the  pigs,  if  available,  in  the  earlier  stages  of  fattening, 
but  this  should  be  gradually  reduced  as  fattening 

On  the  London  market  the  small  porkers  at  four 
to  five  months  old,  and  weighing  60  to  70  Ibs.  dressed 
weight,  meet  a  ready  sale  and  fetch  the  highest  price 
per  stone.  In  the  North  of  England  the  demand  is 
for  a  larger  pig,  scaling  140  to  150  Ibs.  dressed  weight. 
This  weight  can  easily  be  obtained  by  the  time  the 
pig  is  seven  months  old. 

Bacon  Pigs. 

The  term  "  bacon  pig  "  is  generally  applied  to  those 
which  are  sold  off  fat,  as  soon  as  they  have  attained  a 
minimum  live  weight  of  2  cwts.,  or,  say,  150  to  160  Ibs. 
dressed  carcass.  For  bacon  it  is  not  so  important  to 
have  short,  thick  pigs  with  well-developed  joints,  but 
what  is  required  is  a  big-framed  body  with  long  and 


deep  sides,  so  as  to  give  as  large  sides  of  bacon 
as  possible,  containing  a  good  proportion  of  lean 
meat.  Store  pigs  intended  for  bacon  may  be  reared 
or  bought. 

Breeding  Stores. — The  pigs  which  were  reared  on 
the  farm  would,  no  doubt,  be  weaned  about  eight  weeks 
old,  and  be  left  out  in  the  field  during  the  summer 
months,  provided  they  had  a  shed  in  which  to 
eat  and  sleep.  In  the  field  they  would  get  plenty  of 
green,  succulent  food  (grass),  and  with  a  morning  and 
evening  ration  of,  say,  I  to  i  J  Ibs.  meals  allowed  each 
time,  stirred  into  some  skim  milk,  whey,  house  wash, 
etc.,  they  would  grow  big  frames  and  develop  their 

At  three  to  four  months  of  age,  the  pigs  should  be 
put  up  to  fatten,  and  be  fed  with  some  succulent  foods 
such  as  pulped  potatoes,  swedes,  mangels,  green  vetches 
or  clover,  cut  cabbages,  etc.,  depending  on  time  of  year, 
in  addition  to  skim  milk,  whey  or  buttermilk,  and  meals. 
The  food  should  be  fed  warm  (say  90°  F.)  during  the 
fattening  period,  otherwise  part  of  the  food  has  to  be 
utilised  to  raise  the  food  to  the  temperature  of  the 
body,  leaving  a  smaller  surplus  for  the  formation  of 
flesh,  fat,  etc. 

As  fattening  proceeds,  the  green  or  succulent  part 
of  the  ration  given  each  day  should  be  gradually 
reduced,  and  scarcely  included  in  the  ration  at  all  during 
the  last  three  or  four  weeks  of  the  fattening  period. 
The  meals,  which  probably  constitute  a  third  part  by 
weight  of  the  roots  or  succulent  food  given,  need  to  be 
gradually  increased.  At  the  same  time,  the  amount  of 
liquid  added  to  meals  to  make  them  sloppy  should  be 
gradually  reduced  in  quantity,  from  I  gall,  to,  say,  J 
gall,  per  head  per  day.  Too  many  roots  or  boiled 


potatoes  make  the  flesh  lacking  in  firmness,  and  the 
proportion -of  fat  to  lean  meat  too  high.  The  liquid 
part  of  ration  should  gradually  be  reduced  so  as  to  get 
the  increase  of  a  much  drier  nature  before  the  animal 
is  killed.  After  two  to  three  months  of  fattening  (say, 
six  months  old)  the  pig  will  be  150  Ibs.  to  170  Ibs. 
carcass  weight. 

In  Wiltshire,  J  gall,  of  raw  linseed  oil  per  day  is 
added  for  every  sixty-four  pigs,  in  the  food,  in  order 
to  keep  their  bowels  in  order. 

In  Berkshire  it  is  a  common  practice  to  sour  the 
food  (i.e.  soak  it  for  a  few  hours  until  it  begins  to 
ferment)  before  feeding  to  the  pigs,  the  idea  being  that 
the  pigs  fatten  better  and  are  less  liable  to  suffer  from 

Buying  Stores. — In  Wiltshire,  store  pigs  are  usually 
bought  when  they  are  about  four  months  old,  or  a  live 
weight  of  90  to  140  Ibs.  These  are  fed  for  seven  to 
fourteen  weeks  on  such  a  ration  as  separated  milk, 
barley  meal,  and  boiled  potatoes,  and  killed  off  fat  at 
a  live  weight  of  133  to  236  Ibs.  These  may  increase 
in  live  weight  at  the  rate  of  2  Ibs.  or  over  per  head 
per  day. 

In  "  winter  "  the  roots  given  will  consist  of  boiled 
potatoes,  pulped  mangels,  swedes,  or  turnips,  and 
chopped  cabbages ;  while  in  "  summer "  the  succulent 
food  will  be  derived  from  grass,  green  vetches,  and 
other  forage  crops.  Both  in  summer  and  winter 
economy  should  be  studied,  and  any  by-products  made 
use  of.  There  are  many  foods  on  a  farm  which  are 
most  useful  for  fattening  purposes,  although  their 
market  value  is  not  high — e.g.,  "  tail "  corn  (cereal  grains), 
small  and  brown  potatoes,  green  forage  crops,  skim 
milk,  buttermilk,  house  wash,  and  whey. 



It  will  now  be  interesting  to  examine  any  experi- 
mental evidence  there  is  available,  with  regard  to  the 
suitability  or  value  of  various  foods  for  fattening  of 
pigs  for  the  production  of  bacon. 

(a)  Liquids. 

Separated  Milk  v.  Whey. — Kellner  gave  the  com- 
parative values  of  these  two  foods  as  8  to  6 — i.e.,  the 
value  of  the  former  was  one  and  one-third  times  as 
great  as  the  latter. 

In  the  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College 
experiments  at  Kilmarnock  (1905-8),  the  relative 
values  came  out  as  8J  to  6,  which  come  very  near 
Kellner's  figures. 

The  Danish  standard  for  these  two  liquids  gives 
separated  milk  double  the  value  of  whey  for  fattening 
purposes  (i.e.  6  Ibs.  skim  milk,  or  12  Ibs.  whey  are  equal 
to  i  Ib.  meal).  This  difference  is  most  likely  due  to 
the  fact  that  in  the  Kilmarnock  experiments  skim 
milk  and  whey  were  fed  in  approximately  equal 
quantities  per  head  per  day,  whereas  in  Denmark 
only  half  the  quantity  of  skim  milk  is  given  as  com- 
pared with  whey.  Few  pig-feeders  would  be  able  to 
make  an  average  daily  allowance  of  4  galls,  separated 
milk  per  head,  as  half  of  this  is  generally  considered 
liberal ;  consequently  the  Danish  figure  had  better  be 
adhered  to  in  this  case  for  skim  milk,  viz.,  that  it  is 
double  the  value  of  whey.  At  the  Central  Experimental 
Farm,  Ottawa,  6  Ibs.  separated  milk  was  found  to  be 
equivalent  to  I  Ib.  meal,  which  confirms  the  Danish 


[Photo  by  Miss  Birrdl,  Edinburgh. 
A.  Young  Pigs  of  Large  White  Breed  coming  on  well  for  Early  Pork. 

[Photo  by  Mr  Eldred  Walker. 
B.  Gloucester  Old  Spot  Breed. 

This  breed  is  now  being  revived,  and  the  new  Society  has  just  issued  its  first 
volume  of  the  Herd  Book.  The  breed  has  already  gained  world-wide  fame. 
Mr  Eldred  Walker,  Chew  Stoke,  Bristol,  is  the  Hon.  Secretary. 

[To  face  p.  273. 



The  equivalent  of  whey  in  terms  of  barley  meal,  in 
the  Kilmarnock  experiments,  gives  the  figure  13  Ibs. 
whey  (ij  galls.)  as  being  equal  to  i  Ib.  meal.  The 
Danish  equivalent  for  whey  is  12  Ibs.,  hence  they  agree 
very  closely. 

Separated  Milk  and  Meals.— In  the  Wilts  County 
Council  experiments  the  object  was  to  find  the  most 
suitable  food  for  producing  the  finest  bacon.  In  order 
to  facilitate  comparison,  the  "  meal  equivalents " l  of 
the  various  rations  are  given,  which  show  the  amount 
of  food  required  to  give  unit  increase : — 

Barley  Meal  Lot. 

Maize  Meal  Lot. 














Barley  alone  or  maize  alone   .         . 





,,       or  maize  +  cooked  potatoes  . 





,,              „       +  separated  milk    . 





„              ,,       +  separated  milk  + 

cooked  potatoes 





The  above  table  shows  that,  with  a  mixture  of 
barley  or  maize  meal  with  either  cooked  potatoes  or 
separated  milk,  less  food  is  required  to  give  unit  increase 
in  live  weight  than  was  the  case'with  meal  alone.  In 
the  case  of  the  lot  of  pigs  receiving  barley  meal, 
separated  milk,  and  cooked  potatoes,  a  "  meal  equivalent " 
of  3-93  Ibs.  gave  unit  increase  (i  Ib.).  When,  however, 
maize  was  used  in  place  of  barley  meal,  3-76  Ibs.  meal  or 
its  equivalent  gave  the  same  result. 

Barley  meal  and  cooked  potatoes  gave  better  results 
than  barley  meal  and  separated  milk,  while  with  maize 

See  p.  115. 



meal  the  reverse  was  the  case,  possibly  due  to  the 
potatoes  depressing  the  digestibility  of  the  maize. 

Danish  experiments  have  shown  again  and  again 
that  for  bacon  production,  skim  milk,  cooked  potatoes, 
and  meals  give  excellent  results. 

Whey  and  Meals. — Much  light  has  been  shed  on 
this  point  by  the  Kilmarnock  experiments,  the  results 
of  which  are  given  in  the  following  table  : — 

Meal  Equivalent  to  give 
1  Ib.  Increase  in  Live 








4  .jo 

and  maize  meal      



and  barley  meal      .     •    . 



and  nnize  meal  (ist  period  of  fattening) 


maize,  and  barley  meal  (2nd  period  of 

•    4-59 


and  barley  meal  (3rd  period  of  fattening) 


and  barley  meal  (ist  period)  . 


barley,  and  maize  meal  (2nd  period) 

I    4-32 


and  maize  meal  (3rd  period)  . 


This  shows  that  whey  and  maize  meal  give  a  useful 
combination  of  foods  so  far  as  live  weight  increase  is 

Barley  and  maize  meals  with  whey  have  given  very 
good  results.  When  increase  alone  is  taken  into 
account,  it  appears  best  to  commence  with  barley  meal 
and  gradually  substitute  it  with  maize  meal.  The  chief 
drawback  is,  the  maize  tends  to  give  a  yellowish 
coloured  flesh. 

In  1909  and  1910,  mixtures  of  barley  meal  with 
maize,  and  barley  meal  with  rice  meal,  were  both  fed 



with  whey,  when  the  following  meal  equivalents  were 
required  to  produce  I  Ib.  live  weight  increase  : — 





Whey,  barley 

meal,  and  maize  meal 
,,               rice  meal 



In  1909,  barley  meal  and  maize  meal  gave  very  much 
better  results,  but  in  1910  there  was  little  difference. 

It  was  found  possible  to  increase  the  live  weight  of  the 
pigs  from  100  to  210  Ibs.  in  nine  to  ten  weeks  by  feeding 
with  separated  milk  and  barley  meal.  When  the  ration 
was  whey  and  maize  meal,  it  required  eleven  weeks  to  pro- 
duce the  same  increase.  The  proportion  of  maize  to  whey 
which  gave  best  results  was  2  Ibs.  meal  to  2  J  galls,  whey. 

(6)  Root  Crops. 

Mangels  and  Meals. —  In  the  Wiltshire  County 
Council  experiments  the  following  results  were  ob- 
tained, and  have  been  calculated  to  the  meal  equiva- 
lents required  for  I  Ib.  live  weight  increase : — 


Meal  Equivalent  to  give  1  Ib. 

Dressed  Weight. 

Live  Weight. 

Maize  and  beans 
,,        beans,  and  mangels 




and  peas 
peas,  and  mangels 



4-1  1 

and  oats 
oats,  and  mangels 



and  mangels   . 
and  potatoes   . 





Live  weight  increase  was  produced  with  a  lower 
meal  equivalent  when  mangels  were  fed  with  either 
maize  and  beans,  or  maize  and  oats.  With  maize 
and  peas  the  reverse  was  the  case.  With  maize 
meal  alone,  mangels  did  not  produce  live  weight 
increase  with  so  low  a  meal  equivalent  as  was  the  case 
with  cooked  potatoes. 

Cooked  v.  Raw  Potatoes. — Experiments  carried 
out  during  recent  years  have  had  the  effect  of  causing 
some  feeders  to  discontinue  the  practice  of  cooking 
foods  for  pigs.  A  common  opinion  at  the  present  time 
is,  that  potatoes  are  practically  the  only  food  generally 
used  for  pigs,  that  should  be  cooked. 

Professor  Brynner  Jones,  in  his  third  Annual  Report 
(1907-8),  gives  the  results  of  an  interesting  experiment 
to  determine  the  relative  value  of  raw  and  cooked 
potatoes.  The  average  daily  ration  consisted  of  2f  Ibs. 
potatoes,  2  Ibs.  mixed  barley  and  maize  meals,  "  the 
food  being  given  cold,"  along  with  sufficient  water  to 
make  it  of  suitable  consistency :  the  total  live  weight 
increases  were  as  follows  : — 


Raw  (Pulped) 

1st  experiment  —  five 
2nd         „ 

Total  live 

pigs  fed  for  eight  weeks 
„       six 

weight  increases  . 






The  lot  receiving  cooked  (boiled)  potatoes  gave 
50  Ibs.  greater  live  weight  increase,  but  the  value  of 
this  increase  is  largely  swallowed  up  in  the  cost  of 
cooking  potatoes.  It  should  be  noticed  that  the  food 


was  given  "  cold."  Curiously  enough,  Mr  Stevenson  in 
the  Kilmarnock  experiments  got  better  results  with 
raw  than  cooked  potatoes  when  fed  along  with  an 
average  daily  ration  of  2§  galls,  whey,  2-^-  Ibs.  maize 
and  barley  meals,  and  2§  Ibs.  potatoes.  In  the  case  of 
raw  potatoes  a  meal  equivalent  of  3-75  Ibs.  was  required 
to  give  unit  increase  in  live  weight,  while  with  cooked 
potatoes  a  meal  equivalent  of  4-16  Ibs.  was  required  to 
give  the  same  increase. 

Professor  Henry  (Wisconsin)  found,  with  a  ration 
where  the  proportion  of  maize  to  potatoes  was  as  1:3, 
that  4-42  Ibs.  cooked  potatoes  were  equal  to  I  Ib.  maize 
meal ;  while  in  Denmark,  Fjord  of  Copenhagen  showed 
that  4  Ibs.  cooked  potatoes  were  equal  to  I  Ib.  meal. 
The  Danish  standard  gives  a  higher  value  to  cooked 
than  raw  potatoes.  According  to  their  standard,  I  Ib. 
of  cooked  potatoes  is  equal  to  ij  Ibs.  raw  potatoes. 

Professor  Brynner  Jones  had  the  cooked  potatoes 
fed  "  cold  "  in  the  above  experiments,  and  it  is  possible 
that  the  good  results  attributed  to  cooking  potatoes 
are  largely  due  to  the  practice  of  mashing  the  cooked 
potatoes  up  with  meals,  and  feeding  the  mixture 
"  warm,"  in  the  form  of  a  moderately  thin  slop  or  gruel. 

At  Kilmarnock,  Mr  Stevenson  shows  that  food  fed 
warm  gives  a  larger  live  weight  increase  than  food  fed 
cold.  Pigs  receiving  whey  and  Paisley  flour  required 
the  following  "  meal  equivalents "  to  give  I  Ib.  live 
weight  increase : — 

How  Fed. 

Meal  Equivalent  to  give  1  Ib. 
Increase  in  Live  Weight. 

Warm          .... 




Winter  v.  Summer  Fattening. — In  1894  the  Copen- 
hagen Experiment  Station  published  a  Report  (No.  30) 
of  199  feeding  trials  with  2500  pigs,  part  of  which 
number  had  been  fed  in  summer  and  part  in  winter. 
The  ordinary  rations  were  fed,  viz.,  separated  milk, 
whey,  roots,  and  meals,  and  these  have  been  reduced 
to  their  meal  equivalent :— 

Live  Weight  in  Pounds  of  Pigs. 

Meal  Equivalent  to  give  1  Ib. 
Increase  in  Live  Weight. 



35  to    75  Ibs  
75  „  U5    ,,     

115     M     155        11          

Average  meal  equivalent  to  give  I  Ib. 
live  weight  increase 





|      4-00 


These  results  indicate  that  J  Ib.  less  meal  is  required 
on  an  average  to  produce  unit  live  weight  increase  in 
summer  than  winter,  hence  it  is  more  economical  to 
fatten  pigs  in  summer. 

(c)  Pig  Meals. 

Barley  meal  and  maize  meal  are  very  common 
constituents  of  pig  meals,  consequently  the  following 
table  has  been  calculated  from  Mr  Corbett's  1898 
Report  of  the  Wiltshire  Experiments.  The  table  shows 
what  combinations  from  other  sources  were  employed 
with  barley  and  maize  meals  respectively,  and  with 
what  results.  The  meal  equivalent  for  the  whole 
ration  has  been  calculated  on  the  Danish  system  (see 
p.  115).  The  results  are  as  follows  : — 



.Foods  given  along  with  Maize  or 
Barley  Meals. 

Meal  Equivalent  to  give  1  Ib.  Increase. 

Maize  Meal  Lot. 

Barley  Meal  Lot. 






Separated  milk  and  cooked  potatoes 
Separated  milk        .... 
Bean  meal  and  mangels 



4-1  1 











Pea  meal         
None  (maize  or  barley  meal  alone) 
Pea  meal  and  mangels   . 
Cotton  cake  and  treacle  . 

•  S-78 

Cooked  potatoes     .... 
Ground  oats  and  mangels 

Maize  germ    

The  above  figures  show  that  maize  meal  has  given 
better  results  than  barley  meal,  except  in  cases  where 
these  foods  were  fed  with  cooked  potatoes  only,  when 
barley  meal  did  much  better  than  maize  meal.  This 
conclusion  is  supported  by  the  Kilmarnock  experiments. 

In  both  cases  the  results  show  that  for  bacon  pro- 
duction, both  maize  and.  barley  meals  are  improved 
when  blended  with  foods  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids, 
but  at  the  same  time  poor  in  oil  and  low  in  fibre. 

Foods  and  Quality  of  Bacon. 

The  flesh  of  the  fat  pig  intended  for  bacon  should 
be  firm  in  all  parts,  with  a  good  proportion  of  lean 
meat  to  fat  in  the  carcass.  The  fat  should  also  be  a 
clear  white  colour.  The  flesh  of  the  pig  is  naturally 
rather  soft  (cattle  and  sheep  just  the  opposite),  hence 
foods  are  required  which  are  poor  in  oil  and  rich  in 


carbohydrates,  e.g.,  barley  meal,  pea  and  bean  meal,  etc. 
Kellner  found  that  pigs  kept  in  cold  surroundings 
produce  an  oily  fat,  while  a  firmer  fat  was  produced 
when  pigs  were  kept  warmer.  A  warm,  comfortable 
box  is  therefore  a  very  important  point. 

Soft  Bacon  may  be  produced  by  feeding  large 
quantities  of  roots  or  other  green  foods  during  the  later 
stages  of  fattening.  These  make  the  proportion  of  fat 
to  lean  too  large,  and  at  the  same  time  give  a  soft  flesh. 

Generally  speaking,  concentrated  foods  containing 
5  per  cent,  or  over  of  fat  give  a  soft  bacon  when  they 
are  fed  alone  to  pigs.  A  very  common  example  is 
maize  meal,  which  gives  a  soft,  yellowish  fat.  Professor 
Henry  states  that  the  lard  of  pigs  fed  on  maize  may 
contain  92  per  cent,  olein  (liquid  fat),  while  that  from 
similar  pigs  fed  on  ground  oats,  pea  and  barley  meals, 
may  only  contain  67  per  cent,  olein.  Maize  meal, 
however,  gives  rapid  increases  in  live  weight,  and 
where  the  purchaser  is  unwilling  to  give  more  per 
pound  for  high  quality  bacon,  its  use  will  naturally  be 
continued  for  bacon  production. 

Other  pig-foods  fairly  rich  in  oil,  are  linseed  cake, 
rice  meal,  wheat  bran,  brewers'  grains,  distillery  waste, 
oatmeal,  fish,  etc.  These  should  not  usually  constitute 
more  than  a  quarter  to  a  third  of  the  total  meals  fed, 
the  remainder  consisting  of  meals  which  are  low  in  oil. 

Soft  bacon  may  also  be  caused  by  keeping  the  pigs 
short  of  exercise,  marketing  them  before  they  are 
finished,  too  long  after  finishing,  or  by  undue  forcing. 

The  Wiltshire  experiments  showed  that  cooked 
potatoes  and  maize  meal  decreased  the  proportion  of 
best  pigs.  Neither  in  the  Wiltshire  nor  Kilmarnock 
experiments  did  maize  alone  give  such  a  high  propor- 
tion of  best  pigs  as  barley  meal. 


[Photo  ly  Sport  &  General. 

A.  Middle  White  Berkshire  Cross-bred  Pigs — First  and  Champion  at 
Smithfield  Show.     Owned  by  Mr  A.  Hiscock,  Motcombe,  Shaftesbury,  Dorset. 

B.  Relative  Prices  of  different  cuts  of  Fat  Pig. 

[To  face  p.  281. 


Firm  Bacon.  —  Roots  and  green  foods  should  be 
gradually  reduced  in  the  later  stages  of  fattening  ;  in 
fact,  they  may  be  discontinued  altogether  during  the 
last  two  or  three  weeks  of  the  fattening  period.  The 
liquid  portion  of  ration  should  also  be  gradually  reduced, 
until  the  meals  in  it  make  it  quite  a  thick  slop  by  the 
end  of  the  fattening  period.  This  method  appears  to 
rid  the  tissues  of  excess  of  water  before  the  animal  is 
killed,  thus  giving  a  firmer  bacon. 

Firm  bacon  is  produced  by  those  concentrated  foods 
which  are  poor  in  fat  and  fairly  rich  in  albuminoids  ; 
e.g.,  barley  meal,  skim  milk,  pea  meal,  bean  meal, 
etc.  Pea  meal  and  bean  meal  are  rich  in  albumin- 
oids, and  if  fed  in  excess  of  3  or  4  Ibs.  per  head 
per  day,  would  probably  produce  flesh  which  was  too 
firm.  Barley  meal  and  bran  gave  the  best  quality  of 
carcass  in  the  Wiltshire  experiments. 

Tainted  Bacon.  —  Distillery  refuse  gives  a  watery,  soft 
flesh  which  glistens  when  cut.  It  becomes  tainted,  and 
soon  goes  bad.  Kitchen  scraps  may  make  the  fat  too  oily. 
Fish-fed  pigs  yield  a  flesh  which  tastes  distinctly  fishy. 

Grading  Carcasses.  —  The  following  gives  the  method 
of  classifying  dressed  carcasses  of  pigs  adopted  by 
Messrs  Harris  &  Co.  in  the  Wiltshire  bacon  trade  :  — 

Dressed  Weight. 

A.  Highest  price     .     130  Ibs.  to  190  Ibs.     .     under  2^  ins. 

B.  Second  price      .     190  Ibs.  to  210  Ibs.     .     under  2^  ins. 

C.  Third  price        .     210  Ibs.  to  230  Ibs.     .     under  2f  ins. 

D.  Fourth  price      .    over  230  Ibs.  .     under  3  ins. 
Soft  pigs  and  small  pigs  have  deductions  from  scale  prices. 

Dressed  Weight.  —  Includes  everything  but  intestines, 
sweetbread,  kidneys,  spleen,  liver,  heart,  skirt,  and 
lungs.  (The  feet,  head,  brain,  tongue,  and  fleck  are 
included.)  Shrinkage  allowed  =  2  Ibs.  per  pig. 



Whole  Grain  v.  Meals. — Experiments  show  that,  for 
fattening  purposes,  grain  fed  in  the  meal  form  gives 
better  results  than  the  whole  grain.  E.g.,  trials  at 
Wisconsin  (America)  showed  that  it  required  5-01  Ibs. 
maize  and  sharps  to  produce  I  Ib.  live  weight  increase, 
while  with  maize  "meal"  and  sharps  only  4-71  Ibs. 
were  required — a  saving  of  6  per  cent. 

Rommel  (America)  has  calculated  the  results  of 
nine  trials,  at  five  stations,  and  the  average  amount  of 
whole  grain  (peas,  wheat,  rye,  oats,  and  barley)  to  give 
i  Ib.  live  weight  increase  was  4-73  Ibs.  When  these 
were  ground  to  a  meal,  4- 1 5  Ibs.  gave  the  same  result 
—a  saving  of  12  per  cent. 


Where  separated  milk  and  small  potatoes  are 
available,  the  ration  for  a  pig  would,  no  doubt,  consist 
of  these  two  foods  along  with  suitable  meals.  The 
quantities  required  per  pig  would  depend  to  a  large 
extent  on  its  size  and  age,  as  represented  in  the 
following  table : — 

Typical  Daily  Ration  for  a  Pig  from  Six  Weeks  Old  to 
Twenty-Eight  Weeks  when  Fat. 


per  day. 

Milk  per  day. 


Approximate  Live  Weight 
at  end  of  each  Period. 






6  to    8 





8          12 



ito  i 


12          16 



i  ii  3 


16       20 





20         24 





24         26 





26         28 






At  this  rate  a  pig  would  have  consumed  by  the  time 
it  is  twenty-eight  weeks  old — 

444  Ibs.  meals. 

112  galls,  separated  milk. 

287  Ibs.  potatoes. 

Typical  Meal  Mixtures.1 — The  meal  mixtures  fed  to 
pigs  should  not  be  so  rich  in  albuminoids  and  oil  as 
the  concentrated  foods  given  to  fattening  cattle  or 
sheep  (ruminants),  seeing  that  bulky  fibrous  foods  (hay 
and  straw)  are  not  included  in  a  pig's  ration ;  in  fact, 
pigs  have  only  a  very  limited  capacity  for  digesting 
foods  high  in  fibre.  Much  less  labour  is,  therefore, 
required  to  masticate  and  deal  with  the  food  as  it 
passes  through  the  food  canal  of  the  pig. 

Another  point  to  bear  in  mind  is  that  the  fat  in 
the  carcass  of  a  pig  is  naturally  rather  soft,  con- 
sequently the  meal  mixtures  fed  should  be  low  in  oil, 
so  as  to  give  a  less  oily  and  therefore  firmer  meat. 

Skim  milk  has  a  costive,  and  whey  a  laxative 
tendency ;  hence  the  meal  mixture  fed  with  skim  milk 
should  have  a  slightly  laxative  tendency,  and  that  fed 
with  whey  a  costive  or  binding  tendency. 

The  following  "  standard  "  for  the  meal  mixture  will 
then  be  found  very  suitable  : — 

Albuminoids,  10  to  15  per  cent.     Oil,  2  to  4  per  cent. 
Fibre,  less  than  6  per  cent. 

When  the  meal  mixture  is  fed  with  whey  or  water, 
the  albuminoids  should,  generally  speaking,  approxi- 
mate to  the  maximum  percentage  (15  per  cent),  while 
with  skim  or  separated  milk  it  may  approximate  to 
the  lower  (10  per  cent). 

1  Farmers  wishing  to  make  up  similar  meal  mixtures  should 
refer  to  special  table  of  analyses  on  p.  188. 



The  ten  meal  mixtures  given  below  come  within 
the  limits  of  the  above  standard,  and  would  give  good 
results  with  an  allowance  of  I  gall,  separated  milk 
per  day,  or  2  galls,  whey : — 

With  Separated  Milk.  With  Whey. 

i.    Barley  meal  alone.  6.    Fine  middlings  alone. 

Barley  meal,  two  parts. 
Oatmeal,  one  part. 

7.    Barley  meal,  one  part. 
Maize  meal,  one  part. 

3.  Barley  meal,  three  parts. 
Rice  meal,  one  part. 


4.  Maize  meal,  one  part. 
Wheat  bran,  one  part. 

Barley  meal,  one  part,  9. 

Fine    middlings    (seconds), 
one  part. 


5.  Maize  meal,  one  part. 

Wheat  bran,  one  part.  10. 

Wheat  meal,  one  part. 
Gram,  one  part. 

Maize  meal,  two  parts. 
Coarse  middlings  (thirds), 

one  part. 
Pea  meal,  one  part. 

Ground  oats,  one  part. 
Wheat  meal,  one  part. 
Barley  meal,  one  part. 
Bean  meal,  one  part. 

Dried  grains,  one  part. 
Maize,  one  part. 
Wheat  meal,  two  parts. 

Food  and  Increase. 

Experiments  show  that  4  to  5  Ibs.  of  meal  are 

generally  sufficient  to  give  I   Ib.  increase  in 

live  weight. 
At  this  rate  I  cwt.  meal  should  give  about  22  Ibs. 

(ij  stones)  live  weight  increase. 
If  carcass  weight  is  taken  to  be  83  per  cent,  of 

the   live   weight,   f   cwt.   meals   should  give 

about  14  Ibs.  increase  of  carcass. 



It  takes  about  4  cwts.  meals  to  feed  a  pig  up  to 

seven  months  of  age  (say,  165  Ibs.  live  weight). 

The   cost   of  feeding  pigs   from  birth  to  eighteen 

weeks  of  age  would  amount  to  155.  per  head  for  food 

alone,  while  for   a   seven   months  old  pig  the  cost  of 

food  may  vary  from  £2  to  £2,  los.     When  looked  at 

from  the  point  of  view  of  carcass,  it  would  cost  from 

4s.  6d.  to  55.  6d.  in  food  to  produce   14  Ibs.  of  increase 


Approximate  Weight  of  Foods  by  Measure. 

Name  of  Food. 

Weight  per 

Weight  per 

Weight  per 

One  Pound 





Beans,  peas,  vetches    . 





Wheat         .... 





Maize,  dari,  millet 





Barley,  flax  seed,  wheatmeal 





Buckwheat,  cotton-seed  meal 





Maize  meal  and  cotton-seed 

meal         .... 





Oats,      barley      meal,     and 

ground  linseed  cake 





Wheat  middlings 





Ground  oats 





Dried  grains 





Wheat  bran 





Malt  coombs  (cummins) 

•         14 




Potatoes      .... 



Mangels      .... 




Swedes        .... 




Turnips       .... 



.  .  . 

Carrots        .... 




Wet  brewers'  grains    . 





Hay  (chaffed)      . 


Oat  straw  (chaffed)      . 



Oat  chaff     .... 



N.B.— 56  Ibs.  per  bush.  =  If  Ibs.  per  qt.;  40  Ibs.  per  bush.  =  1J  Ibs.  per.  qt. ;  24  Ibs. 
per  bush.  =  §  lb.  per  qt. ;  8  Ibs.  per  bush.  =  J  Ib.  per  qt. 


Curing  Bacon  and  Hams. 

These  are  generally  placed  on  a  stone  shelf  in  a 
cool,  airy  room  after  the  hide  or  skin  has  been  well 
rubbed  with  salt.  The  shelf  should  have  been  covered 
with  a  thin  layer  of  salt  before  the  bacon  or  ham  is 
put  on  it.  Salt  is  then  rubbed  on  the  other  side,  after 
which  a  good  layer  is  sprinkled  on  the  upper  side. 
The  sides  of  bacon  should  be  left  for  at  least  seven 
days  before  they  are  hung  up. 

In  the  case  of  hams,  saltpetre  should  be  well  rubbed 
into  the  knuckle,  and  it  should  be  well  covered  with 
salt,  left  for  a  week,  and  then  rubbed  again  with  fresh 
salt,  and  allowed  to  remain  for  another  week  or  ten 
days  before  it  is  hung  up. 

The  bones  are  sometimes  removed,  and  the  bacon 
placed  in  a  pickle  of  common  salt,  saltpetre,  and  sugar, 
for  two  to  four  days.  The  bacon  is  then  partially  dried, 
rolled  up  after  it  has  firmed  a  little,  and  then  sent 
out  for  sale.  This  bacon  is  not  cured  to  keep  very 

Wiltshire  bacon  has  the  hair  singed  off  in  a  furnace ; 
it  is  then  placed  in  a  cold  room  at,  say,  42°  K,  and 
sometimes  a  specially  prepared  brine  is  pumped  into 
the  blood-vessels  by  a  force-pump.  The  bacon  is  then 
cured  with  salt,  in  a  slow,  mild  manner,  for  sixteen  to 
eighteen  days,  then  dried  for  a  few  days,  dusted 
with  pease  meal,  and  mildly  smoked  for  a  couple  of 
days.  Bacon  which  is  chilled  before  curing  is  con- 
sidered to  have  a  better  colour. 

York  and  Cumberland  hams  are  placed  in  salt  for 
two  to  three  weeks.  The  hams  are  then  washed  and 
afterwards  hung  up  in  an  airy  place,  when  they  dry 
slowly.  When  sufficiently  firm  they  may  be  sold. 


The  following  scale  of  points  for  bacon  and  hams 
are  those  which  are  used  at  the  Dairy  Show,  London  : — 



Style  and  workmanship  .  .  .15 

Suitability  of  side,  i.e.  its  general  proportions         20 
Firmness  of  fat  .  .  .  .  .10 

Fineness  of  rind  .....  5 

Colour     .  .  .  .  .  .20 

Flavour,  which  includes  mildness         .  .         30 




Style  and  workmanship             .            .  .15 

Suitability  of  ham,  i.e.  its  proportions  .  .         20 

Firmness  of  fat  .             .             .             .  .10 

Fineness  of  rind             .            .            .  .           5 

Colour      .            .            ...            .  .20 

Flavour,  which  includes  mildness         .  .         30 


Breed  and  Carcass  Contests  at  Smithfield. 

The  following  tables  (pp.  288-91)  give  the  results  of 
the  Smithfield  breed  and  carcass  competitions.  In  the 
breed  competitions  the  results  show  what  live  weights 
may  be  obtained  at  a  given  age  by  high  feeding.  The 
daily  increase  from  birth  of  the  prize-winners  are  given 
as  well  as  the  average  daily  gain  of  the  whole  class. 

In  the  carcass  contests  the  results  have  been 
arranged  and  calculated  to  give  the  live  weight, 
carcass  weight,  and  the  proportion  of  carcass  to  live 
weight,  in  addition  to  the  weight  of  pluck  and  relative 
values  per  8-lb.  stone  of  the  different  carcasses. 

The  figures  generally  should  be  regarded  as  rather 
high,  seeing  the  pigs  were  all  fattened  for  exhibition. 



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Smithfleld  Show,  1913 — Pigs.     Carcass  Contests. 



Live  Weight. 

1  Carcass  Weight 

Percentage  of 
Carcass  Weight 
to  Live  Weight. 







One  Pig  not  exceeding  100 

Ibs.  Live  Weight— 

wks.   dys. 




S.    D. 

Berkshire    . 

15         2 






6    8 

Large  White 

13        0 






6    o 

Berkshire   . 

14      4 






6    o 

,,           ... 

20      4 






5    6 

11           ... 

16      3 






5    4 

i)           ... 

15        0 





r.  &  h.c. 

5  I0 

Middle  White     . 

22        4 






Berkshire   . 

20        2 






»»            ... 

I4        6 





One    Pig    not    exceeding 

Nine     Months    Old, 

above   IOO   Ibs.,  and 

not  exceeding  22O  Ibs. 

Live  Weight  — 

Berkshire   . 

28      5 





ist  &  ch. 

5  10 

»           ... 

37      o 






4  10 

,,           ... 

29      6 






4    ° 

Large  White  Berkshire 

35      6 






4    o 

One    Pig    not    exceeding 

Twelve  Months  Old, 

above    22O    Ibs.,  and 

not  exceeding  300  Ibs. 

Live  Weight  — 

Berkshire  . 

50      2 






4    8 

»>           ... 

43      3 

26l       211 




3  10 

46      6 






4    2 

,,           ... 

44       I 






3  10 

One  Pig  above  160  Ibs., 

and  not  exceeding  240 

Ibs.  Live  Weight,  best 

suited  for  manufac- 

ture of  Bacon  — 

Berkshire  . 

35       i 






5    2 

,,            ... 

43      3 






4.     4 

Large  White  Berkshire 

35      6 






T^        ^ 

4    6 

Large  White 

44      3 






3  10 

Berkshire  . 

36      2 





r.  &  h.c. 

4    4 

,,           ... 

31      o 

1  80 




»>           ... 

33      5 







£  cwt.  =  56  Ibs. ;  |  cwt.  =  84  Ibs.  ;  1  cwt.  =  112  Ibs. ;  2  cwts.  =  224  Ibs. 




It  is  rather  important  for  the  horse  owner  to  have  a 
fair  knowledge  of  the  manner  in  which  horses  suffering 
from  any  of  the  commoner  ailments  should  be  fed. 
Obviously  the  first  thing  of  importance  is  to  know 
roughly  how  to  diagnose  the  various  ailments,  before 
suitable  feeding  can  be  prescribed. 

There  will  be  no  attempt  made  here  to  give  any- 
thing more  than  a  mere  outline  of  the  various  ailments 
of  horses,  except  what  is  considered  necessary  to  enable 
one  to  feed  the  horse  intelligently  in  the  primary  stages 
of  sickness.  Full  accounts  must  be  sought  in  special 
works  on  the  subject. 

The  body  temperature  of  the  animal,  character  of 
the  pulse,  and  breathing  (respiration),  often  indicate 
the  ailment  from  which  an  animal  is  suffering.  If  one 
knows  the  normal  body  temperature,  the  normal  pulse- 
beats,  and  the  normal  mode  and  rate  of  breathing,  then 
any  departure  from  these  either  in  one  direction  or  the 
other  guides  one  very  considerably  in  making  an  accurate 
diagnosis.  Of  course  some  experience  is  necessary  ; 
but  if  one  can  only  learn  to  decide  when  an  ailment  is 
serious  or  not,  then  this  knowledge  is  most  useful. 

The  normal  body  temperatures  of  the  common  farm 
animals  are  all  given  together,  for  convenience,  in  the 
following  table : — 




per  minute. 

per  minute. 

deg.  F. 

Horse    . 

8  to  12 

35  to  40 



12  to  1  6 

40  to  60 


Pig        .         . 

16  to  20 

60  to  70 


Sheep    . 

20  to  30 

70  to  80 



The  value  of  each  of  these  indications  will  be  dealt 
with  separately,  and  in  the  reverse  order. 

Temperature. — When  the  temperature  of  a  sick 
horse  is  found  to  be  above  normal,  it  is  said  to  have 
a  fever.  Many  of  these  fevers  are  contagious  and 
require  especial  care  ;  e.g.,  influenza,  glanders,  strangles, 
etc.  To  ascertain  whether  a  horse  is  feverish  or  not, 
a  clinical  thermometer  is  inserted  in  the  rectum,  and 
as  the  normal  temperature  of  a  horse  is  99-5°  (Fahr.), 
an  excess  of  2°  to  8°  F.  indicates  that  the  horse  is 
feverish.  The  higher  the  temperature,  the  more  urgent 
is  the  case. 

Pulse-beats  vary  in  many  respects,  and  may  be 
grouped  as  follows : — (a)  Frequent  and  Infrequent. — 
This  refers  simply  to  the  number  of  beats  per  minute, 
and  when  the  frequency  rises  ten  to  twenty  beats  per 
minute  above  normal,  this  may  indicate  feverishness ; 
e.g.,  influenza,  strangles,  epizootic  lymphangitis  (weed), 
or  possibly  an  ailment  like  flatulent  colic.  Infrequent 
and  irregular  pulses  are  often  associated  with  diseases 
of  the  heart  and  brain. 

(b)  Quick  or  slow  beats. — These  do  not  refer  to  the 
number  per  minute  at  all,  but  simply  to  the  suddenness 
(jerkiness)    or    slowness    with   which    the    beat   takes 
place.     Quick  beats  are  noticeable  in  cases  of  anthrax, 
laminitis,  spasmodic  colic,  etc. 

(c)  Hard  or  soft  pulses. — Some  pulses  yield  to  the 
pressure   of  the   fingers,  and   are   called  "soft,"  while 
those  which  only  yield  to  the  pressure  of  the  fingers 
with   difficulty,   are   called    "hard."     Hard    pulses   are 
found  in  such  cases  as  epizootic  lymphangitis,  laminitis 
(fever   of  the   feet),   and    enteritis.      Weak  pulses   are 
found  in  animals  suffering  from  diarrhoea,  superpurga- 
tion,  etc. 


(d)  Large  or  small  pulses. — Small  pulses  are  to  be 
found  in  laminitis,  gastritis  (inflammation  of  mucous 
membrane  of  the  stomach),  and  enteritis. 

Combinations  of  these  varieties  of  pulses  are 
common ;  e.g^  frequent  and  hard,  as  in  epizootic 
lymphangitis  ;  quick  and  hard  in  laminitis ;  small  and 
hard  in  gastritis  ;  or  persistently  small,  quick,  and  hard, 
as  in  enteritis. 

Respirations. — These  may  be :  (a)  quicker  than 
normal,  as  in  laminitis,  gastritis,  spasmodic  and  flatulent 
colic,  etc. ;  (b)  laboured,  as  in  lockjaw,  etc. ;  (c)  shallow, 
as  in  flatulent  colic.  The  breathing  may  be  hurried,  as 
in  laminitis,  and  in  some  cases  spasmodic.  Combina- 
tions of  these  are  found  in  the  case  of  flatulent  colic, 
where  the  breathing  is  quickened  and  shallow. 

Ailments  of  Horses. 

The  many  ailments  affecting  horses  may  be  placed 
for  convenience  into  four  classes,  viz.: — (i)  fevers;  (2) 
ailments  due  to  errors  of  diet;  (3)  ailments  due  to 
errors  of  management ;  (4)  bony  diseases.  The  general 
treatment  in  these  cases  is  as  follows  : — 

(i)  Fevers. — Several  ailments  of  horses  are  caused 
by  the  presence  and  activity  of  certain  bacteria  in  the 
system.  As  these  bacteria  multiply  in  the  body  they 
secrete  what  are  known  as  "toxins,"  which  have  an 
injurious  effect  on  the  animal  body,  causing  generally 
speaking  a  rise  in  the  temperature  of  from  2°  to  10°  F. 
above  the  normal.  When  contact  with  an  affected 
animal  is  necessary  before  a  horse  can  contract  the 
disease,  it  is  called  "contagious,"  as  in  the  case  of 
glanders  ;  but  when  the  organism  is  light  and  capable 
of  being  carried  about  in  the  air,  so  that  a  horse 
may  inhale  the  organism  without  coming  in  actual 


contact  with  an  affected  animal,  it  is  called  "in- 
fectious," as  in  the  case  of  strangles.  The  time 
which  elapses  between  the  intake  of  the  organism 
and  the  time  when  the  horse  begins  to  show  feverish 
symptoms  is  called  the  "period  of  incubation,"  which 
in  the  case  of  glanders  varies  from  three  to  nine 
days.  To  diagnose  the  particular  fever,  it  is 
sometimes  necessary  to  examine  the  blood  or  affected 
part  microscopically  in  order  to  identify  the  specific 
organism.  External  symptoms,  such  as  nose  dis- 
charges (catarrh),  superficial  swellings  or  abscesses, 
mode  of  breathing,  condition  of  pulse-beats,  etc., 
would  all  be  taken  into  account,  and  are  very 

The  part  affected  may  help  very  considerably  in 
diagnosing  a  fever ;  e.g.,  glanders  affects  the  chest 
(lungs  and  air-passages),  while  farcy  chiefly  affects  the 
tissues  immediately  under  the  skin,  more  especially 
the  hind  leg,  where  there  are  generally  hard, 
painful,  beaded  lymphatic  vessels,  and  unhealthy 
spreading  ulcers.  These  details  are  more  or  less  for 
the  expert ;  but  the  farmer  can  easily  ascertain  with  a 
clinical  thermometer  whether  his  ailing  horse  is  feverish 
or  not,  and  if  so,  he  should  at  once  adopt  the  following 
general  treatment: — 

(a)  Isolate  the  affected  animal  into  a  warm,  well- 
ventilated  box. 

(£)  Disinfect  any  farm  buildings  in  which  the  horse 
has  been  kept. 

(c)  Give  the  horse  a  laxative  diet,  and  something 
very  easily  digested,  such  as  a  warm  "  bran  and 
linseed  "  mash.  (For  preparation  of  mashes,  see 
p.  298.) 


(d)  Saltpetre  to  the  extent  of  \  oz.  per  day  may  be 
added  to  the  drinking-water  or  the  concentrated 

For  valuable  animals  it  would  generally  be  wise  to 
seek  expert  advice  without  delay,  but  in  other  cases  this 
treatment  may  be  tried  for  a  short  time,  to  see  if  the 
fever  abates. 

(2)  Ailments  due  to  Errors  of  Diet. — These  ail- 
ments generally  affect  the  abdomen  (colic),  the  legs 
(weed),  or  the  feet  (laminitis),  and  may  be  caused  by 
one  or  more  of  the  following  errors  of  diet : — 

(a]  Giving  cold  water  while  the  body  is  hot,  or  in 

some  cases  by  watering  the  horse  immediately 

after    the    feed    of    corn,   through    the   coarse, 

unsoftened    oat  -  hulls    being   washed    into    the 

(£)  Feeding  wheat,  new  barley,  and  in  some  cases 

new    oats    in    comparatively    large   quantities 

per  day. 
(c]  Giving  horses    musty  and  mouldy  hay,  or  hay 

while  in  the  "  sweat." 
(d)  Sudden  changes  of  diet  from  dry  food  (hay  and 

corn)  to  green  food  (vetches,  pasture  grass),  or 

vice  versa. 

(e]  Giving  big  feeds  to  a  tired  and  hungry  horse. 
(/)  Feeding  too  much  nutritious  food  (say,  excess 

of  beans),  and  too  little  exercise. 

Prevention  is  always  better  than  cure,  and  probably 
the  most  important  thing  to  keep  in  mind  when  feeding 
horses  is  that  "  all  changes  of  diet  should  be  gradual." 
Sudden  changes  of  diet  are  always  danger ous^ 


The  general  treatment  in  these  cases  is : — 

(a)  Keep  the  animal  comfortable  and  warm. 
(&)  Give  a  purgative  immediately. 
(c)  Feed  with  nice  warm  bran  mashes,  or  strengthen- 
ing gruels  (p.  298). 

(3)  Ailments  due  to  Errors  of  Management. — The 

ailments  falling  under  this  head  are:  cracked  heels, 
grease,  thrush,  canker  of  the  foot,  mud  fever,  etc. 
These  may  be  caused  to  some  extent  through  allowing 
horses  to  stand  on  heating  manure ;  leaving  the  legs 
wet  and  dirty ;  washing  the  legs  with  cold  water,  and 
not  drying  them  ;  etc. 
Treat  as  follows  : — 

(a)  Give  a  purgative. 

(&)  Clean  the  wounds  and,  in  case  of  feet,  treat  with 
burnt  alum. 

(c)  Feed  with  light,  strengthening  food,  say,  "  bran 

and  linseed  "  mash  (p.  298). 

(d)  Saltpetre,  \  oz.  per  day,  may  be  given  to  each 

horse  on  its  food  or  in  its  drinking-water. 

(4)  Bony    Diseases. — Bony   enlargements    may    be 
found  on  the  legs  of  a   horse,  often   causing   pain    or 
lameness.     The  commonest  diseases  are  ringbone,  side- 
bone,  splints,  and  bone  spavins.     Navicular  disease  may 
possibly  be  included  in  this  group. 

These  are  all  hereditary.  They  may  be  caused, 
however,  by  bruises,  sprains,  concussion  of  feet  while 
trotting  on  hard  roads,  etc. 

The  general  treatment  would  be  : — 

(a)  Give  rest  and  a  purgative  medicine. 

(b)  If    affected    part    of    foot    is    hot,   it    may    be 

immersed  in  cold  water. 


(V)  The  diet  should  be  light  and  laxative. 
(d)  If  practicable,  let  horse  run  out  to  grass. 

Mashes  and  Gruels. 

The  use  of  mashes  and  gruels  are  so  important  in 
feeding  sick  animals,  that  they  may  be  dealt  with  here. 
The  food  must  be  easily  digestible,  very  strengthening, 
strictly  limited  in  quantity,  and  attractive.  Hard, 
indigestible  food  should  be  avoided  at  such  times.  It 
is  also  important  that  the  food  should  have  a  laxative 
tendency.  These  conditions  are  mostly  fulfilled  in 
some  of  the  common  mashes,  provided  they  have  been 
made  with  ordinary  care. 

Bran  Mash. — Take  3  Ibs.  bran  and  pour  over  it 
3  pints  of  boiling  water,  add  one  dessertspoonful  of 
salt,  and  stir  well.  Cover  over,  leave  for  half  an  hour, 
and  feed  to  horse  when  cool  enough.  The  horse  should 
not  be  given  more  than  it  is  able  to  clean  up  each  time, 
as  it  quickly  goes  sour,  and  this  does  not  then  improve 
the  horse's  appetite. 

Bran  and  Linseed  Mash. — For  catarrhal  affections 
and  ailments  of  the  respiratory  organs,  linseed  should 
be  included  in  the  bran  mash.  It  is  at  the  same  time 
laxative,  strengthening,  and  especially  useful  in  the 
case  of  hide-bound  animals.  In  this  case  \  Ib.  linseed, 
i  Ib.  bran,  i  dessertspoonful  of  salt,  are  taken  and 
stirred  in  3  quarts  of  water.  Boil  gently  one  to  two 
hours,  taking  care  to  stir  frequently.  It  may  then  be 
fed  as  a  jelly-like  mash,  or  in  some  cases  mixed  with 
nice  sweet  hay  chop. 

Malt  mashes  or  malt  coombs  mashes  may  be  made 
in  the  same  way. 

Linseed  Jelly. — This   is  a  very  useful  laxative  that 


may  also  be  employed  with  healthy  horses  at  suitable 
intervals.  It  can  be  made  by  soaking  the  flax  seed  in 
cold  water  for  twelve  hours,  at  the  rate  of  I  Ib.  to  the 
gallon  of  water  per  horse.  The  seed  should  be  stirred 
periodically,  and  by  this  time  the  seeds  will  have  burst, 
to  form  a  jelly-like  mass.  Half  a  pint  is  sufficient  to 
feed  at  a  time.  When  it  is  preferred  to  boil  the  flax 
seed,  the  seed,  at  the  rate  of  I  Ib.  to  2  galls,  water, 
should  be  gradually  dropped  into  boiling  water  and 
stirred.  For  drinking  purposes,  the  seeds  should  be 
strained  off  to  separate  the  mucilage  part,  and  the  seed 
residue  may  be  fed  with  hay  chop,  either  to  the  same  or 
other  horses. 

Linseed  oil  is  probably  the  most  convenient  and 
safest  laxative  for  farm  live  stock.  For  horses,  2  to  3 
tablespoonfuls  can  be  added  to  the  provender  night 
and  morning. 

Oatmeal  gruel  will  be  readily  taken  by  some  animals, 
and  is  very  strengthening.  It  is  made  as  follows: — 
take  i  Ib.  of  oatmeal,  add  a  very  little  cold  water  till 
it  makes  a  thick  paste,  then  pour  on  3  quarts  boiling 
water.  Leave  fifteen  to  twenty  minutes,  add  cold  water 
till  the  gruel  is  body-temperature,  and  allow  horse  to 
drink  it. 

Ground  linseed-cake  gruel  is  made  in  the  same  way 
as  oatmeal  gruel. 

Grass,  forage  crops,  and  roots  have  a  laxative  and 
cooling  effect  when  available. 

When  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  horse  purgative 
medicine  ("  physic ")  without  delay,  its  action  will  be 
all  the  more  certain  if  it  has  been  preceded  with 
mashes.  A  useful  purgative  in  this  case  would  be 
Barbadoes  aloes,  made  into  capsuled  balls  containing 
4  to  6  drachms  each. 


Ruminants — General  Preventions. 

Many  of  the  ailments  which  affect  cattle  and  sheep 
are  brought  about  either  directly  or  indirectly  by  the 
kind  or  quality  of  food  given,  and  often  in  addition 
through  the  way  in  which  it  is  fed.  Animals  in  fairly 
good  condition,  generally  speaking,  resist  the  attacks 
of  disease  much  better  than  those  which  are  in  poor 
condition ;  it  is  therefore  important  to  see  that  the 
animals  are  well  fed,  so  as  to  give  them  that  stamina 
or  vitality  which  is  necessary  to  resist  disease. 

Preventive  measures  are,  after  all,  much  better  than 
remedies,  and  may  be  grouped  under  three  heads  : — 

(a)  Avoid  giving  foods  of  inferior  quality. 

(/;)  The  concentrated  foods  should  meet  the 
deficiencies  of  the  bulky  part  of  ration,  and 
be  generally  suitable  for  the  purpose  in  view. 

(c)  Sudden  changes  of  diet  should  be  avoided. 

Quality  deficient. — A  large  number  of  the  present- 
day  pastures  possess  a  very  indifferent  herbage,  and 
when  sheep  and  cattle  are  entirely  dependent  on  such 
pasturage  for  their  subsistence,  the  result  is  that  their 
bodies,  being  insufficiently  nourished,  succumb  to  the 
ravages  of  various  diseases  or  ailments. 

Highland  pastures. — Sheep  fed  on  certain  highland 
pastures  in  Selkirkshire  (Scotland)  suffer  severely  from 
louping  ill.  The  writer  examined  some  of  the  stretches 
of  low  mountain  pastures  which  were  said  to  be  "  hot- 
beds "  for  the  disease,  and  found  that  the  herbage  on 
these  stretches  consisted  very  largely  of  mat  grass 
(Nardus  strictd}^  which  has  exceptionally  hard,  indigest- 
ible leaves,  and  there  is  little  wonder  that  sheep  which 


had  to  rely  on  this  class  of  herbage  alone  for  their 
existence  should  fall  a  victim  to  this  disease. 

The  improvement  of  land  on  mountain  slopes  and 
high  hills  is  not  an  easy  matter.  Sheep  or  open  drains 
are  sometimes  made  to  drain  the  excess  of  water  away, 
and  these  serve  a  very  useful  purpose,  but  artificial 
manuring  is  in  a  good  many  cases  more  or  less  out  of 
the  question  on  account  of  the  difficulties  of  hauling, 
and  shallowness  of  the  soil. 

Lowland  pastures. — Wet  pasture-land  abounds  with 
the  eggs  and  embryos  of  internal  parasites,  which  pull 
sheep  and  cattle  down  in  condition  very  soon,  when 
they  are  once  established  in  the  system.  Further,  the 
herbage  of  wet  land  consists  of  rushes,  sedges,  hard- 
leaved,  indigestible  grasses,  creeping  buttercups,  and 
other  acrid  plants,  etc.,  none  of  which  is  either  appetis- 
ing or  calculated  to  put  the  sheep  and  cattle  into 
good  condition,  consequently  they  are  at  a  double 
disadvantage,  viz.,  disease  is  plentiful,  and  they  are 
insufficiently  nourished  to  withstand  it. 

To  improve  these  pastures,  drainage  is  necessary. 
This  alone  will  tend  to  improve  the  class  of  herbage ; 
but  a  dressing  in  winter  of  basic  slag  and  kainit,  or,  on 
soils  containing  sufficient  lime,  potassic  super,  will 
generally  be  found  necessary  to  convert  the  sour, 
unattractive,  innutritious  herbage  into  one  which  is 
attractive,  sappy,  and  nutritious.  The  kainit  will 
encourage  the  stock  to  graze  the  old  "  fog "  off,  which 
is  a  great  advantage. 

Apart  from  .the  fact  that  the  land  carries  a  larger 
number  of  stock,  the  animals  become  healthier  and 
thrive  much  better.  In  Herefordshire,  certain  fields 
which  were  very  subject  to  blackleg  have  apparently 
been  freed  by  dressing  the  land  with  basic  slag. 


Other  foods  than  grass  may  be  inferior ;  in  fact,  hay 
which  has  been  badly  harvested,  and  cakes  which  have 
become  mouldy,  are  much  more  dangerous  than  poor 
grass,  and  should,  theoretically  speaking,  be  avoided. 
In  practice,  however,  some  use  must  generally  be 
made  of  them.  It  is  then  wise  to  feed  them  in  small 
quantities  at  a  time,  with  much  larger  quantities  of 
clean  and  wholesome  foods,  otherwise  digestive  troubles 
will  most  likely  arise. 

Concentrates. — When  decorticated  cotton  cake  and 
soya-bean  cake — both  of  which  are  exceedingly  rich  in 
albuminoids — are  fed  to  a  larger  extent  than  4  Ibs.  per 
head  per  day  to  cattle,  say,  18  months  old  or  upwards, 
there  is  danger  of  their  suffering  from  digestive  troubles 
on  account  of  the  food  being  too  concentrated.  With 
cattle  under  this  age  it  is  generally  best  to  avoid  giving 
cotton  cakes  at  all.  If,  however,  they  are  fed  in  strict 
moderation  and  with  care,  no  serious  result  may  follow. 

Scouring  is  a  common  complaint  in  the  spring  of 
the  year,  when  cattle  and  sheep  feed  on  young,  sappy 
grass.  Concentrates  with  a  laxative  tendency  would 
only  aggravate  the  complaint,  hence  any  concentrates 
fed  at  this  time  should  have  the  opposite  tendency, 
and  probably  no  ordinary  concentrate  is  more  potent 
in  this  direction  than  Bombay  cotton  cake.  For  calves, 
however,  fine  wheat  middlings  should  be  used  in  place 
of  Bombay  cotton  cake. 

In  the  Edinburgh  and  East  of  Scotland  Agricultural 
College  experiments/ sheep  were  actually  fattened  off 
on  roots  and  hay,  but  the  mortality  was  higher  than 
was  the  case  when  concentrates  were  fed  in  addition  to 
roots  and  hay. 

On  the  other  hand,  "high  feeding"  is  often  attended 
with  serious  results,  more  especially  with  breeding 


animals.  If,  however,  in-calf  cows  are  kept  in  too  high 
condition,  there  is  danger  of  their  suffering  from  an 
attack  of  milk  fever  shortly  after  giving  birth  to  the 
calf.  In  cases  where  the  cows  do  not  actually  fall 
victims  to  milk  fever,  their  "high"  condition  often  tells 
heavily  against  them.  The  experience  of  all  the  best 
breeders  is  that  breeding  animals  should  be  given 
plenty  of  fresh  air  and  exercise,  and  receive  sufficient 
concentrated  food  to  keep  them  in  a  healthy  state,  but 
not  so  much  as  to  make  them  in  "  high  "  condition. 

Sudden  changes  should  be  avoided. — When  cattle 
or  sheep  are  turned  into  a  field  of  young  clover  in  the 
early  autumn,  it  is  wise  policy  to  limit  them  to  a  few 
hours'  grazing  in  the  afternoon  for  the  first  day  or  two. 
If  the  stock  were  turned  into  the  field  in  the  morning 
when  the  dew  was  on,  and  left  all  day,  it  is  more  than 
likely  that  some  of  the  stock  would  get  "hoven"  or 
"  blown." 

The  same  thing  applies  to  turning  sheep  on  to  their 
first  "  break  "  of  roots  in  the  early  autumn  ;  and  in  order 
to  prevent  them  "  blowing,"  some  farmers  sow  salt  on 
the  first  break  or  two  of  roots  in  the  morning  when 
the  dew  is  on.  The  sheep,  therefore,  get  a  certain 
amount  of  salt  with  the  leaves  or  tops  of  the  turnips, 
and  it  appears  to  reduce  the  mortality  from  this  cause 
very  considerably. 

The  error  of  suddenly  changing  the  diet  is  probably 
the  most  frequent  source  of  trouble  with  farm  animals, 
and  should  be  carefully  observed  by  all  those  persons 
who  have  entrusted  to  them  the  feeding  of  farm 

A  few  brief  notes  are  given  below  for  special  feeding 
in  connection  with  common  ailments  of  cattle  and  sheep 


Common  Ailments  of  Cattle. 

Milk  Fever. — It  is  called  "milk  fever,"  because  in 
the  earlier  stages  the  udder  is  affected  ;  and  "  parturient 
apoplexy,"  because  in  the  later  stages  of  the  disease 
the  brain  is  affected.  It  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  a 
fever  at  all,  seeing  the  temperature  does  not  rise  above 
normal.  It  does  not  usually  attack  a  cow  till  her 
second  or  third  calf.  The  following  preventions  are 

Cotton  cakes  and  other  highly  concentrated  foods 
should  not  be  fed  too  freely  to  in-calf  cows.  If  a  cow 
is  in  too  high  condition,  she  should  be  kept  on  short 
rations  and  given  occasional  bran  mashes,  or,  if 
necessary,  Epsom-salts.  If  out  at  grass,  it  will  be 
necessary  to  bring  her  up,  and  keep  her  short  of  food 
for  a  few  days  before  calving.  It  is  a  good  plan  to 
clean  the  udder  out  once  a  week  for  a  month  before 
calving,  and  it  is  not  wise  to  remove  more  than  half  of 
the  milk  each  time  the  cow  is  milked  during  the  first 
day,  as  it  gives  the  udder  a  rather  sudden  chill. 

Abortion. — Cows  should  be  isolated,  and  both  the 
cow  and  the  box  kept  carefully  disinfected.  Mr 
Peters,  Berkeley  Castle  Home  Farm  (Gloucs.),  found 
that  it  was  an  advantage  to  give  cows  which  had 
aborted  J  oz.  crude  carbolic  acid  daily  in  a  bran  mash, 
in  addition  to  the  recognised  precautionary  measures 
for  external  disinfection. 

Retention  of  the  Cleansing. — With  cows  that  calve 
somewhat  prematurely,  the  "  cleansing  "  or  "  afterbirth  " 
may  be  retained  beyond  the  usual  four  hours.  In  such 
cases  the  simplest  treatment  is  to  give  the  cow  ij  pints 
of  cod-liver  oil.  This  usually  has  the  desired  effect 
within  twenty-four  hours.  Another  specific  is  i  Ib. 


Epsom-salts,  J  Ib.  ground   ginger,   and   J    Ib.   ground 
caraway  seeds. 

Impaction  of  the  Rumen  (first  stomach). — This 
generally  attacks  cattle  which  are  rather  low  in  condi- 
tion which  have  been  feeding  on  poor,  bulky  foods  such 
as  straw  and  roots,  or  poor  pasture  plants,  or  in  fact 
highly  concentrated  foods  which  are  fed  dry.  For  a 
remedial  measure  give  cow  I  Ib.  Epsom-salts  as  a 
drench.  A  bran  and  linseed  mash  could  be  given 
twice  daily,  followed  with  some  oatmeal  gruel  which 
has  \  Ib.  treacle  stirred  into  it. 

Impaction  of  the  Omasum  (third  stomach). — This 
is  also  called  fardel  bound,  and  is  caused  in  much  the 
same  way  as  impaction  of  the  rumen. 

The  following  very  useful  and  effective  old-fashioned 
remedy  may  be  used  : — This  is  made  by  taking  \  Ib.  fat 
bacon  and  some  onions.  Both  of  these  should  be 
chopped  up  into  small  pieces,  and  then  boiled  with 
2  to  3  pints  of  water  for  twenty  minutes  to  half 
an  hour.  While  the  liquid  is  boiling,  add  6  to  8  ozs. 
Epsom-salts,  \  oz.  ground  ginger,  J  oz.  saltpetre,  i  oz. 
common  salt,  and  a  little  cayenne  pepper.  After  the 
fat  bacon  and  onions  have  been  boiled  sufficiently,  take 
off  fire,  and  stir  in  I  oz.  of  bi-carbonate  of  soda,  and  J  Ib. 
of  treacle.  When  sufficiently  cool,  drench  the  cow  with 
the  mixture. 

This  mixture  may  be  used  for  dairy  cows  as  a  general 
remedy  when  they  are  out  of  sorts.  In  the  writer's  experi- 
ence this  remedy  has  invariably  had  the  desired  effect. 

Hoven  or  Blown. — When  urgent,  the  paunch  or 
rumen  should  be  punctured.  The  mixture  for  "  impac- 
tion of  omasum"  may  be  given,  but  the  Epsom-salts 
and  the  ginger  should  be  increased  by  one-half  of 
the  quantities  named  above. 



The  general  treatment  for  fevers  and  ailments  due 
to  errors  of  diet,  under  Horses,  apply  equally  to  cattle. 

Hoose. — On  land  where  calves  are  subject  to  husk 
or  hoose,  they  should  be  given  dry  concentrated  food 
altogether,  and  if  a  large  proportion  of  the  calves  get  it 
each  year,  they  should  be  kept  up  at  night,  and  in  very 
bad  cases  not  allowed  to  go  out  during  the  first  year,  as 
this  disease  pulls  them  down  in  condition  very  badly. 
It  is  also  wise  to  house  them  early  in  the  autumn,  or 
provide  them  with  shelter  in  the  field,  where  they  can 
have  hay  in  addition  to  cake. 

Affected  calves  should  be  taken  inside,  and  given 
nutritious  food,  and  a  dose  of  2  or  3  teaspoonfuls  of 
turpentine  in  I  pint  linseed  tea,  on  two  successive  days. 
The  turpentine  then  finds  its  way  through  the  circula- 
tion into  the  lungs,  where  it  comes  in  contact  with  the 
lung  worms  in  the  air-passages,  thus  enabling  the  calf 
to  expel  them  by  coughing. 

If  the  complaint  becomes  serious,  it  may  be 
necessary  to  inject  a  suitable  solution  into  the  windpipe 
so  as  to  come  more  directly  in  contact  with  the  husk 
worms.  A  hypodermic  syringe  is  necessary  for  this 
purpose,  and  enables  one  after  piercing  the  windpipe 
.between  two  of  its  rings,  to  force  2  drachms  of  husk- 
mixture  into  the  windpipe  three  times  a  day,  at 
intervals  of  three  days.  The  following  is  a  very 
suitable  mixture  for  (intertracheal)  injection  into  the 
windpipe  :— 

Olive  oil     .            .  .  .  .  ioo  parts 

Oil  of  turpentine   .  .  .  .           2     ,, 

Chloroform             .  .  .  .           2     „ 

Pure  carbolic  acid  .  .  .           2     „ 

Contagious  White  Scour. — This  disease  is  due  to 


a  specific  organism  (bacteria),  which  finds  its  way  into 
the  blood  either  through  the  navel  or  the  mouth.  In 
bad  cases,  the  calf's  eyes  appear  sunken  about  the 
second  or  third  day  after  the  attack.  It  takes  very 
little  food,  commences  scouring,  and  probably  dies  next 
day.  The  end  is  so  sudden  that  there  is  not  much  hope 
of  saving  its  life  when  the  disease  has  once  got  a  hold. 
Remedies  are  not  of  much  avail  in  this  case,  the  great 
thing  is  prevention  on  the  following  lines  :— 

1.  The    calf     box     should    be     cleaned    out     and 

thoroughly  disinfected  before  admission  of 
calves  in  spring,  and  at  subsequent  periods  of 
two  or  three  months.  The  floor  should  be 
well  dusted  with  powdered  lime,  and  the  walls 
lime-washed.  The  lime-wash  should  have  some 
carbolic  added.  Clean  litter  may  then  be 
placed  on  the  floor  to  make  a  comfortable  bed 
for  the  calf. 

2.  The   calf  box    must   be    well    lighted    and    well 

ventilated,  so  as  to  assist  in  the  destruction  of 
disease  germs.  The  best  arrangement  is  to 
have  window-ventilators,  which  are  hinged 
along  the  bottom.  The  window  then  opens 
inwards  and  guides  the  incoming  air  against 
the  roof  before  it  is  reflected  on  the  calves. 

These  two  preventions  were  sufficient  in 
the  writer's  experience  to  rid  the  disease  out 
of  a  dark,  unventilated  calf  box,  which  was  a 
veritable  death-trap  for  calves  introduced  into 
it.  But  two  or  three  other  precautions  may 
be  taken  : 

3.  Disinfect  the  navel  of  the  calf  with  a  2  per  cent. 

solution  of  lysol  at  birth. 


4.  Avoid  gorging  the   calfs  stomach  with  milk  or 

giving  it  any  milk  substitutes  for  at  least  two 
weeks;  and  after  that,  any  change  in  the  diet 
should  be  made  very  gradually. 

5.  Give  calf  a  tablespoonful  of  castor  oil  in  milk  as 

soon  as  it  shows  signs  of  sickening  or  scouring. 

Black  Leg. — There  is  considerable  difference  of 
opinion  with  regard  to  the  best  preventive  means  for 
black  leg.  Those  who  blame  the  water  for  carrying  the 
organism  into  the  system  of  the  young  cattle  believe 
in  fencing  off  stagnant  pools,  purifying  the  streams  and 
the  ponds  by  throwing  a  few  cobs  or  clots  of  lime  into 
the  water.  Others  consider  it  enters  with  the  grass  or 
the  hay  from  certain  fields  which  are  favourable  to  the 
existence  of  this  organism  ;  hence  the  grass  and  hay 
from  these  fields  should  be  consumed  by  older  stock. 
It  is  generally  considered  advisable  to  move  young 
cattle  from  low-lying  fields  to  higher  ground  in  autumn 
when  fogs  are  common. 

Some  pastures  which  have  for  many  years  been 
considered  "  hot-beds  "  for  this  disease  have  ceased  to 
be  dangerous  since  the  land  has  been  dressed  with  basic 
slag,  doubtless  due  indirectly  to  the  improvement  of 
quality  in  the  herbage.  Naturally,  draining  should 
precede  the  dressing  of  basic  slag  if  the  land  is  wet. 

Another  preventive  which  is  widely  used,  is  a 
teaspoonful  of  flowers  of  sulphur  in  the  concentrated 
food  at  weekly  intervals  during  the  autumn  and  winter ; 
while  last,  but  not  least,  linseed  cake  is  said  to  be  an 
effectual  preventive  against  this  malady. 

There  is  nothing  impracticable  about  any  of  these 
preventive  measures.  It  must  be  wise  policy  to  provide 
water  for  the  cattle  free  from  contamination,  to  give 


the  pasture  a  dressing  of  basic  slag  and  possibly  kainit, 
as  well  as  to  feed  linseed  cake  to  them. 

Sheep  Ailmenta 

Sheep  being  ruminants  require  very  similar  treat- 
ment to  cattle,  but  flock  remedies  have  often  to  be 

Internal  Parasites  (hoose,  liver  fluke,  louping  ill, 
etc.). — These  appear  to  be  checked  considerably  by 
sowing  a  dressing  of  salt  on  the  pastures.  A  lump  of 
rock  salt  should  also  be  available  for  them  to  lick. 

With  husk  and  hoose  in  lambs,  turnip  tops  are 
very  useful,  since  they  contain  volatile  substances 
which  escape  through  the  lungs  into  the  air  and  on 
their  way  come  in  contact  with  the  hoose  worms, 
causing  them  to  be  expectorated. 

Hoven,  etc. — Sheep  are  lost  each  autumn  either 
from  scouring  or  hoven,  more  especially  when  they 
are  turned  on  to  the  first  break  or  two  of  roots  or 
even  young  clover,  where  they  are  tempted  to  eat 
too  much.  In  the  case  of  turnips,  some  farmers  sow 
salt  over  the  first  break  of  roots  when  they  are  moist 
with  dew,  with  the  result  that  their  losses  from  the 
above  cause  are  very  considerably  reduced.  On 
young  clover  the  sheep  should  only  be  allowed  to 
feed  for  a  very  limited  period  during  the  first  day  or 

Ailments  of  Pigs. 

Pigs  which  are  kept  up  altogether  often  become 
unthrifty,  simply  because  they  are  not  getting  the 
earthy  matter  and  grass  which  appear  to  be  necessary 
to  keep  them  in  health.  A  little  fresh  air  and  exercise 
are  also  invaluable. 


Rickets. — Try  and  prevent  this  by  adding  pea  or 
bean  meal  to  the  cereal  grains  being  fed.  Bone  meal 
may  also  be  added  to  the  ration.  The  pigs  should  be 
allowed  to  sleep  on  a  wood  floor. 

Salt-poisoning. — Salt  or  brine  should  not,  as  a 
rule,  be  fed  to  pigs,  more  especially  when  they  are 
receiving  sharps  that  are  slightly  acid,  or  fatal  results 
may  follow  through  salt-poisoning.  Poultry  are  even 
more  easily  poisoned  with  salt  than  pigs. 


Aberdeen-Angus,  204 

Abortion,  304 

Absorption  of  food  by  plants,  29 

of  minerals  by  plants,  6 
Acorns,  65 
Ailments  of  cattle,  304 

of  horses,  294 

of  pigs,  309 

of  ruminants,  general,  300 
preventions  of,  300 

of  sheep,  309 
Albuminoid  ratio,  103 
Albuminoids,  9,  35 
Albuminous  substance,  2 
Alchemy,  4 
Aleurone  layer,  66,  67 
Amides,  9,  37 
Amino-acids,  28 
Ammonia,  9 
Amylopsin,  28 
Animal  body,  composition  of,  13 

Kingdom,  i,  2,  3 
Animals,  2 
Aniseed,  77 
Apple  pomace,  75 
Ash    constituents,    10,    12,    16, 

39,  82 

Astringent  action  of  foods,  62 
Atmosphere,  7 


Baby  beef  production,  208 
Bacon,  effect  of  foods,  279 

(firm),  281 

pigs,  269 

Bacon,  soft,  280 

tainted,  281 
Bacon-curing,  286 
Bacteria,  28 
Barley,  93 
by-products,  70 
straw,  80 
Bast,  9 

Bean  straw,  80 
Beef  cattle,  201,  204 
Beet  sugar  molasses,  78 
Bile,  27 

Bitter  milk,  190 
Black  leg  in  cattle.  308 
Blood,  circulation  of,  31 
Body  temperature,  19 
Bombay  cotton  cake,  61 
Bonner,  Chas.,  4 
Bony  diseases  (horses),  297 
Bran,  66,  69 

mash,  298  ^ 
Brewers'  grains,  71 
Brown  and  Duvel,  1 1 
Buckwheat,  66 
Bulky  foods,  43 
Butter  tests,  171 
Butter-fat,  177 
Buttermaking,  164 
By-products  (barley),  70 
(maize),  73 
(rice),  75 
(wheat),  66 

Cabbages,  81 
Calf,  17 
meals,  155 



Calf-feeding,  146,  152 

Calf- rearing  experiments,  158 

Calves,  cost  of  rearing,  161 

Cane  sugar  molasses,  77 

Carbohydrates,  7,  12,  32 

Carbon  fixation,  7 
dioxide  gas,  7 

Carbonate  of  magnesia,  17 

Carcass  competitions  (pigs),  287 
(sheep),  260 

Carrots,  81 

Catalytic  action,  23 

Cattle,  163 

Cereal  grains,  65 
straws,  80 

Chaffing  hay,  etc.,  128 

Cheesemaking,  165 

Chlorophyll,  7 

Chyle,  30 

Climate,  effect  of,  on  composi- 
tion of  plants,  83 

Clover  hay,  79 

Cocoa-nut  cake,  59 
kernels,  53 

Colostrum,  176,  177 

Compensating    nutrient    mate- 
rial, 40 

Complete  manures,  5 

Composition   of  foods,   impor- 
tance of.  1 02 

Compound  cakes,  63 

Compounding  rations,  101 

Concentrates,  43,  187,  188,  220, 
253,  302 

Condimental  foods,  76,  131 

Contagious  white  scour,  306 

Cooking  foods,  130 

Coprah  cake,  59 

Coriander,  77 

Cotton  seed,  49 
cake,  56 

Cummins,  71 


Dairy  cattle,  163 

Dairying,  different  systems,  200 

Dari,  65 

Decorticated  cotton  cake,  56 

De  Saussure,  4 

Devon  cattle  (North),  206 

Dietetic  errors,  296 

Digby,  5 

Digestibility  of  foods,  95 

Digestion,  21,  24 

Distillery  grains,  72 

Early  lamb  production,  243 
Earth-nut  cake,  57 
Economy  in  feeding,  228 
Egyptian  cotton  cake,  61 
Energy,  21 
Enzymes,  22 
Epidermis,  8 
Excretion,  42 

Farm  horses,  132 
Fat,  9,  15,  33 

Fattening    of    cattle    at   grass, 

of  cattle,  cost  of,  229 

of  pigs,  267 
Fatty  acids,  178 
Feeding  of  cows,  cost  of,  197 

of  pigs,  260 

of  sheep,  241,  250 

of  sick  animals,  292 

stuffs,  43 

trials  (cattle),  216 
(pigs),  272 
(sheep),  255 
Fenugreek,  76 
Ferments,  22 
Fevers  of  horses,  294 
Fibre,  10,  12,  38 
Fine  middlings,  68 
Flax  seed,  44 
Flour,  66,  68 
Fodder  crops,  79,  1 86,  216 



Folding  sheep,  249 
Food  and  increase  (pigs),  284 
standards,  109 

(cattle),  112,  1 1 6,  192,  221 

(horses),  no 

(pigs),  114,  117 

(sheep),  114 
units,  120 
Foods,  weight  of  (by  measure), 


Forage  crops,  81,  88,  93,  252 
Functions  of  food  nutrients,  31 

Galloway  cattle,  205 
Gastric  juice,  26 
Gentian,  77 
Ginger,  77 
Gluten,  66 

feed,  74 

meal,  74 
Glycogen,  30 
Gram,  64 
Grain,  whole  z/.  meals  for  pigs, 


Grass,  299 

Grieg  and  Hendrick,  83 
Ground-nut  cakes,  57 
Ground-nuts,  51 
Gruels,  298 
Guard  cells,  8 


Hams,  curing  of,  287 
Hay,  252 
Haymaking,  123 
Helmont,  Van,  4 
Hemp  cake,  62 

seed,  51 

Henry,  Prof.,  31 
Hereford  cattle,  205,  231 
Hoose,  306 
Horses,  feeding  of  brood  mares, 

of  foal,  134 

Horses,  feeding  of  sick,  292 

of  work-,  135 

of  young,  134 
cost  of  feeding,  142 
House  fattening  of  cattle,  211 
Housing  cattle,  systems  of,  212 
Hoven,  305 
Humus,  4 


Impaction  of  the  omasum,  305 

of  the  rumen,  305 
Improving  poor  old  pasture,  92 
Indian  pea,  64 
Individuality  of  animals,  97 
Ingenhaus,  4 
Italian  rye  grass,  94 


Java  beans,  64 
Jordan,  Prof.,  33 


Kapok  cakes,  62 

seeds,  52 

Kellner,  Dr,  29,  33,  37,  39,  41 
Kernel,  66 
Kiln  drying,  70 

Lamb,  fat,  17 

production  of  early,  243 
Lawes  and  Gilbert,  14,  16,  17 
Laxativeness  of  foods,  107 
Leguminous  seeds,  64 

straws,  80 
Lime,  17 
Linseed,  44 

cake,  54 

jelly,  298 



Linseed  mash,  298 

oil,  299 

Live  weight  increase,  composi- 
tion of,  1 6 

Live  weights  of  cattle,  232 
Locust  beans,  76 
Lucerne,  81,  94 
Lymphatics,  29 


Magnesia,  17 
Maintenance,  20 
Maize,  65,  94 
bran,  75 
flaked,  74 
germ  cake,  58 

meal,  74 
Makbar,  78 
Malt  coombs,  71 

mashes,  298 
Malting  of  barley,  70 
Mangels,  81,  275 
Manorial     residue,     122,     124, 

125,  126 

Manuring,  effect  of,  on  compo- 
sition of  plants,  84 
Margarine,  178 
Mashes,  298 
Mastication,  24 

Maturity,  effect  of,  on  composi- 
tion of  plants,  86 
effect   of,   on   digestibility   of 

plants,  100 
Mechanical  work,  20 
Middlings,  66,  68,  69 
Milk,  17 
effect  of  soils  and  manures, 

of  breed  and  individuality, 


of  period  of  lactation,  182 
of  age  of  cow,  1 82 
of  food,  185 

first  and  last  drawn,  183 
morning  and  evening,  184 
production,  cost  of,  196 

Milk  secretion,  172 

selling,  164 

returns  from,  198 
Milking,  art  of,  194 

machines,  196 

trials,  169 
Millet,  65 

Milling  process,  67 
Mineral  matter,  10,  16 

theory,  5 
Minerals,  5 
Moisture,  11 
Molascuit,  79 
Molasses,  77,  78 
Molassine,  79 
Molastella,  78 
Mustard,  95 
Mutton  production,  247 


Nitrate  of  soda,  17 
Nitrates,  9 
Nitrogen,  5,  17 
Nitrogenous  matter,  10 
Nutrient  constituents,  10 
Nutritive  values  of  foods,  45 
Nutting  of  foods,  128 


Oat  by-products,  72 

dust,  73 

husks,  73 

straw,  80 
Oatmeal,  72 

gruel,  299 
Oats,  65,  93 
Oil,  9,  12 

extraction,  48 
Oil-cakes,  53,  59 
Organised  ferments,  22 
Osmosis,  6 
Ox,  17 
Oxygen,  7 



Palatability  of  foods,  109 
Palisade  parenchyma,  8 
Palm-kernel  cake,  59 
Palm-nut  cake,  59 

kernels,  53 
Pancreatic  juice,  27 
Para  rubber  seed  cake,  58 
Parasites  of  sheep,  309 
Pasture  grass,  81,  88 
Pea  straw,  80 
Pea-nuts,  51 
Pepsin,  26 
Perspiration,  42 
Phloem,  9 
Phosphates,  5 
Phosphoric  acid,  17 
Phosphorus,  9 
Pig  meals,  278 
Pig-feeding,  260,  267 
Piglings,  feeding  of,  264 
Pigs,  17 

store,  266 
Plants,  2 

Pork  production,  268 
Potash,  5,  7,  17 
Potatoes,  8 1,  276 
Preparing  foods  for  stock,  1 23 
Priestley,  4 
Production,  20 
Proteids,  9 
Protein,  15 
Protoplasm,  2 
Pulping  roots,  128 
Pulse  beats  (horses),  293 


Rape,  8 1,  95 

cakes,  60 

seed,  52 
Rations  (beef  cattle),  224 

(dairy  cows),  191 

(horses),  139 

(pigs),  282 

(sheep),  254 

Red-polled  cattle,  205 
Relation    between     food     and 

increase,  229 
Rennin,  26 
Reproduction,  2 
Respiration,  5,  41 

chamber,  96 

(horses),  294 
Rice,  65 

by-products,  75 

meal,  75 

Rickets  of  pigs,  309 
Root  crops,  81,  186,  217,  275 
Root-hairs,  6 
Root-pressure,  6 
Ruminant,  24,  98,  300 
Rumination,  25 
Rye,  65,  93 

straw,  80 

Sainfoin,  94 

Salt  poisoning  of  pigs,  309 

Score  card  (beef  cattle),  230 

(dairy  cow),  201 

(horses),  144 
Seconds,  66 
Seed-coat,  67 
Seeds   mixture    for   permanent 

pasture,  89 
Semolina,  68 
Senebier,  Jean,  5 
Separated  milk,  272 
Sesame  cake,  59 
Sheep,  17 

Short  v.  long  feeding,  139 
Shorthorn  cattle,  205 
Silage,  127  ^ 
vSmall  intestines,  27 
Smithfield  Show  (cattle),  233 

(pigs),  287 

(sheep),  258 

Softening  coarse  foods,  129 
Soiling  crops,  93 
Soya  bean,  5 1 

cake,  57 



Soya  treacle  cake,  79 
Spent  hops,  76 
Starch,  7 

Starchy  endosperm,  67 
Steaming  foods,  130 
Steapsin,  28 
Steeping  foods,  129 
Stomach,  26 
Stomata,  7 
Store  pigs,  270 
Sugar,  8 

beet,  8 1 

Sulphate  of  potash,  17 
Sulphur,  9 
Sunflower  cake,  62 

seeds,  52 

Superphosphate  of  lime,  17 
Swede,  81 

Tares,  95 

Temperature  of  horses,  293 

Thaer,  4 

Thirds,  66 

Tilth,  4 

Timothy  meadows,  91 

Transpiration,  6 

Trefoil,  95 

Trifolium,  95 

Trypsin,  28 

Tull,  Jethro,  4 


Undecorticated  cotton  cake,  60 
Unorganised  ferments,  22 

Valuation  of  foods.  120 
Variation     in     composition     of 

plants,  83 
Variety,  effect  of,  on  composi 

tion  of  plants,  83 
Vealing  of  calves,  146 
Vegetable  Kingdom,  2 
Vein,  29 
Vetch  straw,  80 
Vetches,  81,  95 
Villi,  29 


Warming  foods,  130 

Water,  15,  39 

Water-vapour,  7 

Watering  horses,  142 

Weather,  effect  of,  on  composi- 
tion of  plants,  87 

Weight   of  cattle   by  measure- 
ment, 230 

Welsh  cattle,  206 

West  Highland  cattle,  206 

Wheat,  65 

by-products,  66 
straw,  80 

Whey,  272 

White  scour,  306 

Wood  vessels,  6 

Wool,  17 

Work,  effect  of,  on  digestibility, 







Book  Slip-10m-8,'49(B5851s4)458 



Porter,   J. 


The   stockf 

eeder1  s